Skip to main content

Full text of "A Dictionary of Kashmiri Proverbs & Sayings"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



' r.,|-j-,Gotigle 


?>?CU7.^ CL^, 

Y Cc-jU/^ 






Explained and Illustrated from the rich and 
interssting Folklore of the Valley. 

Rav. J. HINTON KNOWLES, F.R.G.S., M.R.A.S., &c., 
~ {0. M. S.) 


man will endeavour " to understand a proverb 
ind the interpretation." — Proti. I. iiv. 5, 6, 

Education Society's Press. 

CALCUTTA :— Thackeb, Spink A Co. 
LONDON !~Tbdbneb 4 Co. 

[All rights reserved.'] 



J^U-OKAAy ^c-^'W-^' 



That moment vhen an author dots the last period to his 
manuscript, and then rises up from the study-chair to shake 
its many and bulky pages together is almost as exciting an 
occaBi(Hi as when be takes a quire or so of foobcap and sits 
down to write the first line of it. Many and mingled feelings 
pervade his mind, and hope and fear vie with one another 
and alternately overcome one another, until at length the 
author finds some slight relief for his feelings and a kind of 
excuse for his book, by writing a preface, in which he states 
briefly the nature and character of the work; and'begs the 
pardon of the reader for his presnmption in undertaking it. 

A winter in Kashmir must be experienced to be renlised. 
The air is most inrigorating, and the quiet is sublime. Even 
an ordinarily busy missionary enjoys much leisure through 
such a season in this beautiful country. 

I have novr spent two long quiet winters here, and this 
"Dictionary of Kashmiri Proverbs and Sayings" is the 
result of many hours of labour, study, and anxiety, during 
these leisurable months. As a missionary, on arriving in the 
Valley, I at once devoted my attention to the study of the 
language ; and believing that Proverbs taught " the real 
people's speech," discovered " the genius, wit and spirit of a 
nation," and embodied its " current and practical philosophy," 

I quickly began to make a collectioo of them.* This book, 
I believe, contains nearly all the Proverbs and Proverbial 
sajinga now estant among the Kashmiri people. They have 
been gathered from various sources. Sometimes the great 
and learned Pandit instinctively uttered a proverb in my 
hearing; sometimes I got the barber to tell me a thing 
or two, as he polled my bead ; and sometimes the poor coolie 
said something worth knowing, as carrying my load he 
tramped along before me. A few learned Muhammadan 
and Hindi! friends also, have very materially helped me in 
this collection and its arrangement; and here I again heartily 
acknowledge their kind and ready service. 

Actum est. It is done ; and now the manuscript has to 
be sent to the publishers, and notices have to be posted to the 
different papers and journals interested to advertise the work 
as " in the press," What will the little world say, into whose 
hands it may chaoce to arrive ? How will the philologist, the 
ethnologist, the antiquarian, the student of folklore, and the 
general reader regard this which has cost some considerable 
time and study. Dear reader, in order that your criticism 
may not be so hard aa it might, perhaps, otherwise be, please 
permit me to remind you that Rashmtr proper is but a small 
country, a little rale surronnded by snow-capped mountain 
ranges, about eighty-four miles long from north-west to 
south-east, and from twenty to twenty-five miles in width, 
with an area of about 1,850 square miles ; that the Kashmiri 

* " 'i'be gesiuB, wit and spirit of a nation are discovered in ita 
provecbB. " — Bacon. 

" PrcTerba embody the current and practical philoHOphy of an age 


lat^uBge is Tirtually minut a Dictionary and Grammar, and 
tliat besides one or two very nnimportant works'" written in 
the Persian character, all true Kaahmfrl books are printed in a 
kind of mongrel- DeTanigflH character called Shiradi, which 
only a very small proportion of the population can properly 
read ; that the Eashijiirf language itself is very difBcult, and 
is spoken differently by different persons — the Hindiis and 
Mubammadans, especially, speaking distinct dialects ; that 
information from books of travel, &c., like Vigne's, Hugel's, 
Knight's, Drew's, Bellew's and others, is very crnde, scanty, 
and contradictory, concerning the manners and customs of the 
Eashmfrf ; and that this individual is not naturally bo com- 
municative as might be expected from his cheery look and 
humorous disposition. 

Horace says somewhere " Nonum prematur in tmnum ; " 
and perhaps it would have been better to have kept by me 
what I have written, for nine years before publishing it. But 
other work demands much of my leisure time, — the prepara- 
tion of a Kasbmirt Dictionary, of which these proverbs, and 
the words that contain them, form but a stepping-stone, and 
the traoslations of the " Psalms of David" and " Proverbs of 
Solomon," which have been deferred only because of the non- 
appearance as yet of the revised edition of the Old Testament, 
However, I trust the reader will accept my various escnses 
and forgive any error, whether in the romanizing, or the style, 
or the information, as the case may be. 

The Proverbs and Sayings have ail been translated as liter- 
ally as possible ; and with a fairly -trained ear I have honestly 
tried hard to render correctly in the Boman character what 


I bearcl ; but the different dialects made this very coafasiiig 
work ; and there -were aome soanda which could not poasibly 
be written like Rontan-Urdd, except with the following addi- 
tional vowela : — 
An aa the German 5, but short. 
An o as the German o, but long and drawling. 
These two Towels, I believe, exist in Hungarian. 
An u as the German u. 

An u aa the German u, hut long and drawling. 
In addition to these there is a sound vbich is something 
like a Tery short t, to which I have given the name of Miydli 
ter ; it is frequently the sign of the instrumental case as Aun> 
a dog, Adnt by a dog, &c. Thia sound, I believe, is to be 
found in Russian, and is in that language written as,;. In 
the Roman character this sound will be represented by the 
simple letter i, and in order that this i may always appear, I 
have always written the final he {hd,e mukhtaft). With the 
exception of this t or khiydli ser, I have, however, avoided 
introducing any diacritical points. The following is the 
Boman- Kashmiri alphabet with the powers of the letters : — 

A a pronouncedasa in woman. 


A i 

, a m art. 

the point of the 

Ai at 

at in aisle. 
, au in oar. 

tongue is struck 
back on the palate. 

B b 

b in but. 



„ e in there. 


, eh in d^urcb 



e in pet. 

D d 

, (2 in (/ew, the 
point of the tongue 
ia pressed on the 
upper fore-teeth. 



,. / inimd, the 
Engliah / ia only 
aounded, and then 
Tery badly, in the 



middle or at the 
end of a word. If 
it occurs at the 
Gommencement of 
a vord it is moat 
distinctly and inva- 
riably turned into 

G g pronounced as 7 in go. 
The Arabic letter h^ain gk, 

with its pecnUar guttural sound 

is seldom heard in pure "Kaah- 


H h pronounced as A in ^use, 

I i is a kind of half 

t. I hear that 
there is somet 
analogous to this 
to be found in Rus- 
■ian and is written 

I f pronounced as i in police. 

J j » i in i"st. 

K k ,1 i in J:ecAle. 

TTh yh „ cA in the Scotch 
and Irish \ach, 
the final ch of the 
German schacA and 

L I pronounced as 2 in lane. 

M m pronounced as m in man. 

N n „ n in noon 

N fi „ « in the 

French words sans, bon. 

O o pronounced as o in no. 

P p „ p injiaint. 

Ph ph „ similar to 

ph in _pAIeg;m. 
The Kashmiris 
turn the Persian 
li Je into phe, 
e.g., phakir and 
pbatah for fakir 
and fath, except 
perhaps when 
this letter, or 
rather sound, 
comes in the mid- 
dle, and at the 
end of a word. 

H. T pronounced as r in ran. 
AScotchman'sris perhaps not 
met with in pure Kashmiri. 

The euphonic r is rery com- 
mon, e^., boiith and bronth, 
bjor and bror, &c. The Mu- 
hammadauB generally omit th« 
r in these and similar words. 
S s pronounced as > in sin. 
Sh sh ,1 M in tkint. 


Ts t9 pronounced as /» in gettl 
U u „ in top. 

u in rule, 
both having 
a power be- 
tween the 
English V 

w} '* " 

p in year. 
I inxeah 

T t pronounced as t in fake, 
the point of the 
tongue is press- 
ed on the upper 

T t „ iinhib.the 

point of the 
tongue is press- 
ed hack on the 

Note. — Bh, chL, gh, kh, ph, th, th and tab are respec- 
tively the aspirates of ch, g, k, p, t and t, and te, and are pro- 
nounced as one letter. 

With regard to the "point" of the different proverbs and 
sayings, I have been through them all, as here written, vrith 
a little council of learned Muhammadan and Hindd Eashmlrf 
friends, and not allowed one to pass, until I got their full and' 
undivided sanction to my explanation of it. The notes and 
facetis:, &c., are snch as cropped-up io the course of writing, 
and have been jotted dowa in the hope that they will be 
interesting to some readers. 

And lastly, but by no means of the last importance, I trust 
that if any reader is pleased with this book, and thinks fit, he 
will kindly recommend it to others, as the whole profits of 
the work are to be devoted to the sorely-strained funds of the 
" Medical Mission Hospital," Eashmf r. 


Kashhi'k, Fehruary 1th, 1885. 



Ab tih totk iab tih loth. 

I lore myself and I love my father. 

The reply of a very ooTetons mut M a friend, wlien that ErieitA 
said that he would gire him onl; one oat ot ttw two thingB which 
he ooreted. 

A graaping dispontion. 

Abah tali ahr&k. 
A knife in the vater. 

A tnitor in the camp. 

Lb ia the word generally naad by Uahwnmsdani is the TmllAf. 
The Hind6B invariablj oay pin! or poni. 

Abtu andar krand. 

A big basket in the water. 

A man, who ex oficio is a pwBon of iome position and inflnenoe, 
ia like a krand in the water. So long as he retains his ranploymeDl, 
he retains bis authority, bat as soon as he is dimnissed, he loses 
that authority and hononr. The basket as long as it floats in tb» 
stream is filled with water, bnt immediately yon take it oat of the 
stream it is emptied. 

Achh h&nijdn tah mat kdni nah. 
Better that the eye be blind than that the waf be blind. 
He that goes tt-borrowing goes a-sorrowing. 

Aehh ioat»hah tah gdahah raUhah. 
May your eyea be (^>ened but see nothing, 
A Kashmiri enrse. 

Achhin ungujeh th»tamh. 
Ta strike the eyea with the fingers. 
To tease, to bother. 


AehAue andarak riyih surmah kadil. 

He'll take the fvery) antimony out of your eyes (and you'll 

not know it). 
{ A Hharp fellow, Benare t . . . 
Surmoh JB black snlplmret of antimony, used for pencilling the eyes. 

Adal tah wadal zandnak chhai pathich eadat tjhai. 
; A contrary woman is like bad graas on the roof. 

Qraas not fitted for tliatohing does not aet well, bat lets the r&in 
throngh the roof. Cf. FroT. Esrii. 15. 

jidi dadi yitshik tah adi dadi ritjhih. 

Half (the people) are burnt nith niBhing and half are burnt 

with scandal. 

The atmggle for popuUrity and place. 

Jdi Ldr tah adi DSr. 
Half at Lfir and half at Dir. 

A man of large and Bcattiered property j bnt who cannot gat at it 
or obtain anything from it. 

Adin khoih tah adin a»h. 

To half (the people) wretchedness and to half happineaa. 

Adtii baslan andar chhvh air. 
A lecret ia (concealed) under the skin of man, 
Man is a mate-up of mystery. 

Adui umr tah hadul haUi. 
Half-life and great misfortone (be to you). 
A Easbmirl cnme. 

Adyav khiyih ehimh adyav kkeyih t&H. 

Half (the people) ate from the large dishes and half from (he 

small diahes. 

A badly-arranged dinner. 

A^ah hod pahara» noukar hod waharas. 

The maater ia great in three hours, the aervant is great in 

a year. 

Bome people earn as mnoh in three honrs bb others do in tirelvs 

J^oA Itaran nelhar tah parewn nah min&n. 
The master gets married, but the servant does not agree to it. 
A oontruy Mrrant. 


Agar Khdn Ui'yov gagar w'ljl, talih no niijii kum-y'ji. 
Agar Khin entered into'a rat's hole, and there he did not 

get, even, a bran-cake. 

In Mtremis. 

Agar Khdnun hmtd tusla tah lutta; laslu nah lah kMtlu. 
Should Agar Khan's elephant live, it liveB ; and if it doea 

not live, then never mind. 

Some people are bo little respected, that it doei not mnoh matter 
whether thoj live or die. 

Agar Khia was one of the old Pathin governore of EMhmlr. In 
his time aSairs arHved at a crisis. The army bad rebelled, and the 
treaBQTf was empty. To support his family and servanta ha 
parted with his jewels and other treasores, and yet all throngb this 
time of the direst distress he was keeping a favonrita elephant. 
When be oould no longer teed the pet beaat, he let it go to wander 
wbither it pleased. 

Agar t»er karikjald yiyik, agar jald karik ttir yiyih. 

If he delays he will come quickly, but if he hastens he will 

Mora haate, worse speed. 

Ahalamari ratah-kkari. 

The quarrelsome people of Ahalaroar. 

AKalavuiT is one oftbe chief divisioas of the city of Srtnagar. Id 
olden days it was the regular thing on e»ery Friday for the yonng 
people of one division to challenge in fight the yonng people of 
another division. A certain place and hour would be arranged, and 
the yonths armed with sticks and slings, &C; would aseemble on 
their reapectiie Bides. At a signal from their leaders they wonld 
join combat, and generally there were several broken limba and 
sometimes deaiths, resulting from these fights. His Highoess the 
Iste Mabarijah Gulfib Singh pat an end to tbese disgraceful 

The youngsters of Abalamar were lery pngnaoions, and eapeoially 

■o raspecting the people of Suth, a neighbouring division. Perhaps 

this was because they generally " got as good as they gave." At any 

rate these two diviaions had many fights with one another. Th« 

Abalamar youth would march in a crowd ahonting ; — 

SuOiSn lachih tah kvlken nar 

Ahalamariav gan3,j,k Idr. 

" Bagged clothes to the people of Suth, and may their baodle* 

catch fire. 

The people of Abalamar gave chase to them." 


Then tbs crowd fiom Snth ironli) meet them ahoatlug : — 
■AhcdamaH ratak-khari ; 
Ltjan chhik nah batah phali ; 
Cltandan el>hik tuih hArah naif. 
" The qoarrelEome people of Ahalmnar 
The; have not a rioe-graju in theic poti. 
They hare not a cowrie in their pooketH." 
Odb il remlndad of the English onatom of " beating the bontidi *' 
on Holy Thnrsday, when the parish sohool childrsn, aoeompaiiied by 
the olergynuui and pariah offioera, luied to walk thnrogh their pariah 
from and to end. The bays had willow wands with whioh they 
■tmok the linea of boondai;, (and Bometimea the boya of tM 
adjoining parish). 

'• Ji hdk tjah iatib d/t r' 
"At hMnai Mumah T6k." 
" Nah tnah nun nak ttahpik. 
" Birav bituMn bdli-i-tik." 
" O cabbage, whence c«me ve V 
"From the bouse of Mumah Tak." 
" You are neither salted nor cooked. 
" Heugb 1 go aud sit on the window." 

Hik sometimes called H&k-wik, or (as in Fenian) Big, a oabbiga 
or any edible vegetable. 

Whenever the hik il badly oooked the abovo lines are aoia to ba 

Jiitmak Tdlf was a great greengrooer in Srlnogar city. 

Ai6 patiun mithoi. 
A man loves his own fault. 
" Oh, wad some power the giftie gia aa 
To MB onrteta a* others seen*." 

Aibo peyiyo gaUuek baUi, mandaehhik patah ehhai khijdlat. 
O sin, let HeaTca's misfortune fall upon you— to you is ahame 

upon shame. 

"Be mre yonr Bin wlQ flndyoaoiU." 

Ai at iah unlham kyah ? Timah ai lak khy&viaham kyak ? 
If yon have come, what have you brought ? if I come, what 

will you give me to eat ? 

A meroanary indiv^dnal. 

Ak btSnak, bitfiA pinak, biyik talab&nak, biyih koriadilH 


First (thef seized) my dish, then myielf, then (I had) to p^ 
the Triluesses, and then (they abused toe, calling me) the 
cater of my daughter's hire, and the keeper of a brothel. 
A poor priBoner in the hanile of the poUoenuui. 

Ak bard.e Khtdi tah heyih kattis kkcUit. 
A man begs and tbeu gets up on an elephant, 

" To mount an tli^hamt " i« an eiprewion for beooming pcond or 

jlk budih iah methih, byik hudih tah tlthik. 
One man is old and sweet, another old and bitter. 

jik ehhiwyoe maiah bydk Mkah ratah. 

One man is intoxicated with the juice of the grape, another 
with the juice of vegetables. 

Pride dwells in OTory one, be he rioh or poor. 

" Eashmli is the only part of India where wine ia made from the 
jnioe of the grape, a foot to be attributed rather to ita aoeaoeat 
quality than to any loaFcity of the fmit." 

Ak gav j&nt y&r, hyih gav nini y&r. 

One is a thorough friend, another is a " loafer." 

Ndni yar, a bread friend, 
Ptraian—Ydr-i-jiii, o var-i-min. 

Ak guh ritrih, ak khir Jcuehih, pitnh g&tak, wof6i nah kinh. 
One sheep in a meadow, one kharwar (of grain) in thehoua^ 
and the bulrush (these three) do not last. 

The ftheep and the kharw&r are bat " as a drop in the ocean," soon 
•wallowed up, and the bnlroBh qaickly rota. 

Khar or Kharwir, ia a dry measiire, containing lbs. 193. The 
literal meaning of the word is an asa-load. Khar is the Eathmirf 
word for an ass (like the Persian), 

Ak 'khojat met batah khyun, beyd tinU kun athah nyuH T 
When a person is dining with a great man, will he stretch 

out bis hand towards the dish (to help himself) ? 

Gire him a jard, and hell take on ell. 

Ak hot tah hiyih katia garawani. 

First there's the gallows, then there's the trouble of making 

the gallows. 

X difflcolt and losing gama. 


jlli Itwin grattas by&k lew6n gratiawali tumih chinik. 
One licks the mill- stone, the other licks the millers diah. 

Am faat ss one eama, the other spends. 
Ak nyuv Taman tah by&k khyav braman. 
Death took one and the other nas seduced from his omi 

coontrj to another country in hope of gain. 

A man of large family, bnt not one child left to him, all scattered. 

Yama is the HindA god and judge of the dead. 
Akrifit tah bh/ih g&mah rAfig. 
A Shi" a and also a Tillage Shi'a. 

Thera are Shi'as and Shi'as. 

The village Shi'aa are mach more onperstitiona and bigoted than 
the oitj Shl'iiB. Altogether there are about six thousand Shi'as in the 
valley. They are fonnd chieSj at ZadibaJ, a fen miles to the north 
of Srinagar,and at HaennAbSd neartotjie city lake, where their prin- 
cipal mosqne is. 

Great bittemesB of feeling ezists between the S^nis and the Shi'as, 
the rival secta of MohamniedBniBin, which occasionally manifeats 
itself in open fights ending in loss of life and great destractioa of 
property. In 1874 the MaharSjah's troops were obliged to be called 
oat to qnell the rioters. Dnring the Fath4n mle in the valley the 
Shi'as were forbidden to celebrate the Uuharram. Ahoat the time 
when the country wasanneiedto the Dnrrinf empire (17 53-1819 a. d.), 
the Shi'as determined to enact this sacred feast ; and acordingly 
compelled a Sftni boy to eat salt ; then tantalized him with water) 
and jnat as he was about to drink it they shot him to death with 
arrows, so, that he might perish like Hosaiii, who w!is kilted by Yazid 
near Kafa, in the desert, of thirst. When 'Abdn'US Khin, who had 
jost conqnered this conntry, heard of this, he was much enraged and 
immediately gave the order for the collecting of all the Shi'as in 
Srioagar, that their noses might be pierced, and one line of string 
ran throngh the whole of them, and that, thns fastened together, 
they might be oondncted throngh the principal thoronghfarea of 
the city. Nothing dannted, however, they very soon again tried to 
celebrate their sacred festival, and notably in the time of the Sikh 
governor Bam4 Singh ( 1830 i..D.) There was a great SOnf living in 
EashmSr in the fifteenth century, whose name was Mnqaddam S^ib, 
He had a large number of followers, amongst whom was Shams-nd-din, 
a Persian Shi'a, who managed to conceal his religious views and to 
ingratiate himself into bis master's favour, though all the time he 
was really proselytising. He thus made many converts to the ShS'a 
faaOi, and in conseqnenoe is mnch respected by the Shi'sa, for these 
people have a principle of religions compromise called takia, 
whereby the Bbf'a thinks that he is perfectly justified in lying and 
deceiving to save himself from reh'gioog persecution. It appears 
that dnring the year or so ofBenii Singh's governorship in Ea^mlr, 


the Shf'as when celebrating the Haharram purposely ipat in the 
direction of the Muqaddam Siihib's tomb, and this so enraged the 
S unfa that they fell apon them then and there and Blew fifteen of 
them, besides doing mnch damage to their property. Binoa than 
Persian traders have kept at a distance from Kashmir. 

Ak tah ak gav kah. 
One and one are eleven. 

Two heads are better than one. 

Akwonun wagivi hyak pilamiwiin ekkne p^tx. 

One weaves the mat and another holds out to him the reed. 

The mat-maker conld work mnoh better alone. Hence the above 
is quoted when nuneoessary help ia received. 

Ak wuiur heyih traJcar, 

Firat, you are unfortunate j secondly, yon are proud. 

Pride withont reason. 

Ak eiiUA baekhih tal Ukit toh, lah by&k eilih tumul. 

One will sit by the fire-place and burn chaff, while Another 

will burn rice. 

Economy and eitniTagance. 

Ak eanrinah chAai daulat,hyik tallat. 

One woman ia wealth to you, another ia ruination. 

Ak xaninah chhai hat lanjik huni, hyik ehhai bar tal hunt 

One woman ia (like) a hundred-branch plane-tree to youf 
another ia like a bitch at the door. 

The tdni or chinAr (Platanut OrientaUa) of Eashmtria one of the 
finest and moat Hhada-giring trees. It was introdnced by the Ma- 
hammadana from the West, and nnder the Fostering attention of 
royalty this splendid tree with its palmate leaves and spreading 
braochea, haa reached the greatest age and attention in Eashmfr. 
Akka ffomut yirah tah wirik ntnngdn tang. 
A man is confused and aska for peara from the willow tree, 
Akha khut haatis hiy/ikka khastan dusik. 
One man rode upon an elephant, another mounted the wall. 

High and lowi rich and poor. 

Panjfibt — Hik pvime, (e diyd glwre ghinjie. 

AkM lasia titaa maraa. 

Let one man live for the sake of a thousand houses. 

God spare the pnblio benefactor. 


Akhi lalik khatih nah gvrtt, hiyih latth pakih nah ptyiJah. 
At one time he will ride on a hone, at another time he will 

go on foot. 

Dirait adijicat mAUU qvadirita rotundit, 
Ahhi v)aktahpr&nah-l$uj tah bSyik waJetah pr^ah-dyal. 
At one time the onion-plant, and at another time the onion- 

Good and bad timei. 
Aki tund daxih Ab tah bh/iA tund daeih nah tU. 
One man can bum water, where another cannot even bum 


A matter of luck. 
Ahi tund dyirah ehandah beyih tund katd. 
One man's pocketful of money (is no more than) another 

man's word. 
Aki tiat turn lah »&t gav Tculih. 
One man cut the bridge, and a thousand people fell into the 


Fnuighment ridted npon many bocaoBe of the iniquity of one. 

This is a Baying derived fromatme story (ho anative friend tajs). 
A very long time ago a large crowd of people were tniTelling toge- 
ther; — psrhapa th^ were-going on a viait to Home popular ihiine. 
In the midst of the eroird there was a very wicked man who did not 
■eem to be able to think, or «ay, or do, anything eioept that which 
wae evil. On Beeing a swift and deep stream in front, this wicked 
man ran on ahead and crossed the ordinary plank bridge hnilt over 
it J and no Booner had he himself crossed over, than with hia big 
faatohet he haoked trad hewed away at the sapporting beam o£ the 
bridge, until it broke into two peces and the whole Btmctnre fell 
down, and was soon oarried away by the angry waters. Now what 
wrae the people to doP — go they mnit to this phuie, concerning 
wldoh Uiey had boon making preparations before, 
At length two or three of the bolder spirits among them determined to 
wade the stream ; andtheothersenconrBgedby their example reBolved 
to Tentnre alio. They all started together, bat, alas ! when they 
reached the middle of the water the swiftness and depth proving 
too niaoh for them they sit lost heart, gave ihemselvsa to be carried 
away by the waters, and were drowned. 
AM Uond dunyi tah bhfik ahi im&n ; dunyi tah fmon ehhik 

nah donaioai athih yiw&n. 
One man sought the world and another sought for fidth ; the 

world and faith both do not come into the same hand. 

" Ye cannot sarve God and mammon. " 

Jkit eimh dtnAn ddr tak byih ekhut loushanl'.wun atliah. 
One man's beard is on fire, and another man trarms hii 
hands by it. 

To tre glftd atanother'a miafortnne. 
Panjibi. — Kisi iti gliar jale, koi ttipe. 

jikii ffom lah ; mother gim tJiSthar ; h'.ioat gdyain hukU. 
One becacne two ; friends became enemies ; the crow became 
a dove. 

An old man's BDSwer to a friend, who \aA sent to enqaire how he 
was. The meuning ia that a ataff was now "part anil parcel " of him; 
that hU teeth bad deserted him ; and that his raven-black hair had 
tnrned grey 

Aklah chh&ni gar& ch&ni tnk garu mytmi, 

Aklah, the carpenter's wife, sometimes yours, and BOmetimes 


A atnpitl, garraloas, anfaithfnl woman. 

Akui abttr Mi MAg zaii ,- kunui phukak tak dn'g tan. 
A single cloud, and it is as the month of January ; a single 
fast, and it is as though a famine. 

Av, jour I« jour. 

Jl Kafkmir ■murdah-'pasand. 

The Kashmiri people are fond of the dead. 

To " never gpeat evil ot the dead " is a prominent good featnre in 
tlie Eaahmlri's character. 

Alagadik bvddn tnk walagndih wotalan ; Wttha kvkhan; 
AUrt'ir gratan ; telih, kd mi'lih, dsl uii'ndur ri'.j. 

The f(reat man will sink ; the base man will rise; the ri^er 
will dry up ; the sewer will roar (by reason of the much 
water); then, O Father, will be the monkey rule (i.e., a 
time of utter irreligion and great oppression). 
AHayingofShekhNdr-nd-dln. who waaa very famonsMnbammedan 

naint in Kashmir about eii hundred years ago. His shrine is at 'TsrSr, 

B village about fifteen milea from Siiuagor ; and every October that's 

ia a ifTeat mel& there in hia honour. 

Wetha ia t)ie Jbelam rivet in ita course through Kashmir. Hindi 

prieata call it Tetasta. 

Alah kulU tulak kul. 
A mulberry tree from a pumpkin plant ( 
' •— 'q from a mole-hill. 



Alah rttuuni wiingan Tcaduni. 

To sow pumpkins, and reap egg-plants. 

To begia a thing and not finiBh it. 

IViijtjiiiv ia known in Hindastin by tha n«me of brinjil ( tnlO' 
nam meiongena), the egg-plant. Tbe KashmtrJi dry it, and okt it 
during the winter. 

Alan chhak pkal tah nindan ekkuA dMA. 

There is frnit to the plough, and rice for the raking. 

Thrift brings its own reward. 
Albailai noA ekhas akl tah nah maul. 
Neither underatsnding nor death to a. fat man, 

" Fat pannchcs have loan pates. " — Sbaks. 
A/i I'mgun aambule ; fahlr auye datni'.le. 
O All, prepare your garden ; the fakir has come to dance. 

Quoted aa a warning to preparo for anj person's coming. 

" Faliir has come to dance." Fakirs stamp npon the groond, 
gesticniate, and in other wajs annoy people, if their demands for 
lai'gosse are not qniokly complied with. 

All diUi'iV tdlih gyav autean kuru* lyav tah lyav. 
Al( oiled her head with ghi, and tbe lice licked and licked 
it all up. 

Money in the hands of a worthless person. 

Alih dria tah lulih logam tsel. 
In the moment of birth my head was squeezed, 
Man commences his troablona career as soon sa he is bom. 

Alilcinini di'.ndah hawar ; ak nah atsan garah, tah byik nak 

One-eyed 'Ali's yoke of osen.^-one will not enterthe bouse, 
and the other will not come out of it. 

A poor man with a refractory family- 
Most people ID the valley will remember cmo^yed 'All and his two 
tronbleaome bnllooks, 

Aland txf^ndun 

Seeking to get at a thing which is hanging out of reach. 

Clavain HercUe extor quire. 

Amal gav gu-Uh mal. 

Employment is like dirt upon the wrist. 

Employmotit is uncertain ; like dirt upon the wrist, it qqickly 



A'm&natas Miydnat. 

To embezzle a, deposit (is a tremendous sin). 

The heigbt of dishouoar. 
Amanuk tot. 
Aman's pony. 

A bad, iaxj fellon' vrho reqairsB a lot of iirgiog before be will di> 
my thing, 

Amim is a Bmall EaBbmirl village. A man once parchased a pony 
from thia place, and was setting forth on bia way liome. when the 
beast Baddenlf stopped, and nearly threw the rider over hia head. 
Any little ditch or such like place caused the pony to tbaa stop. 
ETentaally the purchaser got off the animal, and asked a pasaer-by 
to moniit it. The otber mao being a good horseman was not afraid 
to hit the pony ; and so for the rest of the journey, and ever after- 
worda, the pony want splendidly. 

Amat tuel har gayik TiMmas suSt garah karun. 

To quarrel with the commoa people is like keeping house 

irith a stupid, untaught person (which is misery). 
Ami phukah ckkuh datan Uong tah ami pkukak chkuk 

gatRhan pati. 
With this blow of the breath the lamp is lit, and with this 

blow it is extiaguished. 

" Ont of the aame month proceedeth blessing and oorHing." 
Ami y&rahalan ekhih kitiyih nati phutaruvamati ! 
How many water-pots this ghat has broken ! 

A sonrca of much evil. 
.^tn gogalan til zan pherun. 
Like mising oil with raw turnips. 

Treasnred wrath. 

The oil will not settle, hot runs all over and abont the tnrnipi. 
. In this way aoger spreads over the breast of an unforgiving mtui- 

Amin natan indl. 

A desire for raw flesh (is it ?) 

Citod to a man who is impatient for bia food, &a. 

Amis dudag tual dabadab. 

To wrestle with uncooked milk. 

To Btrivo with the weak, 

Amiapnnaa darah dar. 
To pull raw thread. 

To fight, or bully, a weak fellow. 



An mana, harfana; richkun chhui bod gunaK 
Briog a maund, aad spead it. It is a great siu to store. 
Jo^s sometimes qiu^e these words, 

An WHh, dit dum, adak huditi gdmi gdm. 
Bring the Jhelum, drink it, and then let the ifthole village be 

An nn principled man who has no care for otherB, as long as he 
Dan accomplish hia awa selfish ends. 

Ranih hinde -madano. 

Tkakumute, loiamule. 

Mdjik hinde gubaro. 

At the time of earning and bringing, 

A wife's friend you are ; 

But when you're tired and weary, 

A mother's son you are. 

Anchdr-niif akis kkut lafi beyis htit. 

A pickle-pot, — one maa's (pickle) turned out splendidly, 

another man's (pickle) went bad. 

The Bame concern, &c., ma; tnra out well for one, but adverse for 
another man, 
Andah kanik ■manzb&g. 
Being outside or oq the edge, to sit in the midst. 

The raonkey, who wonld fain use the oat's paw to poll th» 
ehestnnta out of the fire. 

Andnrah daz'in pi'nah tah nebarah dnsiin lok. 
Inside he himself burns, and outside ihe people bum. 

The genteel poor man. Poverty and cold are burning him within, 
whilst outside, owing to his wearing nice (ileau clollies, the people 
lum with envy, supposing that he has money. 
Andarak gom wirih hand dudur tah nebarah rodum tserik 

hund rang. 
Within me is the rottenness of the willow, but without 

continues the colour of the apricot. 
Andarah ijbunihas ihukah tah nebarah dupun " Gumak 

Inside somebody sp^t upon him. Oatsids he said, " It U 




Andari, andari, leot Tsandari gom. 

Secretly, secretly, he reached the Tillage of ^andar. 

" In truth, he is in great distrew." 
Andarim dddi no maskinam marit 
Nebarim shudi kyah barak witini huh ? 
1 shall never forget the pains of my heart, eren after death. 
Shall I wish then for outside happiness 1 

Eefuaing to be corafortaiJ. 

Andarim nak tuts tnh nebarim nahpatj. 

No strength within, and no respect without. 

Anelii at yiyih ladanah tak mantis wdtis. 

If the cover be filled then it holds one pound and a halt. 

Think beEore joa leap. 

Anhaharin arm&n lah haharimuti pashemdn. 

The bachelor wishes (to get married) , the married man 

regrets (ibat he got married). 

Marry in hsBte, bjuI repent at leisure. 

Ani chhur lam tal tah A/'asih dyuthus nak. 

A blind man sat down behind a pile of stones, and thoaght 

that nobody had seen him. 

The ostrich hides his head in the sand, Ac. 
Ani sunz kttlm Khudoi/as haw'lah, 
A blind man's wife is in God's keeping. 

Aniff'lih guli ilawuni. 

To show affection in the darkness. 

Kind to the anthankf nl. 
Anim sui, wavum sui, lajwm euV piinatui. 
I brought the nettle, I sowed the nettle, and then the nettle 

stung me. 


In olden times there was a famonB fakir in Kashmir, who pnniehed 
liiniBelE in the following way. He uprooted a nettle, and filing 
some mud upon the pajrj of his hand, planted the nettle therein. 
All the day and all the night for several jeara ha held out his hand 
with the palm uppermost, and the nettle in it. The plane grew and 
was sirong and by reason of this, thooaandB of Hindlla used to visit 
the fakir, and giva him alms. 

The fakir had a disciple, who eventually becama very jealoaa of 
the honour which his master received ; and oae day in a fit of anger, 
he bit the netUe, earth and all, out of hia master's hand. The fakir 

L_ ,. ,C.(Kigle 

then Bpoke the above saying concerniDg both the nettle »nd hit 
disciple, whom be had brought np and Quuriehed from hia infancy. 

The ating-netitle is & plant sacred to Shiv^, who it Said to hsro 
first planted it. Hindfis plnck the leaves, and throw then over tba 
god'g favourite ajmbol, the Ivngfim. 

Anin nmnz Mni sundar., 

Aa one-eyed womaa ia beautiful among blind nomea. 
^nis hivrin t&rl loai be-aklas nah kanh. 
All men show the blind man the way ; nobody can show 
the man without understanding. 

jlnia mutht kiwuni, nah ehhih gunah, nah »av)6b. 

To show the thumb to a blind man is neither a sin nor a virtue. 

Advice is lost on some people. 

" To thow the thv/tnV is a vnlgar act amongst children and stupid 
people in Kashmir. 

Anis T&t tak doh hehui. 

Night and day are the same to the bUnd man. 

Anil tiatsanSwuni ! 

(Enough) to make a cover dance ! 

A' great tronbls or Burprisa. 

Ankdr tah mat, nakdr tah Icatam. 
Confess end property, refuse and oath. 

One man obai^e another man with a debt. The other man 
denies. Then the matter is carried into court, vhere the jadge and 
people sometimes dte the above proverb, whidi means " Confess and 
pay, or refnse imd awear to it." 

Jnlan iak hdwanai. 

Bring it to me and I'll show it to you. 

An angry retort when a man expresses snrprise that bia friend hat 
not seen, or heard of, a certain person or thing. 

Apirih ganduk ■ yapdrih tand'uk ; duhlili iMtoat yad handik. 
On that side a boi ; on this side a box ; and a gun to the 

stomach of him, who breaks the fast (of Ramazdn). 
Apdrih tArum. gidik kan, yap^rik kurmae ras, til kurum 

Mahkak Madinat. 
From the other bank of the river I brought a small fish, 

and here I made soup, and then mvited all Mecca and 




Apirimav mun ddnih yapirimin gayik athan hatk, 
A man on that side pressed the grain, but to a man on this - 
Bide a gall became. 

One dosB the scath, oEother has the harm. 
Apik kund i/yav. 
A foolish woman's gh(. 

A foppish pergon. 

Apik is a, term applied ohIt' to a woman, whose one care is dress, 

Apuiis god kyah T • 

A lie has do beginning. 

Ari di turi tak kt gao nah kahk. 

All people came {i.e., were born) in good bealtb, but not one 

became (i.e., continued) healthy. 
Arimi kadik nah rtrnj lakpkaHran d&raa leisht. 
The gardener had not dug out the radish, when the AUtir held 

the slma-bowls in front of him. 
Arispdnas drakah. 
A leech to a healthy body. 

Snflering for others. 
A»aH at tah lotah hitahpAthi ? 
If I laugh not how can 1 hre ? 

Rida n tapis. 

A»at gatshik phttlai dsuni, adah gayihphulai uiuehAvni. 
One's mouth must blossom before he goes to see the flower- 

Tfae different pleasnre-gardeDa around the Dal Lake are constantly 
and lai^Iy visited by the natiTes, and eHpeoiaJly, when the plnm- 
trees and roses and lilacs are in fall bloom. They take their dinner 
with them, and spend the greater part of the day on the excuraion. 

The eiprosaioD " ons'e mouth must hloieom" refers to eatii^ and 

A>at kutih Uuiyo dhi waddh drdiyo. 

"When food had entered your mouth, blessing came forth 


The gaest flatters and blesses bis host. 


Asits maxak tah yad daiah-datak. 

A taate in the mouth and a burning in the stomach. 

Jnst enough to whet the appetite. 

Asawai tah gindamai koryav, khyan chyun chkuh yih. 

Let ua laugh and play girls. This (thumb) is eating and 

Some people are rery mild in apeech and witty io manner, bnt they 
lire not very liberal in tbeir dinner Brrangemants, or in the matter 
of lai^esse. 

' Ihis thumb" refers to the vnlgar KaBbmSrl onstom of holdii^ up 
the thumb as an answer in the negative, when asked if there is 
anything in the honae." 

Ashnae gov p/iskniv. 

An acquBiotance (or kinsman) is like a dung and refuse boat, 

" Save me from my friends." 

Ashrftf gwo sui yaa aahrafik I'ltan. 

The man with the gold is the gentlemaa. 

Another Teraion of tbie proverb cited by thoae, who are of anoUiBr 
way of thinking, is ; — 
Aihr&f ga*> tui yas askrajt daih. 
He, who is gentle, is a gentleman. 

AsmSnak pyav tah zamnik logua dab. 

He fell from heaven to earth and is woimded. 

High towers fall to the groand with greater crash. 

Asmdnah watsh balai tah hhana i gharib kujdst ? 
Misfortune descends from heaven, and where is the poor man's 

From hand to month. 

Asv.n ehhah Aeckkm'iwnjt nah /laurt ehhuh maudachMwin. 

To be (irealthy) teaches, not to be (wealth;) makes ashamed. 

Atvn ehhuh kkaraa khaaan. 

It is a shame to laugh (immoderately). 

'''And the laugh that spoke the vacant mind." — Goldsmith. 

Kharat khaaan, lit., til moant an asB, which, aooording to tbe 
iiativea, is in^a dig. 



Aid Muhammad Eh/inin ffadih hegAri. 

Impress for the work of Ati Muhammad Khan's (fort). 

^e present fort of Bari Parbat was built by Lti Mnhamniad 
Khan aboat sixty jears ago. On Fridays, nntil the work was com. 
plated, eTery citiien, nhether ricli or poor, yanng or old, was fbroed to 
take ap one stone to tlie top of the hill. 


Ath gal aheth gaL 

Tim pihlth pith gia. 

Eight goae, sixty gone. 

These five besides gone (what are they ?). 

What is a little mora trouble to a man already OTerirhelmed with itf 
Fem&a — Abe fct m lar giaaaht ehi yak neta o c\i fuair neta. 

Ath thuiih ev kit lubik ? 

Will the Boul desire this beautiful tbing 7 No. 

"It is naught, it is naught, with the bnyer." — Prov. u. 14. 

Athnehan jtihtihan ungajan andar kis lakut ; muAr ehhik 

meUn MsL 
The little finger is the smallest of the five fingers of tbehand; 

and yet the signet-ring ia worn upon the little finger. 

The hamble shall be exalted. 

Athah ehhah ialih tah kathah ehkuk halih nah, 

A wound in the hand is well, but to be wounded by (unkind) 

words is not well. 
Atkak thhid tiA mSlrut tgul. 
As soon as the hands were washed friendship ran away. 

After a aatife dinner an ewer of water is brought round, in which 
the gnestd wash their hands. 
Athak ditain broilkah yitam. 
Give me your hand and come in front of me. 

To lend a hand. 
Atka» waryan pwth nad thtlhan toaryan puk iriA. 
For eight years the river ran, and for sixty years (after the 
waters had disappeared) the ground remained damp. 

Hen die but their deads live. 

Panjfihf — Admt nahin rahindA, par ddml di alrdhjdnit hai. 

Athi b&nat hhyun tah atki Mna* ehharun. 
To eat out of a vessol and then defile it. 

To receive a man's hospitality and then alandor hini. 



Miyuv bttlah-bat- 

An image made from dour. 

A weak mtm. 

Bulah-bat are the little ima^B, horsea, ic, whioli children play w<tti> 
A aagar tof. 
Jud kkuki aud phuH. 
Hair dust, half blowing. 

A fool and his money ara booh parted. 

Awdur tah mudur. 
Vfet and atreet. 

Spoken conceraing b£z&r food. 
Aut pat;hik nemn yd talimih Uakajih y& petHmih. 
The flour must come out either by the lower or by the upper 


By hoot or by crook. 
Av ai tah yeruv, gaa ai tak ffnsuv. 
If it has come then it ia like wool, but if it haa goue then it 

ia aa graaa, 

Av takjf.v chkus hari'ibar. 
Coming and going are alike to him. 

A happy -go-] ncky individual. 
" Awah, " layik pi'ihU''h tah " Nah " layih laehk. 
"Yea" is worth Ra. 50 and " No" ia worth a lakh. 

No of some people ia more esteemed than the Yea of other*.— 
"OracDlo Maniml," Balthaaar QracJan. 

Ayat wale tah gayai tih wate; 

Shnatu sulhe loium doh ; 

Wuchkui* ehanda* tah hnr nah atht. 

Nttwah tiraa hyaJt dimah hah ? 

I came by a way (ue.^ I was bom) and I also went by a way 

(i.e., I diedl. 
When I waa in the middle of the way (i.e., when my spirit 

waa between the two worlds) the day failed, 
I looked in my pocket, but not a cowrie came to hand. 
What shall 1 give for crossing the ferry ? 

A Baying of Lai Ded, who was a very holy Hindi womfto. 

The Kashmiri Qind^ belief ia that during the sixth month after 
death the spirit of tbe deceased has to cross the waters of the 
Taitaraoi; but it is impossible to get to tbe other side of the river 



eicept by special means, as the waters are ao deep and stormy »n^ th» 
opposing powers, preta, yamadut, matsya, and karma are so strong, 
AccBirdinglj about this time the bereaved relations call the family 
Btahmaa, who repeats to them the portions appointed k> be read on 
this occaaion. Ainong other things the departed spirit ia represented 
as standing on the brink of the rirer and crying "Where is my father? 
Where ia my mother ? Where are my relations and my frienda P la 
there no one to help rae over this river. ?" This ia sometimes recited 
with much feeling, and great are the lamentations of the bereaved, 
who noiv with sobs and tears present a little boat and paddle, 
made of gold, or ailver, or copper, according to their position, to the 
Br4hman ; and in the boat tbcy place ghi, milk, batter, and rice. The 
boat is for the conveyance of the spirit across Vaitataiii, and the 
proviaions are for the appeasement of the contrary powers preta, , 
matsya, and others, who will try to turn back the boat, but who on 
having these, ghl and rice, &c, thrown to them, will at once depart 
their own way. 

The Hlnd^ believe that if this ceremony is performed in a right 
manner, a boat will be at once present npon the waters, close to that 
portion of the bank of the river, where the spirit is waiting and 
praying for it, and that the spirit getting into it will be safely 
conveyed to the oppoaite side. The gift-boat, however, is taken 
borne by the Br&hiiian, and generally tiu^ed into money as soon as 

At the moment of death amongst other thiuga a paisS is placed 
within the month of the corpse, wherewith to pay the ferry. 

The belief here eipreascd is common in one shape or another to 
oil nations and peoples, but especially to all Indo-European 
nations. In Grecian mythology it waa the river Styx, Aoheron, or 
Cocytna; and Charon rowed the shades acroea in his little boat. 
A small piece of money, too, waa placed in the mouth of the dead, 
to pay the fore to the Stygian ferryman. In Scandinavia bodies 
were buried in Bhipa and boats under the belief that the dead crossed 
the waters in them. Coleman, p. 319, mentions that among the* 
GarrowB of Bengal also, " the dead are kept for foor days ; burnt 
on a pile of wood in a dingy or small boat, placed on the top of a 
pile," &c. In the old French romance of Lancelot da I^c the damoi- 
selte d' Escalot orders that after death, her body richly dressed 
should be placed in a ship, and that the ship should be let go to find 
its own way before the wind and wavea. In Grimm's Deutsche 
Mytbologie, 3te Anagabe, 791, a story is told concm^ng some monks 
CrOHsing the Rhine at Spirea. In former times the Rhine, the 
political boandary of Germany, was also r^arded as the boundary 
between the upper and lower world ; and "to go to the Bbine" 
and "to die" were mntnally equivalent eipreasions: — "A drowsy 
boatman is roused up one stormy night by a monk, who put some 
money into his hand, aod asked to be ferried over the river. At 
first sii monks get into the boat, but no sooner is it started tlian a 
great company press in, to the great incunvauionce of the boatman. 


With much difficult; the river is crosaed ; and the pMKDgere having 
diaembarked, the boat is immediately carried back b; a strong wind 
to the place whence it started. More paasengera are waiting there, 
and thej, too, embark directly the boat touohes the bank ; and aa 
they enter the (oremoafc of the strange company pnts the fare into 
the ferryman'E hands with hia icy^cold fingera. Some readera may 
not know that the Germans in olden times thoronghly believed th»b 
oar own little island was the island of sonls, and that to this day 
remnants of this belief are still to be fonnd among them." For 
more particalora conoeniiiig traditions about the dead, their world, 
and the way to it, *c c(. Kelly's most interesting book on " Cnriosi- 
ties of Indo-Eoropean Traditions," Cb. IT. 

Ayi& teams gayik kundrU- 

She came to the baniya's but arrived at the baker's. 

an almost node condition, and was constantly saying that " He only 
was a man, who feared God, and there were very few snoh men 

One day Sb£h Hamadfin, after whom the famonf mosque in 
Brinagar is called, met her, and ahe at once ran away. Thia was a 
strange thing for Lai Dtd, to do; bat it was soon explained. " I bars 
Been a man," she said, to the astonished baniyi, into whoM shop 
ahe had fled for refnge. The baniyi, hovrever, tnmed her ont. 
Then Lai DM rasbed to the baker's bouse and jumped into the oven, 
which at that time was fully heated for baking the bread. When the 
baker saw this he fell down in a swoon thinking that, for certain, tbs 
king would hear of this and pnnish him. However, there WSB no 
need of fear, as Lai USd presently appeared from the month of the 
oven clad in clothes of gold, and hastened aflcr Sh&b Hamad&B. Ct. 
Bote 743, Part XX of " Panjib Notes and Qnerioa." 

The EashmEr! Mnhammedan will tell aa many and long Stories 
concerning thia Sbab Eamadin, or Saiyid 'Alf as the Eashmiii Pan£t 
will tell ahont Lai DJd — bow that when Timor Lnng slew all th» 
atupds in his oonntry, he accmed that monarch of impiety and 
aaid that he would not atay in hia conntry, bnt fcy virtne of his 
holiness would transport himself through the air to Kashmir ; and 
how that be alighted in the very spot, where now the famous mosqae 
Btanda in the midst of Srkiagar, and within a few days after his 
arrival here converted so many Hindis to Islim that tvro.and-a-ba1f 
JCharwirs of Yonis or Br&bmanical threads were delivered Dp to 

Sbih Bamad&n's mosque is one of the most beautiful as well aa 
one of the most famous in the Valley. Over and beside the entra 
and upon the wall of the Bret of the Qve divisiona of the building 
these three Porsian inscriptions ;— 


Ai dil agarat matlab i faix « d& jahan ast. 
H/m bar dar i skahanthah i Shdh e Hamaddn ait. 
Malerim i ijdbat ast ti dare autt dti'it ra. 
'Arsh 08< dfOr aeh balti a«ii' 'arsh niihdn att. 

Bar fait ki dar adbikay e httr-dii jahAn a»t. 

Dar pairaai i hmrat t SAaA e SamodAs, oat. 

Bkik e Hamadin ahki ShahansMh e jahan <Kt 

Ai KMk baran dtda H dar rmb o gumin act. 

, • * a • 

la Samad&n SamadAni dikad. 

KoVi/at « sirr i nihani diihad. 

Ta'na agar bdehidat tn dni ; 

Ai dar i Shdh e Hamaddnt bijo. 
Az gov begih wuini wulah pagukl 
To-day is not the time. Now (is not the time). Crane 

Ad Onecat Kalendaa. 
At nak tah, adah har. 
Not to day, — when thea? 

To-morrow is iio day. 



' S&bah Adamas zai tah gabar, aki rat Parent beyik ratHabr, 
Father Adam had two sons. One whs burnt and the other 

vas huried (i.e., one became a Hindi) and the other became- 

a Muhammedan). 
B6bah, ludatham lak hhidmatah hortam. 
O father, become old and serve me. 

The old parents aia verj often the elaves of the family. 
Bdbah matyav (ah ded tih mateyik. 
The father has became mad and the mother also baa become 


A kingdom or city in a wratohed plight. 

Poriog a certaia fciog's reign the goda determined that the people 
ehoald become mad from drinking the ordioajry naCer. Now the 
king's wazir being versed in astt-olog; discgvored this matter cmd at 
once told the king of it privately- "O, king," said he, "after one 
month all yoor subjents will loee their reason from drinking the 
water of the ooantry." " What shall we do ?" said the king, " that 
■we two, at all events, may be saved." "Proonre water at once," 
replied the wazir, " and store it np in skins," The king did so, and 
the tesnlt was that at the time appointed, when all the people were 
raving mad. he and the wazir were perfectly aana- It happened, ' 
however, that the whole oonntry being qnite beyond governing, the 
people were mnrdering one another and doing the most atrange 
acts. At length some determined to slay the king and bis wazir, 
and BO in order to save tbemselvea these two also drank of the 
diseased water and became mad. Than it was that the father and 
mother were mad, and the above saying was first spoken. 

Persian — Ab-i-diwdnasi. 
Babah netkar zik kaiMn gaut. 
O father, let me be married tbi moment. 

Babam BitUn kati. 
Babam Rishi's child (i.e., disciple). 

A stupid fellow. 

This good saint's followers were most ^orant and stnpid people. 
People gave alms to them only for the sake of their saint and leader. 

Biham Rishi died aboat the year 1474 a. i>. His shrine, and a 
convent attached to it, lie on the road from Biramula to Gnlraarg, 
and are amongst the richest, as well as the moat frequented, places of 
pilgrimage in the valley. 



The Bts^ts iDuBt not be confocnded with the Bialiia, a seet of 
Hahammedan poBsantE, nor with the seren Bishis (also Rikhig), or 
anciant Sind& sagea, Vaahiahta and othetB. They are HahaminedaDB, 
and did not many or eat meat, or show thenmelves to men aa BSabtat 
bat need to wander abont the jnogles, and by the highways, and live 
on whatsoever they might find. Now, however, cnetome have 
chai^^ with the timee, and the troe HuhammedBn tells yon with 
sorrowful countenance, that thore ia not one real Rlsht in the country, 
and has not been aince Akbar's days, when large land and honsa 
property were given to thtsso people, and they became spoiled and 
got worse and worse, until now they are so degenerated as to some- 
times marry and eat flesh and amass money, and do otiier things 
equally, and even more, contrary to the spirit and pattern of t^ir 
predeoesaors in olden days. Abu'l Fazl in his book remarlci that ia 
Akbar's time " the moat respectable people of Kashmir were tha 
Hishia, who though they did not suffer themselToa to be fettered with 
traditions, were donbtlese worshippers of Ood. They did not revile 
any sect, or ask anything of any one. Ihey planted the roads with 
fmit trees to fnmish the traveller with refreshment," Ac The 
Muhammedana believe that it was in reaponae to these holy Eiabb' 
interceaaions that Akbar was thrice defeated by the Chak kings, 
when he attempted to take the oountry. According to their accoont, 
also, a fakir called Khwije Uwys waa the founder of this sect ; and 
he lived during Mohammed's life time at Eumn, a little TiUa^ 
of Yemen in Arabia; and that the Prophet woald never march 
to this place becaoae a savonr of holiness went up thenoe on account 
of thia holy fakir's residing there with hia mother. 

There were abont two thoneand Eishia in Kashmir daring Akbar's 
time. Now-a-days there are perhaps five thousand, hut they are not 
revered by the more educated and respectable Muhammedana in 
the valley. Of. Col. Yule's "Travela o£ Marco Polo," Vol. I., p. 179. 

Saehhih aaih ardmah ki''Uak tnachMh Urunaa ! 

If there should be a Httk rice-water on the edge of the fire- 
place how many flies will congregate to it ! 
VH nwl, t6i opes. 

Jinehih dod eKkuh laehih dod. 

A child's pain is a hundred thousand paius. 

Badai sir b&uiun chhuh b^bik andar taruf rackhun. 
A wicked man may as well place a snake in bis bosom as tell 
out his secrets j (he dare not do it). 

Badis ckhai badia naxar. 

High looks to a great man (but not to a mannikiu). 



Badit ^\or tal marunjiin tak luHi nah >h/mda» pilK. 

It ia better to die under the foot of a great man, than upon 

the shoulder of a man of Bmall degree. 

Better to be an oarl'B alavs than to go partner with a small shop- 

B&gUt bog tak ttinik tok. 

^After receiving his) share in the distribution of the dinner 

(he asked for) a dish for his grandmother. 

A greed;, imBatisfied, fellow. 
Bahlol, jandah, tak kathk&l. 
Bahlol, a ragged habit, and an alms-bowl, 

A very poor man. 

Bahlol waa a genuine folcfr. Aocordmg to mj informant, he was ft 
brother of All Hard&n Kb^, goTemor of Kashmir nnder Sh&h Jahftn, 
Bboat 1350 A.D., but ha did not care for the pomp and show of 
palace life, aod so laid aside the court dreaa for the iandah and 

Thia rolnntar^ fakir life of one so high in learning and position 
was not pleasing to the governor, or to his ministers and attendants ) 
and Tarioas devices were resorted to for getting Bahlol to aooept 
Home diatingnished office in the service of the State. At last tliej 
socceaded, and Bahlol was appointed Depntj-Inepoctor. All 
things went happilj for a while, until one daj it happened that in 
the course of bis office Bahlol had to ascertain whether the bnnkors', 
baniyas', and others' weights were correct or not ; and while fnlfilling 
this duty he diecovemd so much diatreas and frand and trickery, &o., 
that ha determined to know no more of it, went back quickly to 
bis hoose, and doffed the grand dress of a Depnty-Inapector for 
the jandah kasbk&l and the fakir life again. 

" Bajih matMdih hindyav thamao, yut leilhavp&ih witiwah?" 

" Pananih setarah." 

" How did the pillars of the great mosque get here t" 

" By their own strsightness." 

The way to accomplish a difficult work. 

The roof of the cloister anrrounding the open square in the centra 
of the great mosqoe in Srtnagar is supported by wooden pillars, each 
formed of a single deodir tree about thirty feet high, and resting 
apon a plain atone base. There are three rows upon the north, 
south and west sides, but only two on the east aide. 
Bajih mashidih tjati/d hunj nerit ? 
" Will the corner of the great mosque tumble out ?" 

The whole country or concern is not going to ruin, simply beoauaa 
" So and-8o" has died. There are plenty as good and clever as he to 
proaecute the work. 


Bal^tat bud ckhik khidmatgur. 
Uuderstandiag is butler to auccesa. 

hulak korih toalanai. 
DishoDour to a beloved daughter 

A terrible wrong. 

Baldi dir tah Ichair kahU. 

May misfortune be far from yoa and prosperity nigh. 
A Kashmiri blesaiog. 

Bali touekhithai aaU wmhtah d/idi dithmak kundaluC. 
O woman, you have plaited your hair very nicelyt but I see 
you always a kundal. 

Fine oloChea do not make the lady. 

Kiindtd is the inner earthenware part of a kSingar, the Kashmir 
portable fire-place. The outer part is generally of very prelt; 
basket-work, nhioh ooDCeala the kundal'a faults. 

Binak halas dizih tk/inak hat tah itah Aatoi hyak dizih ? 
A hundred covers for a hundred vessels, but what shall be 
given (to stop) a hundred mouths. 

B'.'no* andar nar lah dina» andar har. 

Arm in the pot (for serving out food) and wood under the 
oven (for cooking it). 

Fanjoibi. — Ban Ian Cuhida ghio hich raiaha hai. 

Sand bandaa mangih, 6gah hedur tah naukar shunffih. 

For one acquaintance, or relation, to aak from anotlier, is like 

a master awake, whilst his servant sleeps (i.e., the one is 

as much a matter of shame as the other). 

Band kus ? Zih ckandah. 

Who is (your) friend ? (Your) pocket. 

Bdngit ehhek h&ng dapun. 

It is the work of the biugih to cry the bing. 

Another version ie : — 
Bingia ehhiti bung dapuai malih Jcih nah nek attini ? 
Is the b&ngih to call the bdng, or to bring the people (to 

prayer) % 

Every man to his own work. 

£4n9 is the Mohammedaa call to prayera. 


B^ipMeh kul ehhai tudarah Mia ^ov hUh, yut tjunahaa tt/at 

A tradesman'a ahop is like an earthenware vessel, as much 

as is put into it, so much is got out of it. 

Tradesmen are freqneatlj bankers, also, in Kashmir. 

Bar dit aehh iovranik. 

To shut the door and put on a terrifying look. 

A coward. 

Bar dit khar natji'in. 

The &aB shuta the door and dancea. 

A man very spirited and taS oC words in his own hooHO, bat ont< 
side he does nothing. 
This is also a Kashmiri riddle, of whiah the answer is, a, mill-stone. 

Battah fshunit mil hhahirAyih mandachhun. 
To wear sheep'a skin and be ashamed of its rustling. 
Don't be fts)i»med of joor real position. 

Battih tin daker. 

Three sera with the skin. (The swindler had weighed the 

skin in as well). 

A. swindle. 

Baiah badt/os chdnih tah garah z'inai nah toatk, 
I am the better because of your dinner, but I do not know 
the way to your house. 

Hopes nnfolStled. 

In hope of reoeiTinft aomethii^ from jaa I hare contracted a debt 
here and there, bnt now I perceive that I hoped in vain ; so hence- 
forth I ahall not know the way to jaax hotuw {i.e., will not see jou). 

" Batah, batah," tah ptyMak palah. 

Having no food and a peon after you (because of some debt). 
Great distress. 

Batah dag ehhai K&rtiJan »dmh daff. 

Earning one's living is (aa hard to bear) as the pain of hoar- 
frost in the month of October. 

Natives suffer terribly in their feet from walking oat earl; OD a 
trostj October morning. 

Batah gajih ruhun. 

As garlic upon the hearth of a Pandit (so your presence is to 


Hindus of the valhy will not toaoh gnrlio (or oniotm). Theie are 
eat«o odIj b; the Mohammedans. Eindlia say that their ancsBtora 
would not eat them because of their aphrodisiac effects, which the; 
did not wish to experience, as they had devoted themgelTea to 

Balah par dan. 

To behead another with hoapitality. 

To heap coals of fire on on enemy's head. 
Balah gam gratfah. 
The Hindu is a mill. 

Muhammedans qnote this jestii^ly of their Hindi neighbours. 

Batah lelis chhik pelhah kaniA wucAin. 

Mea look into the rice-pot from the top part (to judge 

whether the food is cooked properly or not). 

Men are judged b; their apeeoh. 

Batah Ittkharih kir tahpWmah kujih shrak. 

A head from the portion of rice, and a knife from the onion 

There was a very holy man, who prayed auto God for justice. 
He had too high an opinion of himaelf to ask for grace also. " Only 
give ma my deserts," he aaid, " and I shall fare all right." 

Thia good man once dined with a friend, and according to cnstom 
placed the remainder of Ma dinner within his ts^dar, or wrap. 
On the way home it happened that the rice and vegetables were 
changed into a human head and a knife, both of which were saturat- 
ed with blood, that dropped upon the road as he walked along. A 
policeman noticed this, and at once enquired what was in the 
ts^ar. The holy man without any hesitation opened ont his wrap, 
and, lo t there was a human head and a knife. 

Of course the poor man was immediately marched oS to the 
prison-house. On the neit day the comii was assembled and the 
prisoner brought forth. The eicitement was intense. 

The case waa tried, and the whale evidence waa against the man . 
The judge considered mach and long, but at last, finding no way by 
which he could possibly acqnit the prisoner, he was about to pro- 
nounce the sentence of death upon him, when there came from 
beaveu the sound of a voice saying, " The man is not guilty, let him 

Ever afterwards this good man asked for grace also, when be 

Batah misHn, nah duny& tah nah din. 

The poor Hindii has neither the world nor religion. 

The MohammedanB quote thia saying. 


Bttah mod skenhih. 

The Pandit died from hesitation. 

Ohm upon a time ft Pandit and a BfuhammedaD wore travellmg 
together. In the middle of the way ran a ewift stream which they 
had to wade. The MahammadBn crosEed at once withont the slight- 
est liesitaitiim ; but the Faadit cried oat : " Stop, atop, let nie first 
look at 1DJ Nechi-puter to see whether it is an anspiciona time for 
metocroseor not" He consulted the kaJondar and discovered that 
it iras not a good time. However, as be had to travel a long distance, 
and the da^ wan already far spent, he dared to step into the waKra t 
arid commenced to wade. Bnt when he had reached the middle <^ 
the Stream his heart failed him, and his legs began to tremble, so thnt 
he fellj was carried away, and dashed abont by the fierce waters, and 

Batttk nah tah haiii chkit nak tnk atlii. 
No food in the house, yet he wishea for sugar ; not even a 
ragged cloth to his back, yet he vrishea for satin. 

A poor man with great desires. 

B'ttah p/ivrik tal ehhek aitah Ickir gaib. 
Beneath hHlf-a-pouad of rice a fehdr (lbs. 192) of ain ig 

Biohes cover a mnltitQde of Bins. 

Batai batah Hwek batak. 

One Pflndit with another Pandit is like a monntain-crow. 

It one orow cawa the whole flock oaws. If one Pundit ii in diffi- 
Cnlty, all tbe Pandits take np the case, &c. 

Batat bod dok tah pAi'hak ; 

Mu»alm/ina» bod dok tak ihrhkah; 

R/iJinas bod dok tah b£kak. 

On his big day the Hiodd fasts ; 

On his hig day the Huhamniedan feasts ; 

On his big day the Shi'a weeps. 

Balas Ued Miualmina» yad, tak rifizas hud. 

To the Hindi! endurance, to the Musalm^n (i.e., the Slin() 

stomach, and to the Sh{'a weeping. 

in allnaion to the Hindi's much faating, to the BAnl's eating 
capacity, and to the profonnd lamentation of the Sbl'a during the 
days of the Mnharram, when be commemorate* the death of 'Alt, 
Haaan and Husain. 



Batav andarah foth kyah, lih takar ? 

Eotoarih andarah loth hyah, iik hahar ? 

Among dishes which ia the fttTourite F Tahnr. 

In the wife's house who is the favourite 1 Brother-in-law, 

Ttthar — a kind of boiled rioe coloured witt tnrmerio. 

Biit^an ha tak jiutalen puzn. 

For the family distress, but for the idols an offering. 
Choritj begins at liome. 

"BffytA myiinih kalandarai ; 

Tih nerih tih nerih hMlah andarai." 

" tAj brother monk, what will come, will come from the 

harvest " (i.e., will be the result of honest toil). 

The goda give everjtliing tor labour- 
it 'fzt^arof ekh&k b6xigara». 
A deceiver deceives faimsetf. 

Be-dkl nah IsanA tah garah patah kah leak. 
" Not one ignoraot man ? " — Why there are eleren in every 
house {i.e., the world is full of such people). 

Oe mOTide eifpletn de/oug. 

SS&ih andar vh/inn tak atha* kel ta»h(k. 
The ooose (of the eiecutiouer's rope) under the arm, and the 
rosary in the hand. 

Uind]ittAni. — fl4tA man tcuUh, aur ba^al m«n phdhH. 

Beehdn tak ffuris khaHt ! 
Bef^ng and riding upon a horse I 
A proud beggar. 

Becka»a» h&nak Jdmuni. 

The beggar's pot (in which be collected food) is broken. 

The last straw gone. 

'Be-haydha3 tharm dur. 

To the sbameless shame is distant, 

Be-h'r ehhuk bemSr. 

The unemployed, or idle man, is sick. 

Be-Ur chktth waMH har darbi'T. 

An unemployed man visits every darbdr. 


Be-hdras chhik Irah Mr. 

To the idle nmn there are three works (viz,, sleeping, qnar- 

relliDg, flnd eKting ). 
Bemah haharav ehhuk sah in^rmut. 
Two killed a lion (between them). 
Union ia strength. 

The titte ib, that a, aistar's hnahand and a wife's hrothar, vrho are 
natm-aU; the grealflst enemies to one another, were walking along 
together one daj, when a lion chanced to cross their path. They did 
. not mn away, bat each stood his ground firmlj, and baoked-np the 
other, and the result was that bj their nnited efforts the lioa waa 

Be-tnilat ailah. 

Cardamoms for the man, who is not hungry. 

** BemSro 4s kyut ehhut T" " Nah tmh tdh nak mudur." 

" O, sick peraon, how ia your mouth ?" " Neither bitter nor 

The answer ia equivalent to oar English reply, "0, thank yon, I'm 

Se-mttrawat mahttyvv ehhui ean ; phaMri ia-tamah rakxan. 
An unmanly fellow is a woman, and Br courteous fakir is a 

Be-iunmb chkuh dapAn " Meh euhmb nak ianh- " 
The unequal man says " 1 have not an equal "; (but the 
really great man thinks himself less than Uie least). 

Bhfik tund aminat chhtU hhdrawAnuk ndrah tungul hyuA. 
Another's belongings in your charge ia like a live coal from 
the blacksmith's shop. 

Bipih «und dod cKhul be-m6ne ; 

Tag aihit banih tai sul zdne. 

Another's pain is without meaning. 

Only he, who sufTera it, knows what it is like, 

" It ia impossible for any man to form a right jndgment of his 
neighbour's suifering." — Addison. 

Bichii pandttti, " Wandat Jcunah ehkuk nebar nerin ? 
Vupattdk, " Relah kilih Icyah kurum Mttl ? Haradu lanat 



Somebody said to the scorpion, " Why do you not come out 

in the winter V He replied, " What did I get in the spring- 
time ? " Both times alike are a curse to me. 

Either miserable oneielf or making others miseraible 

The acorpion lives under the ground daring the winter nod speada 

a mieerable time of it, according; to the natireBj and when he doea 

conte Cortli from hts temporary gMve, it is only to give tronble to 

A translation from the Gnlistin : — Oaj-dAim rd guftand ki " Ohird ba 

BflmisWn ?" " Birom na mtiyt gvfi; lia idpiiianam efii hurmatast ?" 

BimpmairihSk lr£wm. 

Sitting down iu one's chair at home and throwing oat a flame. 

Every cook crows londest on his own dunghill, 
Sihehioani Uarik. 
A sitting sparrow. 

On probation. 

The sparrow must keep a good look-ont, or some boy with a 
eaterpanlt, or perhaps s, cat, will notioe it and kill it. 

Bihit wmniponi lolyi/ 

Will the grocer sit and weigh water? 

Nothing better to doP 
Bikh manffdn tak pul rang&n. 
Asking for alms and dyeing hia coat. 

A helpless man's wish. 
Bir Balan purutj Akbarai, " Jangak mzik Jcyah nlab ? " 
Dupanas " Yih brohtkah peyih." 

Bi'r Bal asked Akbar, "What weapons they should fight 
with, when the time for fighting arrived?" He replied, 
" Whatever you find at hand," 

Blr Balanih korih parutj Akbar ptidthrihan, " Kyah 
maknyw} chhuA paraiin?" Dupanaa, " Diad chhud dud 

Akbar, the king, asked Bfr Bal's daughter, " Can a man 
give birth to a child t " She replied, " Can an ox give 

A Boland for an Oliver. 

Bir Bal was Akbar's great minister. The Mnbammedan ministers 
hated him and tried to get rid of him. Bfr Bal was often punished 
on acconnt of what they said. One da; a Mohammedan minister 
said to Akbar : " Will your Majeaty please get some bullock's milk 
from Bir Bal." Akbar promised that he would give the order, and 

on the tolloiring momii^ there was the paper aigned and HeAle<] by 
the king, spread ou6 before Bir Bal, orderiag him to procure some 
bullock's milk irithin fifteen days, or else die. Bir Bal naa over- 
whelmad with fear and aBtonishment. The miniater'K daughter aeaJiiK 
her father in this wretclied. state at once doTiBed a gchenie. She 
went off straight to the butcher's shop, and there soaked her tBlidar, 
or wrap, in some blood lying about, and then went and washed it in 
the pare of the river opposite the king's palace. Akbar noticing 
this, enquired the reason of the blood. She replied : " Ho, I have 
not murdered any one ; but yesterday Bir Bal was delivered of a 
child in the house." Akbar said : " Can a man bear a ohild" ? The 
girl answered : " Can a bullook give milb f" 

Bir Bal was exalted to still greater honor and power on account of 
this shrewdnesa of his daughter. 

Beoders will probably be disgusted at the ridionlouanesa of this 
Bbory, but at Baale so late as tbo fifteenth oentnrj great excitement 
was oansed by the announcement that a cock had laid an egg. I 
may be pardoned, pethapa, tor quoting the following trom "Oham- 
beiVs Book of Days" ! — 

'' At Basle, in 14T4, a oook was tried for having laid an egg. For 
the prosecution it was proved that oooks' eggs were of inestimable 
value for miiiiig in oertoin niagical proparations ; that a sorcerer 
would rather possess a oook's egg than be master of the philosopher's 
atone ; and that in Pagan lands Satan employed witches to hatch 
suoh e^s, from which proceeded animals most injarioos to all of 
the Ohruitian faith and raoe. The advocate for thedofenoe admitted 
the fiuita of the ease, but asked what evil animals had been proved 
against his client, what injnry to man or beast had it effected ? 
Besides, the laying of the egg was an involuntary act, and as such, 
not panishable by law. If the crime of sorcery were imputed, tho 
cock was innocent ; for thera was no instance on record of Satan 
having made a compact with the bmte creation. In reply, the 
Public Prosooator alleged that, though the devil did not make com- 
pact with brutes, ha sometimes entered into them ; and though the 
swine possessed by devils, as mentioned in Scripture, vrere involun- 
tary agents, yet they nevertheless were punished by being oansed 
to run down a steep plaoa into the sob, and so perished in the 
waters. The pleadings in this case, even as recorded by Hammer- 
lein, are volamlnons { we only give the mei^re ontlinoa of the prin- 
cipal pleas ; suffice it to aay, the oook was condemned t^i death, not 
as a cock, bat as a sorcerer or devil in the form of a. cock, and was 
with its egg bomed at the stake, with all the doe form and solem- 
nity ot a judicial punishment." 

Bir Balun kal. 
B!r Bal's ram. 

One day in reply to some n 


clsrer taan, and worthy of the confidenee, which I hiiTe in bim 
BhoJl 1 prove to you his wisdom ani1 shrPwdiieEiB ? Cnll all the 
Tninisters." Akbar then gave to each minister a ram, and ordered 
them to feed each his ratn for the space of two montha. and to take 
care that at the sad of that period, they shoald not be heavier or 
lilfhter than they were then tiC that moment. He also caused the 
Dame of each minister and the weight of his ram to be written 

Bir Bal took bis ram and fed it in the aenal way, but oonatantlj 
lept d dog near it. The conseqaence was that the poor ram from 
very fear did not become any fatter ur thinner, bat was altogether 
in ttdt'i, quo at the end of the allotted time. Some of the other 
ministers ^ave their rams grass in the mnrtunj<, and not atniKht; 
and Bome ted their rams one day and not theneitday ; and in various 
other ways they tried to keep them in I be same condition ; bat at the 
end of the two nionth»i, when all the ministers and their rama were 
^^in assembled before Akbar, only BIr Bal'a ram was found to be the 
right weight. "Did I not telt you," said the king, "that he was wiser 
and better than yon all ? " 

'■ Bit Bai't raiK." These words are quoted, when any person coun- 
teracts whatever Kood he may have done, by performing some evil 
work, t-g., a Kashmiri would cite these words against a man who 
was especially liberal to a servant one day, and flogged him severely 
in a fit of temper on the following da;. 
Bilhi* giUak diy'ir. 
Moaejr for cutting grasa to nn idle man. 

W^es to a servant, who has very iittle work. 
Sod at •'liA mtdui fotik ekhuh bod*i. 
If a great man becomes half (i.e., comes down in the world) 
still he is great. 

toriUna nJa miitat ginni. 

Bod hadikjiigir kadik ; aup badik tah tup kidih. 

If a man of good family becomes great, he will give pensions 
in knd (to the people) ; but if an ignoble mwa becomes 
great, he will take out the very hairs of their heads. 

Bod himar kitrhak 7 zik modyav. 

" Who made you a great man ?" " Death " (i.e.. Relations 
died and left you their position and money). 

Persian. — ICasna mdnaddnTsaTi moah gardad iat-Khiidd. 

Bod mgund gaUhik khyun tah had kalh gaUhih tvih 

You must eat a big mouthful, but you mustu't do much 

work. (Uh, no!) 

Spoken ■arcsatically to a Uiy dependant. 


Boi gav hxni binih gayik thani. 

Brother is (hard like) a stone, and siater is (soft as) butter. 
Bor chkuk jahannamuh por. 
A b^den is one of hell's storeys. 

This Baying is rather gainst the idea that (he coolie tliiDkB hia 
load B trifle. 

Sozit znr tak dUhit un. 
Be as the deaf man hearing and the blind man seeing. 

A little pateroal advice to a child—" Be as if yon bad heard and 
seen nothing." 
Sragas dapyak, " Tantk ehhai haj. " Vupanak, " Nah tak 

hyah ekhum syud ?" 
They said to the heron, " Your bill is crooked." He replied, 

" Am I not all crooked ?" 

Bhojpiirf. — "flonauci ns ttln terh Tcahe?" " Ato wpni jiautt M." 

Br/iri hindi gyav kkenah ekhwn tuih lagan tyai,y4l briri 

kindi lut gilakwanah. 
1 am not so angry at the cat eatjng the gh(, as I am at her 

shaking her tail. 

" 'TwaB not the loss that I minded bo mach as the man's nideneia 

Feraiaa.— Zi roghan khia-dane gurbana ndlam, zi dum jumUdanash 
dahufta halam. 

Briri hund Hal hyah, athih nah yiw/in k',hsih. 
Like the secuadine of a cat, no one can get it. 

A man horo, there, and evorywhere — no finding him. 

Hindus think that whoever aitccoodB in obtaining the after-birth of 
a oat will become esceedingly rich and prosperonK. Only three or four 
porsons in the whole city have been known to get it, and they all are 
very wealthy. As soon as this precious treasure is obtained it is pat 
into ajar well covered over and kept in the hoose. Blessed are the 
people iu whose dwellii^ it is placed. 

The cat's moon. 

'' Such excitement, as that I coald not sleep or <!o anything." 
Natives say that cats are fond of the moon, and got more and more 
excited as she inoreaaes. They remain ont all the night and disturb 
the whole neighbourhood with their shrieks and depredations. 

I'he London Hei'iew says ! —The Egyptians worshipped the oat as 
a symbol of the moon, not only because it is more active after 
sunset, but from the dilation and oontractioo of its orb, Bymlielical 
uf the waxing and waning of the iiigbt-goddess. 



Briiris na& " bUhtah, " lah Aunts naA " durah ;" tyut ehhuh 

He hns not even a " bJshtah" for the cat, nor a " durah" for 

the dog — so good is he ! 
He would not hurt a worm. 
Bisft(o'i 19 a Bonnd for driving away catH. 
Ihirah is & sound for driving away doga. 

Brurisai pakaA yekan saran ronahan nah pachkin. 

If the cat grew wings, the water-fowl could not live ia the 

A onnning tjracmoal fellow checked from doing much harm bj 
siokiieBS OT poverty, &c. 

Persian- — Garba e miskin agar par ddihle, iukhm i ganjishk aa 
jahiin bardtiehte. 

Brimjih chhuiitih Walur pr'aun ! 

Sweeping away the waters of the Walur Lake with the 
branches of the Brimij ! 

Prendre la lime avec !es dents. 

To beat the cat. 

PuuT encov-rager tee an (res. 

Tirhuti.— DJi( radnin pv.toh le faros. 

A father on the OQcasioa of his son's marriage gave him a little 
special advice. " You are going to be married, my son ; and you will 
wiah that your wife Bhonld be quiet and submiesivs to yon in all 
matters. Follow the advice, which I now give you. Procure a cat, 
and one night after your marriage BO arrange that the auimal shall 
be in the sleei>iiig room at the time, whon yuu and your wife retire 
to rest. Ton will go to the room as usual, and on entering it you 
will pretend to be very much surpriBod and annoyed that the cat, 
should be found there, and you will draw your sword at once ami 
slay it. Year wife, of course, will be terribly frightened, and from 
the sight of the slain cat, and a hint from you thut she will fare 
likewise if she ia not very careful over horaolf, you may depend 
upon it that she will be the proper, dutiful wife thai she should be." 

Bror wttckkit gaUhih " bishtak " khamn. 
When he sees a cat, he must cry " bishtah." 

" Why don't you say this baCorc tho msn's face P What is the 
good of (hrouteiiiug him, when he is absent i"' 

Buchih jihukarik lah nindarih pathur. 
Burnt bread for the hungry and the bare ground for sleep. 
Appetite is the beat sauce and tiredness the best bed. 


Buchu hani m-'.z halul. 

It is lawful for n hungry mnn to eat the 6esh of a dog. 

SecBfitai nan hahet ligtnt. 
Budak aahah mohari m,«s/iai. 
An old man's love ia worth a guinea a pinch. 

Sliiihali, a pincti (of BnaB or tobacco, Ac.) 
BudtA h'Wah jugak jugah. 
Dancing an old crow (on the hand). 

FussEnf; about anyChii^ dnwortli;. 
Bvdan tiih tolcalSn hum khidniat g'tjkth nah Jiaruiti. 
Do not enter the service of the old or the young (Iwcansc 

the old will soon die, nnd the young do not rememher). 
Biidun tah wadun ; iwdKn tah maskun ; hidun tah naskun. 
To become old and to cry ; to become old and forget ; to 

become old and decay. 

" Yet is their atrength labour and Borrow."— Fa. ic. 10. 
Sukogunaf ckhik bah gitan. 
The Buhoguii has twelve attributes. 

Buhuijuii or Bhog'in ia a small braien Tessel, with a wide mootb. 

In it the \ea is maile, rice ia cooked, ghf ia prepared, Ac. 

Bujik butAia kanahwi'jih. 

Earrings upon the face of an old woman. 
" An old lady with a hat on I" 

Bajih gabik ehheh tiUan kaman ba»tan nin aM.n. 

The old ewe takes salt out of the skin of a weak sheep. 
It is the custom to carry salt, Hour, &c., about in akius. Salt ib 

constantly given to animnls. 

Bujih gayih tsil teu I'.v hit. 

An old woman tumbled down, and she ^t excused. 
A person TuU of escuaea. 

(; adah gayih phut hit. 
apple under the tree, and after- 
wards she (always) went (to that tree) with a basket 

Give once, and they always export j and very oftan eipoct more. 
Bvjih nyut bar lami nyuv mashidih hand. 
An old woman's door was taken away ; so she went and 
took the door of the moscfue. 

It is a hnbit of the Kaahmiri tradesman to make up lot bia losaes 
by plundering othei 



Bujih tah brdrih Uuweyih har tah wanakin hdpatan 

is'':T/ih Idr. 
An old woman and a cat fought nith one another, and fear 
came upon the bears of the wood, 

Ponishment visited upon the wrong persona. 

There via,s a. poor old helpless womaii, who naed to beg for her 
food b7 day and oook it at night. Butf of this food she would eat 
in the morning and the other half in the STeaing. After a while a 
cat got to know of this arrangement and came and ate the meal 
for her. This old woman was very good and patient, and so she 
coutinaed for many days without saying or doing anything to the 
thief. Bat one night bIib could not endnre the cat's impndence, and 
BO laid hold of it. She argued with herself as to whether she should 
kill it or not. " If 1 slay it," she said, ■■•■—■-- ^ ,. . - . 
retain it alive, it will be to my heavy loBB. 
mined to only punish it. She procured sr 
oil, and soaking the one in the other tied it on to the oat's tail, and 
then sot it od fire. Away rushed the cat across the yard — np the 
side of the window — and opon the roof, where its flaming tail ignited 
the thatch, and set the whole house on fire. The flames spread to 
the other honsos, nutil after » short time the whole village was in 
one mighty blase. The news spread far and wide, and the governor of 
the city sent the soldiers ; but they only increased the damage by 
Bhouting and in other ways exciting the people, so that they ran abont 
wildly, not knowing what they were doing j and many received very 

The governor, who now had reached the villa^, seeing these poor 
enfferers, at the advice of the doctor, ordered the soldiers to march 
at once for the jnngle and kill as many bears as they could, and 
bring their fat to him ; for the doctor had said, that if for the 
space of two days bear's grease were applied to the bnrns, they 
would perfectly heal. The soldiers were rather afraid to venture 
their lives iti this work, and not a few of them ran away, when they 
saw the bears. The score or so who kept their gronnd were slain ; 
and one poor fellow, whilst dying, epobe the above words, whioh 
have long since passed into a proverb. 

Eventually many bears were stain. Hence the bears as well as 
the poor soldiers were Itilledr and all becanse of the quarrel between 
the old woman and the cat. 

Buhchik haldl tah h'-r hari'm. 
Bundle lawful, but cowrie prohibited. 
Straining at a gnat, but swallowing a camel. 

SuJrkfU-i gnyih nusur-i-l.h-'-na. 

The fire-place ia the ulcer of the house {i.e., eats up the 
expenses, aad sometimes burns the whole place down). 



Buthdn, a fire-place in shape like oar English «tove, bni1t of dried 
mad, and naad only by the tow waalthior classoa for warminfi; the 
hoQBo. bnt never tor cooking purpoaea. Wood only ia burot in ths 

Bumaiinui zdnih mtuti <unz dig. 
The norm will know the pecking of the lapwing. 
Bun hun wjiekkil tmn hv.n nazar. 

(Apparently) looking below, but (really) seeing in every 

A ahrend, caretal maater. 
Buth wuekhit bog tah tsakij wuchhit i^'.hgij. 
The face sees the dinner and the backside sees the tgangij . 

B«i*ni clique trtbutto. 

Tsdhgij is a round piece ot matting foe aquatting upon. 
Bait bust gAdah hkew'n oirtumas mH. 
He cooks his fish by the sun and eats. 

A man go fall of himself, that he listens to nobody. 

Buxwn bror kdmuni, kakan garan kunl tkov, buzun brm- 

A cat for roasting is obtniued with difficulty; only one frying- 
pan for eleven houses; a cat for roasting is obtained with 

Hard times. 

Theae words are said to have been first apoken in the time of 
'Ailm KhSn. one of the old Pafhnn conquerors, whoac reign of ternir 
and oppreaaion will long be remembered in the valley- The Hinitua 
are especially bitter against hia memory, as he used to line tlieni ao 
much a head, and ao muoh extra for the tikj, the religious mark, 
which they wear on their foreheada. 


Chili bam ifi yiU lekin iaU. 

It Joes not matter whether the tea is less or more, but it 

must be hot. 

Two fcinda of tsa, and two waya of preparing it, are met with in 
the valley. There is the Siirati chai, something tike our English 
tea, which is imported from the Panj&b and Ladalc ; and the 8abi 
ektU, the celebrated brick tea, which reaches Kashmir iriii Ladik. The 
liret way of preparation is called the Haghol method. Mvgul chdi. 
Here ia the I'ooeipt ; — For BTerj tola or mpee'a weight of tea in the 
pot put five cnpa of cold water, boil for half -an -hoar, then add 
more oold water ti^ther with angar and condiments, and allow to 
boil for another half-oa-hcar. Then add milk, atir well, and serve 
round hot to the gaesta ad lihilum. The second modus preparandi 
ia caUed Shiri clidi, of which this iathe recipe: — Place the required 
qnantity in the tea-pot together with a little soda and cold water 
and boil for balf-an-hoor. Then add milk, salt, and butter, and 
allow to boil for another half- an-bonr, when it ia ready for drink- 
ing. The aalt need in the infusion of tea is called phal. It ia found 
in the Nubra valley in Liid»k, and contains the carbonate and salphate 
of soda, and a little of the* chloride of sodium. 

Ckahih-lthor ekkuh mir't-dtW. 

An old servant is an heir {i.e., you must make some provision 

for his old age). 
Ch/.ni bar'indah ham chkai nah »ei. 
Your doorstep ia not straight. 

Something wrong with the wife. 

I'here were two friends, one of whom was wise and the other 
foolish. Upon a certain day, as they were strolling along the same 
path together, the wise man remarked to bia leas acute companion 
that his " doorstep was not straight." Xhe stupid friend replied in a 
somewhat aggrieved tone, " Why, my doorstep is as straight as youis. 
I paid five rapeea for it. Toura is a common stoue. Why do yoa 
boast over me that ' yourdoorstep is not straight ?' " The wise man 
noticing that his friend was a little disconcerted offered to waive the 
ac^nmenti antil they both should ascertain for themselves the truth 
of hia statement. After some few daya the vriae friend took the other 
friend to hia dwelling ; and no sooner had he arrived there then with 
a voice of authority he ordered his wife to bring down a melon from 
the upper Btomy of the honae, and to get some milk as well. Thia 
done he farther commanded her to throw some ashes into the milk. 
The good wife without any qaeationing either by speech or look at 


once obeyed. The sage then said to his friend, " I wonder if jonr 
wife will do what nij wife has done, as readily and nnqnestioninglj 7" 
The fooliBh friend anawered, " Come and see." 

The two friends then went together to the honse of the fooliah 
mRn, who on arriral. like the other man, ordered his wife to go to 
the top of the dwelling and bringdown a melon and to bring aomn 
milk also ; and to sprinkle some ashes over the milk, Bnt he issued 
Lis order in a doabting, trembling manner, a» was also manifest in 
his conntenance. He evidently had not been accastomed lo mle in 
his homo ; hU wife had rather waved the sceptre of authority. 
ConBeqnently at this time, as on manj' other oocasiona, which 
were well, known to the dwellere, in the neighbourhood, 
ebe most decidedly refused. "Why, I cannot; I will not," 
■he said. "Qo and bring it down," roared the husband. At last 
the woman was frightened into obedience But there were farther 
remouBt rations before the milk appeared. " I do not know why 
you are giving me all this trouble," she cried, " why don't yon 
go yonrself ?" The foolish man now tried entreaties, and at length 
all the things were brooght. Some more time was wasted before 
the woman, weeping very bitterly, threw the a«hes into the milk, 
her only consolation being the thonght that her hnaband had 
become mad. 

The trial being now concluded the two friends put on their shoes 
and walked out of the house. When they got outside, the wise friend 
said to the other, " Was I not aorreot when I told you that your 
dooretep was not straight f " 

Chinia dah/'na» guUb. 
May rosea be to your month. 
A nice reply to any nice remark made by another, 

Chinit Mktts ehkuh nekpi'.lc dinuk hi'jal. 
There is no need to cook your cabbage. 

" Now, don't talk nonsense. 1 am certain yon oau not, and will 
not, do what you say !" 

Ckayik tak Uyih gaUkih augMn itun, 

A flame is necessary for cooking (both) tea and Indian com. 

Tea here stands for the great man and Indian com for the man of 
small degree. Flame here means money, which all olassee need 
according to their rank. 

I'ho Kashmiris say " Twruni chat lah Idi chheh nah IthSnas Idik," 
i.e.. Tea and roasted Indian com are not worth eating cold. 

Chkalanak mat ehhud atgdn leih nah nerdit ? 
Does dirt come or go by washing? 

Does knowledge come from stiidyiug or not, Ac? 



Ckhunah kij. 

The carpenter's wooden nail, 

A carpenter was onoe in very straitened circnmatanoeB and obliged 
to Bell hia little house. After he had disposed of it. and alth<mgh 
the bujer was living in it, the carpenter went every evening when 
his work waa over, and hanged his wrap upon a wooden peg, which 
was fixed over the front door. He did this for ten days, when the 
owner of the house remonstrated, saying that the house was his. 

The carpenter replied: "Yes, the house is yours, but not this 
wooden nail. " Accordingly the owner had to settle the matter by 
giving a few more rapeas to the mon- 

Carpenters are constantly omitting a nail here or aome other work 
there, in order that they may bo recalled, and be able to make a two 
or three days more job of it When the master detects some fault 
in the work, and sends again for the oarpenter, he invariably says to 
the man, " Look here ; what is this ? ' Ghh&nat kl],' you rascal. " 

Chkdjiak tkuk ekkah nah bastih rozdn, 

The sound of the carpenter does not remain secret. 

Truth will oat. 

Ckhinah thnkas ekhui rat taiyiir. 

Soup is ready at the sound of the carpenter. 
Honoared men get well treated wherever they go ■ 
A good carpenter is muoh flattered and pampered by the people 

in whose employ he is working —of course with a special reason. 

Chki'ma* lak h&aigarett tak thaksavjurax chhai audui nnir. 
A carpenter, tumbler, and horse-breaker (these three) only ' 
live out half their days. 

Ckhi'inat yslih piw&n panoi pilh yikilih kanih hignn wosiah- 

hf'ikak nal. 
When the carpenter has to do anything for himself^ he uses 

a cabbage- stalk instead of a large beam {i.e., he does work 

at the smallest expense possible). 

CkMv yit hatah tak div yit katkak. 

When it boils dinner is ready, and when opportunity offers 
speak and act. 

A word or work in season. 

Chkeli ehkeli 2un z/ilun. 

He washes the wood before he burns it (because it may be 


A particularly sorapnlona i 


Chhini mut ehh^h leai^n. 
Empty Tesaels sound. 
HindDstini. — Adlyal gagari ckhalhit jde, 

Chkltin ^dtein m&rdn gatai Gw4sh Skodakpatai Idrin ehhua, 
Gw^h Shodah runs atter the man who walks (in a pompous 

fasbion) throwing fais clothes trom side to side. 

It is related that a certaiii man borrcwed five rapeea from Qwish 
and went and bought clothea with the monej. No Booner were the 
clothea made, and the man waa walking with great display in the 
biiz^, then Gwiah oama running after him aeking him to pa; hia 

Shodah is a lazy, smoking, dnmlcan fdlaw. 

Chon mungah trak son sun ak. 

Your twelve pounds of muiig; is only one of my meals. (My 

expenses— my family, are so great). 

7oiir gift waa but aa a drop in the ocean. 

ISimg is a vetch or kind of kidney bean. 

Ckunkaroi ehdnkar tah plntjk4nih naukar. 
Servant to a man of humble situatioa and servant to a small- 
eyed man. 

AmongBt other caseB quoted, when one servant passea on to 
another and lower servant the master's order to him. The lower 
servants ia an eatablishment are " fa^ed out of heir lives" aom»- 



Dab ehhuii Bab ? 

Is falling-down a father T 

Why should I trouble about that fellow ? 
Dab lug tah rabikpelh, dil lug tak kilihpetJi! 
Tumbled into the mud, the heart act upon water-weeds ! 

A man " Bmitten" bj an ugly, ill-abaped woman. 

Dachh ai kAStik tah ipaz'mi'm, kaeAh at hhexih tah zyur. 
IfftmaDwilleatgrapes, then let him eat ipaimin kind ; and if 

he will eat grass then let him eat lyur. 

Afcxmam. — There are at least six varietiea o[ grape growing in 
Kasbmir, amot^ wbiob dpaimSn is said to be the best. 

ZytiT \% B, kind of caraway-seed. 
Daehh Jeamawi hh^yi zt'A paradSv, irtik h& dup pananev. 
Who ate your grapes ? Strangers. ! I thought your 

relations (would have had some of them). 

He that neglects his ovm is worse than an iaSdel. 

DaehAun athah chhuk chhal&n khowaria, tah ihowttr alhah 

chhuh ohhalvn dathhinU. 
The right band washes the left, and the left hand washes the 


" If the plowman did not plow, 
The poet could not write." 

Dah bi':t» hahi zfd^. 

Ten wives but eleven dispositions. 

" As many tastes as beads andas different." — ''Oraoulo ManuBl." 
Balthaaar Gnuum- 

Dah ehandaa ; dah wandat ; dah ih&ndag. 

Ten in the pocket ; ten in the heart ; ten in the pillow. 

No finding oat what the man's opinions really are. 
Dah gas hyur Tcyah iah dah gax btm hyah ? 
What is the difference whether it is ten yards up' or ten yards 


A regular ninny-noddy. 

Onee npon a time a man Fell into a well. As luck would bare it 
tbert was another man passing by that very mumont with some rupe 

ID Ill's haiir). Of coarse he threw one end of the rape to the m&n, 
Trho had fnlleii into the well, aod told hint to fasten it round his 
loins, which the man did ; and go waa polled np and saved. 

On another occaBiou this man, who had saved the other from 
drowning, waa pasiing by a high tree, when somebody shoutod to 
him from the topmost branches, that he was fixed up there and could 
not possibly descend ; wherenpon, having the same coil of rope hang- 
infi: upon his arm, he said. " Don't fear, wait a moment. Here — 
catch hold of the rope," and he threw one end of the rope np to the 
man. The man cnu^ht it, and no sooner had he done bo, than he 
was jerked most violrnti; from the branch and palled to the groniid, 
dozens of yni'ils below. Of conrBe he died instaataneonsly ; and when 
the passers-by gathered ronnd the corpse and enqnired whether the 
man, who had done thirdeed, was mad or a murderer, he replied: 
" I have pulled a man np out of a well and now I have pulled a man 
down from a tree. What ia the difference whether it is (en yards 
up or ten yards down as long as jou save the man." 

Dak thuntngi dit iah pathkunui. 
Ten dancings-round and yet behincl. 

Vain strngglinft against misfortune. 

There is a children's game in Kashmir called Taihul. One boy holdi 
a piece of rope in his hand, and the other end of the rope is fastened 
by a stake into the ground. The other bnys go aronnd him and bent 
him, when they can, with sticks. Should this boy touch one of the 
other boys without letting go the rope, thsit other boy has to catch 
hold of the rope and take his chance. And so the play continues. 

Dahati daA manwli gaUkan nak tak httnii tnamtt poshih nak. 
Ten manuts are not required for ten men, but one manut ia 

not su£Bcient for a single man. 

One or two more in a big family does not make any difference In 
the expenses. 

Maimi is a weight eqnal to three pounds. 

Dahan IhawAn »a.i tah akis nah txunu'n ivai. 

He gives promise to ten, but doea not give food to one. 

Dahi wahari Voskah/'t. 
Dashahar after ten vears. 

Long enough about it. 

DashoJuir or Dasahrd or Das.hnra, is the tenth of J^th sbnki pakeh, 
which is the anniversary of Qanga's birthday. On this da^, also, 
Kfima marched against lUvana, tor which reason it is, also, called 
Vijai Dasami. 

H. H, the Mahiirfijah of Eaehmir, like other Kindfi rajahs, cele- 
brates this day with great pomp and rejoicing. Three immense 
cardboard figures stuffed with gunpowder are made to represent 


Birtuia, KniabhnkarDa and Miganad, and these are placed at tbe 
proper time in the centre of a large open space wi6hoDt the citj. 
To represent R&ma, SIta and Lakshman, three little boys are splen- 
didly dressed and carried in a beantifnl palanqnin to the same 
place. Crowds of people gather there, and His Highness sends all 
the troops with the gaua, &c. It is a moat eioitiDg occasion. Excite- 
mnnt is at the fallest pitch, when at a given s^al one of the 
little boys, vho is supposed to be Blima, steps forth from the pa- 
lanquin, attended bj the two other little Ijoys, and fires a small 
arrow at the big figure repreSBntiog BaTana, while the Other boys 
discharge their arrows against the other two figures. Of course 
at this moment the three monsters, Bivana, Kambhalcama, and 
Mignnid explode with a tremendous noise ; and then the gnns rattle 
and the cannon roar, and the people shout antil they are hoarse, and 
eventually retire. Cf. the Bimayana for an acconnt of Bima and 
his adventnres. 
Dai ai dit/ih tah harah nyumi ; Dai not diyik tak Jtruhak 

si'.gak Uatit hyah ? 
If God intends to give, He will give at the door ; but if God 

will not give, then what ia the good of going a thousand 

kos (i.e , about 2,000 English miles) for it. 

Fonr men, ambitions to become rich, determined to leave Kashmir 
for some other conntry, where they could obtain greater wealth 
than it was possible for them to amass in " the Happy Talley." 
Tbey arranged a certain day and started alti^etber, taking with them . 
fonr thousand rapees for the purpose of trading. Each of the 
little company had an equal share in this snoi of money, and they* 
all set forth full of hope that thej would prosper and become 
exceedingly rich. 

On the way it came to pass that God, according to His m^hty 
power and wisdom, caused a fnll-grown golden tree to spring up 
Boddenly, and to bring forth at once rich clusters of gold. Seeing 
this magnificent tree, the four travellers were ho surprised that they 
hardly knew what to say or to do. However, they soon changed 
their minds about travelling into a foreign country, and resolved to 
return baclt to their homes, earrj-ing with them the tree of gold. 
They were reminded of their own Kashmiri proverb, " Doi at cHyiA 
lofefinraft n^dsai; I>M noi dii/tft (oft IntJiahaiiBafclaatit iyahV which 
being interpreted is, " If God intends to give, He will give at the 
door \ bat if God will not give, then what is the good of going two 
thousand miles for it P" and therefore they said to one another "we 
have happed upon this golden tree and most take it home with na 
and be glad for ever." 

In this proposition they all agreed j hut how could they soarrange 
it P The tree was high and large ; it must be felled and cut ap into 
bundles, which they oould carry. Accordingly it was determined 
that two of the party should go to the nearest village and procure 



ores and Bans, while the other tiro would remain to gnsxd tlie 
preciooB treasure. 

PresenElj' the two selected started for the tools. The other two, 
whowere left to watob the tree, then began to take coansel together 
aa to how they might till their partnerg. " We will rail poison with 
their bread," said one, "and then wben thejr eat thereof they will 
die, and we each shall have a doable Bhara of the treasure." And 
tbej did so. 

However, the other two, who were goiDg for the tools, had also 
plotted together by the way as to how they might get rid ol the two 
partners left behind by the tree. " We will slay them with one stroke 
of the aie," iaid one, "and thns shall we each have a double share 
in the treaanre." 

In the course of a few hours they retmiied from the village with 
the saws and axes; and immedrately, on arrrving at the tree, they 
Blew both of their partners ; each slew one with a single blow from 
the axe. They then commenced to hew down the tree, and this 
done they soon cut up the branches and fastened them into bundles 
for carrying sway; and then thoroughly wearied with excitement 
and their great exertions tbey laid down to eat and to sleep. Alas ! 
they ate of the poisoned bread, and slept a sleep, the fatal sleep, 
from which they never woke again. 

A short time afterwards some other travellers passing by that 
way found the fonr corpses, lyinjf stretched oat stiff and cold 
beneath the golden tree. Cf. " The Orientalist," Vol. i., Pts. 
II. and Vll., pp. 47, 1(15, where incidents in the Arabic acconut 
of the Virgin Mary and Jeens, and in the Vedaljljha Jitaka of the 
Bnddhist Tnpitakas, are described, which beaf a striking resem- 
blance to this story. 

Daman ba»lih dita dil, damanat yitah damn khdr. 
Shislarae sun gaUhi kuait ,- wuni ckkai tul tah Udndun ydr. 
Sudarat no lahi ti'hil, noA tat sum lah nak tat tiir. 
Par kar paidah parmiz tal ; wuni ehkai ml tak UAndun ydr. 
Gdfilo hile tah kadam tut huthydr rex tn'-v piyddil. 
Trdwah nai tah ehhnJc y<hil ; wuni ehhai ml iah tjimdun yir. 
Give the heart to the bellows, like as the blackBruith gives 

breath to the bellowa. 
And your iron will become gold. Now it is early morning, 

seek out your friend (t'.e., God). 
The sea haa not a shore, neither Is there a bridge over it, nor 

any other means of crossing. 
Make to yourself wings and fly. Now it is early morning, 

seek ont your friend. 
O negligent man, put on power, be on the alert, take care, 

and leave off wickedness. 



If yon will not then you are a fool. Now while it is early 

morning seek out your friend. 

A few linos from Lai DM conetaatlj quoted bj the KaahmirL 

Piyddil—tbe work of a chapr&Bsf, a Wil lot, as he general; amices 
his monej b; oppreBsioD, lyingj and cteatmg. 
Vefai suet chAul namaakar, 
" Good day " t« the rich or honourable man, 
Dambih ai ten kore lah davrih at howan haeAai. 
If from the womb a daughter should be born, and if from the 

fields but an indifferent harvest should be gathered (still he 

ia happy. For a little is better than nothing). 
Daml dithnm nad pakawuni, dami dltkum mm nak Hh Mr. 
Dami dtthum tkur phollatauni, damX dyuthum gut nak lak 

kkdr. ' 
Dami dllkam pdnUhan Pdndaieatt ham m&j dami dilhunt 

kraji m6a. 
One moment I saw a little stream flowing, another momenl; 

1 saw neither a bridge, nor any other means of crossing. 
At one time I saw a bush blooming, at another lime 1 saw 

neither a flower nor a thorn. 
At one moment I saw the mother of the fire P^davas, at 

another moment I saw a potter's wife's aunt. 

" Nothing in this world can laat." 

Qaotationa from Lai DGd's sajinga, the whole of which will 
ptobably soon be in print. 

The history of the Pflndavaa, and bon their mather was reduced 
by misfortane to profess herself a potter's wife's aunt, are fnllj 
explained in the MohdhhSrata- 

Ddn dhe&n takprut harin. 

The generous person gives and the miser is sorrowful. 
Biiwi duakman ckhul n&din metharak sandih khutahj&n. 
A wise enemy is better than an unwise friend. 

Persian. — jftskma/n % danA ki pay e jan buwad bihlar al dn doal ki 
n^ddn bawad. 

The Btory is, that there was a prince, who had two ministers, one 
a friend and the other an enemy. The friend happened to be moat 
weak and stupid, while the enemy was a very cute and wise fellow. 
One day his friend thonght within himself " I will kill the prince 
and become a great king." Accordingly he ordered some men to 
dig a ditch and to cover over the top of it with grass. They did ho. 
I'hen the stupid minister one day asked the king to go for a walk 


nitb him ; and passing by the way of the ditch he pnahed him into 
it, and ordered the attendants to cover him orar with earth. Bat 
the other minister was at hand, and the king saw him. and oried unto 
him, " O miniBter. let me not die. The country will be mined." 
The wise minister koowing that snch would be the case, revoked the 
order of the other minister, and had the king pulled oat. On the 
following day the Btnpid friend was executed, and the wise enemy 
was promoted to very great honour. (This story is evidently taken 
from the Uakhzan i Asrir, a Persian work), 

Di'nah-mlraTi hari j>'mah-m,Xr barb&d. 

The big fire-place destroyed the great man. 

There was a Panditotthe nameof Nond 'BAm. and belongii^ to the 
liktl sect. He was indebted to the Pathin, Az&d Kbfin'a gOTBrmant 
to the extent of five ISkha of rupees. The goverment wanted this 
money, but Nand Bim could not pay it, and so soldiers were stationed 
around hia house, and the order waa given for his eyes to be taken 
ODt. When the man arrived to execute this cruel order, Nand Bim 
begged ihat he would wait, and said, " There is money under the 
big fire-place. Now Hand film's custom had been to feed ttvo hundred 
people every day — the poor, the sick and the diatresaed, who 
thronged his house- 

The soldiers aocording to directions well searched beneath tho 
flre-place, but found nothing. They told the matter to Aiad Khin, 
who sent for Nand Rim and enquired what he meant. He answered 
" Uy big fire-plfuie has ruined me. In it has been absorbed all my 
wealth." iz^d KhSn then repeated the order for his eyes to be ■ 
taken ont. (Az&d Kh£n, 1783, a.d., is the tyrant of whom it was 
said that he killed men as though they were birds.) 
Danah aumbrun chhui hani der sarun ; donah tumbrun ckkui 

ritah fund mil ; 
Danah du darmas ti ehhul Mrun Sahib girun din leiko r&t. 
Gathering money is Uke gathering a heap of stones, gathering 

money is as the king's property ; (i.e., is appropriated by 

the state after death). 
Giving money in alms, you keep it. Remember God day 

and night. 

" There is that Boattereth and yet increaseth i and there is that 
withholdeth more than is meet, but it teadeth to poverty." — Prov. 
xi. 24. 

Dandah hhohhnr hammiw. gaje ; dand truvit lubar paje. 

O toothless man (your mouth is like) a hammam's fire-place; 

goandpntyourteeth at the bottom ofa cow-dang basket. 

Hindii adnlta sometimes, bat naiffly always the children, when a 
tooth has been extracted, place it at the bottom of a basket of 



cow-rtni^, or else throw it into a mt-hole, iajing, " Oojari hd gagaro 
thoK dand mlh tali in^ow dand tseh, which mcaiiB ; — 

" Eat, O brother Kat, you take my t«oth and give mo yonre." 
MahammedanB keep their teeth iu a little box, which is bnried 
with them when they die- 

" D'lndii pAunki'm hiko, sih okkah iih madhA chhum,^' 
" Ckhor kiho xih ckhui, zik darhit ckkum." 
"O bull, why are you bellowing?" "I am proud-" 
" O bull, why have you diarrhoea ?" " I am afraid." 

A coward. 
Vindaa ckhid h^ng gob&H? 
Are the horna too heavy for the bulloclt ? (No)- 

No matter how large the family the father would not willingly 
part with one of his children. 
Dindas Urn tah watxhU gSd. 
A good handful of grasa for the bullock, but sis bandfula for 

the calf. 

JMndan khSjih patuj, panunt hheyan manduj. 
The OS who ate the matting ate his rump (i.e., he got 

whacked for it). 

Conseqnonoa of eril deeds. 

Dandiin mutfov tah dupuk " Aiin, cAkuh," 

A man with projecting incisora was about to die, and the 

people Biud " He is laughing." 
D&ndih iuti w&yan dohalih. 
D&ndik Tutt wiy&n ratalih. 
The owner of an ox ploughs in the day. 
The man who hasn't an os ploughs at nigbt (i.e., he plans 

things in his bed, but forgets them with the morning light). 
Dangi tuk. 
A tiger in the stable. 

A tyrant in his house. 
VapaAai ai ibag gatskun gatxiik Ichuskkas. 
Dapahas ai hhmMcat gafjAun gatnAih ibaa. 
If 1 tell him to go to the nater he will go to the land. 
If I tell him to go to the land he will go to the water. 

A guod-naturod follow, but who luToriabl/ miauudcreCauds any - 
thing and cxouutw it accordingly. 



Dapayai Aur, Uih nahpari rdhat-i-jin chhahamai Mrigrl. 
O kdiigr!, what shall 1 call thee, a celestial Tirgin or a fairy ! 
You are the balm of my life. 

PerfliBn. — Ai IcatigH, ai Vangri, tfarbaTA [u h&r o pari, harcha/nd 
viasfat mikavam Jsat wasafasdn bild iari, Ta at {nH luizut tari o 
as barg i gul ra'nA tari. Haqqd ajd'ib dd bari. 
Ddr yUik dudareh yir gatshih p&aas, miMvnt hunaa mitdh 

When the body (lit. wood) becomes oU (lit. dry and rotten) 

the spirit (lit. friend) goea his own way. The place of this 

earthen pot is under the earth. 
Daram, D&iini leotri. 
Daram DJa's chamber. 

A Btnall room. 

Daram Die was a very celebrated character among Kaiiliniirt 
Jogls. He lived in Srinagar near to the entrance of the Lake, and 
died in 1877 a, d. He bnilt several small honsea, the bi^eat of which 
was sufficient for only two persona. 
Darbdr garth ai til ^iielih tah halam gfd»kih ddrun. 
If from the master's house some oil be given, then one moat 

hold up the skirt, wherein to take it. 

Although the prssont may be a mean preaent. and of as much 
benefit to the recipient as oil in a cloth, which all mns out and is 
spoilt, yet it is' the dnt; of the servant to take it hnmbly and readily. 
Kashmiri beggars receive alms in thia way. 

Dard chkih gard. 

Love is as dust (i.e, must show itself). 

Daryawik walkh ganxranu 

To count the waves of the river. 

An impossible task. 

Persian. — Mauj i daryd akumard/m. 

'Ali Mardin KhSn (cir. 1650 a. d) was a governor under the 
Emperor of Kashmir Sblh Jah^n. He had two especial aorvants, one 
a Uubammedau and the other a Hiudfi. The Muhammodan worked 
all the day, but the Pandit, who worked only for one hour, reneitod 
more salary than tlie Muhammodan. The latter petitioned tbe 
king, that he would at least give him an eqnal salary. The kii^ 
promised that he woald do so if the Mnhammodan would go and 
count the waves of the river and tell bira how many they were. Tho 
Unhammedan went away at once, bnt Soon fonnd that he could not 
oblige the ting. On his return, when tho king aaked him how many 
waves there were, he replied, " I have forgotten," Thon the king 
ordered the Pandit to go and count the waves. TLu Pandil oou- 

Bonted on tlie condition that tlie king vroald allow him two tlioiuand 
rnpees and one hnndred aoldiora for this pnrpoBO, The king gavB 
him what bo aaked for, and away wont the Pandit to his tank- At 
every tnm or passafte of the river he placed four Boldiers and a toll 
honse, and ordered them to take four mpeea from each boat which 
weat up or down. The eicnse to the boatmen, wlien the j demurred, 
was that they had hindered the Pandit in counting the waveB of 
the river, and therefore they wfeco thus fined. In this way he 
obtained a Ukh of mpees, and then went to the king. In reply 
to the king's qaestion how man; waves there were, the Pandit 
threw down the ba^s of mpecs at the rnler'a feet, saying ' ' One l&kh, 
yonr Majeaty." 

This Pandit was promoted to a very high post, whilst the Moham* 
medan was debased. 

The natives say that 'Ali Mardin Kh4n introduced caBtom-houaea 
into Kashmir at this Pandit's advice. 

DStktam, daaktam chhuh nah hdk&r ; ddram, diram ehhvh 

What I hnd, what I bad, is not wanted ; but vhat I have, 

what I have, 18 necessary. 

Quoted to the man who is constantly epeakii^ of Ms great rela- 
tions, or previous wealthier state. 

Daet6r chhih gandun izxatah kMtirah wutknerah hhilirak 

Men bind on their turbans for honour's sake, not for 


DaiUrak badalah ehhas kalaa pelh ras. 
In place of a turban rope is on his head. 
A disreputable person. 

Dasturan ckkvJt nah mut, darbi'ran ckkuh. 
"So worth is attached to turbans, but to professions. 
Not what a man scorns, hnt what he is. 

Daaliirai dab tah nalai Irit chhuh malis tak mf'jih peth 

maranik wizihj'in. 
To dash one's turban upon the ground, and to tear one's cloak 

into two pieces at the time of a father's or mother's death is 

This is principally a Hindu coatom. They remain thus with 
uncovered head and torn cloak for ten days after their paront's 
death ; ami if they are rich they then give the torban and cloak 
away, but if tliey are poor they keep them. 



Daulat jama haruni chkai zallat, Hir kin t&r nah Icuhiih 

Amassing riches is destruction. A piebald dog is not faithful 

to any one- 

Tha Kaahmlr! calls many things Mr hiin, bnt especially these 
three, y\z., the ivorld, health, and monej' 

A certain wealth; merchainli, famed for hie goodness and alms- 
giving, died, and hie immense wealth was distributed among all hia 
sons, oicept the eldest, who did not get a cowrie of it. There 
WBB groat lamentation in the city, and especially among the poor 
and sielt people when they heard of this good man's death. What 
were tiioy to do ? To whom ahoald they go now ? " Perhaps," aaid 
iome, " the sons will continne their deceaEied father's liberality, that 
their name may live and be great in the land." So crowds of the 
poor and distreBBod wonded their way to the sons' houBoa. Iho 
Bona, however, who had come into their father's property were not 
good men, but sclEeh and hard-hearted ; and so when they saw the 
crowds of beggars entering their compound, they at once gave ordera 
that they should be turned out and told not to come again, but to go 
to tbe eldest son's qnarters, as he was more interested in their cases 
than they were. Therefore they went to tho honse of tlie eldest son, 
who, following tho eiample of bis father, did what ho could for tho 
relief of their necessities. 

Now it happened that one day some holy men visited this eldest 
■on and asked for alms. They came at a bad time, when he bad 
only two loaves within tho vessel. However, he told thom to wait, 
while ho took theeo two loavea and sold them in tho bizir. The few 
paisas, which be received for them, he gave to the holy men. When 
be gave the money to thom, they knowing that it was the jirice of 
the two loaves, enqnirod why he, the son otsacli a wealthy and good 
man, was in anch reduced circnmatances. lie told tlicm that his 
brothers had appropriated all tho money, and that ho did not caro 
sufficiently for it to go to law concerning his portion- Tlie holy 
men wore very pleased, and mncb desired to compensate this un- 
earthly-minded son. Accordingly they told bim to prepare one of 
the rooms in hia house and Bleep in it ; and it would come to pass that 
one night a woman, Daulat b; name, would enter liis houses and 
when ho heard tho sound of her footsteps ascending the itairs he 
was to open the door of hia room, let her come in, and then chain 
the door ; and on her asking to bo lot out og.iin, he was to say to her : 
" Daulat jama karuni chhai tallat. Hiir hia sdr nah kdiisih ham," 
which means, ■' I have not got any money. I think it a sin to 
amass wealth ; and so you will not bo faithful to me." " Bnt," 
continued the holy men, "she will promise never to go awayj 
and then you can o)>ou tho door." Saying this, they blessed him 
and left. 

According to the instructions of his saintly visitors, the eldest son 
thoroughly cleaned one of his roonia and arranged it as if fiw a 



ncddin^-chamber, and at night taid down in it to rest. He had not 
been naleep for more than two hnnrs, when ho was awakened by a 
creaking on the stairs. It was the woman coming np. So ho opened 
the door to let her enter. No sooner hnil he opened the door tlien a 
little flame camo floating along in the air until it settled npon hia 
forehead, bm he did not feel the heat of the flamo, nor did it 
leave any mark behind. In a minnte or two he returned to the 
room, but not seeing the woman who talked with him (for she had 
been turned into tho little flame) he laid down again upon his bed 
and slopt. 

Od rising in the morning he heard that the king had ordered hig 
troops to march to a distant coantry against another king who had 
anlawfullj seized some cerCain lands and villages ; and the king 
paid the soldiers their wages beforehand in gold moburs. The 
Boldiers, however, did not like this arrangement, they were afraid 
that they would lose them either through thieves, or in some other 
manner; and so they retnmed them to the king with the re^aeat 
that he wonld send them to the late rich merchant's eons and get 
them eschanged for paper money, which they might caeb at the 
merchants in the country whither they were going. The king 
complied with their request and sent tho gold mohurs to tho lat« 
merchant's sons, but they replied that they were not able to fnlfil 
the king's wishes, as they bad no transactions with tho merchants 
of that coantry ; and, moreorer, they were not known by them, and 
Bo their letters would not be reapeeted. 

In the midst of this difliculty the oldest aon of the late merchant 
came to the king, and said thut ho wonld arrange for the payment of 
the troops if hia Majeaty would trust him. The king said, " Yes, 
yoQ are a good man ; I will send you the money." 

When the eldest son got the money he put it into a big earthen 
vessel, and in the midst of the gold he put a letter for one of the 
merchants of that country whither the soldiers were going, asking 
him pleaae to distrihnte the money amongst them according to the 
orders of the king. He then closed up tho month of tho voasct with 
a piece of ordinary oil-skin, and gave it to one of the soldiers, tcHing 
him to give it to a certain merchant on arrival at the journey's ond j 
" I should be so thankful," lie said, " if yoa would pleaae tal:c this 
jar ofpickUa. My friend will be so glad to get them." The soldier 
readily promised to take tho greatest care of the jar, indeed many 
offered to take it, so grateful were they one and all for thia man's 
convenient orrangemeot concerning the money. On arriving in that 
country the pot was handed over to the merchant named, who at 
once opened it and read the letter. The neit day the gold mohnrs 
wore paid to the troops, who were astonished at the shrewdness of 
the late merchant's eldest aon. Readily they each one aet apart 
Bome of the money aa a preaont tor thoir benefactor, while the king 
made him his private secretary and banker. Eventually he became 
as wealthy and as groat as his late father; and in the time of bis 
greatneaa he did not forget the sick and tho poor. 



Dnyik sundp/iwur, yemt ySlih Mour. 

Wheresoever, whosoever has taken possession, that is the 

place of the Deity. 

A man's houBo and lands are saored ; no person can take them 
from him. 

Da,i the Deity, destiny (Sanskrit). 

Dawid'iTos horah z^.yih; muddaiid''ras hi'iguni Ayih. 

An only daughter was born to the plaintiff; she came in 

marriage to the defendant. 

Qaoted wliea an nnlikety event happens. 

Dazah-wunih nirah gajih ai diiSn di'.rit tatih tth yijih nah 

put phirit. 
If he is cast into the burning fire-place, he will not return 

thence (before fulfilling his work). 

A good, ^arp serrant. 

Dazands dod. 
There is pain from a burn. 
To lose anything ia not pleasant. 

"Dazihviatskih w/.livjik sulahbuh. 
Clawing the burnt liver. 

Unjuis in iiieerB. 

Bldi Teawah difjtAae »i'.d''nag ? 

Tawah khutah dizikam w&zah-gf.nas. 

Anikant dagak dagah hkemaknh pnnas ; 

'Pulagani dimahak mum vtaidi'nas. 

O mother, why did you marry me to a foolish man T 

Better that you had given me to a prostitute's cook. 

He would have brought me scraps of dinner in his wrap and 

I would have eaten them ; 
And I would have lolled the whole day upon the grass- 

X^tdi tafai eharas dazi'-n.. 

At the king's porch charas burns. 

Cheoby withant ahamo, and beforo his master I 

C}M^as is t)ie exuihition of the flowers of henip collected with the 
dew and prepared for use aa an intoxicating drug. 

Deg ehKik teg. 

The pot is a sword {i.e., makes ravage with one's income). 


D^Mf hi Sifniii m)ihh chakAmi pet kh/M. 
The Delhi sn.cll haa got a joHj face, but his atomach ia 

A Delhi Pandit determined to pay Kashmir a viait. When be 
reached Vemfig he engaged a man as cook, with whom he had the 
following oonverBation : — 
Pandit.—" Cook." 
Cook.— "TsB." 

Fandit. — " Bring aboat three-qnarters of a ponnd of flonr trora 
the market, and make thirty-three loaves. Ten guestB will 
be preaent at dinner thie evening. So that there will ttioa 
be two loaves for each gnest, and something for each to take 
home with him, if be should wish to do so." 
Cook. — " I do not understand you." 
Pandit. — " Never mind. Do as I tell yon. The first day, when 

we entertain Btrai^era, we do so." 
The cook brought a vessel full of a water and placed it in front of 
the Pandit. 

Pandit^—" Where is the food f" 

Cook. — " It is the custom in this conntry not to give any food to 

the stranger on the first day — only a vessel-full of water," 

Pandit. — " No ! I am sure yon must be mistaken. 

Cook. — " I also think that it cannot bo tho cnstom inyonr ccnntlj 

to feed ten men with three-quarters of a pound of ftoor." 

(The Pandit in a rage. Exit. Cook.) 

DSminen hong. 

Saffron with sheep'a paunch. 

Not worth the oandla 

Saffron is naed as a condiment, and is eaten only with the best 

Dewaa tah draihdyiTeaa dixih til tah lahar, ddmi sanzih bad- 

niaarih nah he ah. 
Oil and rice can be giTen to (appease the anger of) the ghosts 

and demoQB, but nothing can aave us from the evil-eye of 

CS."Mihchkam," ^e. 

Dtg&taih ditoai Nudig'-mik peajih lewai. 

The great mel^ is at Digam, but the washing of the mound ia 
at Nadigam. 

Dig^ is a village near to Shupiyon. There is a great meU there 
in the month of July ; and people, whoso little cbildron huvo died 
dudng the year, K" '" 'ho place and ofior clothes and food iu tho 
names of thuir docoasod children. 


On the aame clay there are feBtivals also at Maiigim and Trigam, 
which aro ft great distance from ouo ftnother, and both ut thorn very 
far from Digam. It is writteu that '"IIo who risits each of these 
places in one day, Shall aBCond to eternal blias." One man did bo, 
riding upon a Bvrift horac, and afterwards man, horse, anil ereiy- 
thiug went up into the olouiJB out of sigbt. Another man by the 
name of Krishna Saraf also succeeded in visiting these tliroa 
villagea in one day; bat for some reason or other ho was not 
taken up. 

Diffih pihtskuv lah dugih Mr, 

A amall paisa for a. peck and a cowrie for a blow. 

The orer-liberal person. 

J)ih thap tah nih daslir. 
Seize him and take his pagr!. 
A respectable vagrant, who Uvea by " sponging" on otherB- 

TJik ni tah manali dab hkH ? 

You will not give? (of course you will) ; but it will be after 
much wrangling and quarrelling. 

Threatening ■' distrcaa for rent," 

JUanoIt iah, lit., a strike of a stono, but hero it moana going to law, 
or giving a man a good thrashing. 

Dik n& tah paizdr Met? 

Yon will give I know, but you will eat your shoes (first). 

"Putting on the screw " to get a debt. 

"Eating shoes" is an eipreaaion for being beaten with a shoo- 

Dil ba dil gav Unak ; yut wueAham, fyut wttohhai. 

Your heart and mine are like a. lookiug-glasa ; as you see me, 

so I shall appear to you. 

Be friendly and 1 will be friendly, and vice vena. 

J)ilah nah lah hilaA di di. 

Not willingly hut with a little sbovii^ and pushing. 

Dilasphulai gatehik usuni, gulichpkuiai hyak yiyih bidcdr ? 
There must be blossoming of the heart, and then the flower- 
blossom will not be needed. Cf. " Asas gatsi," fye. 

Bilikia hugiu dur har ghil. 
Adah dewah pkuli yemhurxal big 
Morit manganai umrik haws h'sil. 
Maut ahhui palah palah takst-dur. 

■,G Otitic 


Keep away dirt from the garden of your heart. 
Thea perhaps the Karciasus f;arden will bloBsom, 
After death you will be asked for the reaulta of your hfe. 
Death is after you like a tahsildar, 

A Baying of Lai SEd's. 

Diluk hhnr-hhurah meA, Mulih, ie&»tam,manake hotar mare, 

Narih losam Ivkah hamai lurih ladun. 

¥etih pdttah my£nuv leadit ttinanai panane gare. 

Patah patah neri Ivkah »&a& narik ulawin. 

Truvit yijvinai munz maiA'-nas timit dackhane lore. 

Hake far from me proudaess of heart, O Father, — from the 

pigeoQ-hole of my heart. 
^T arm is wearied from making people's bouses {x.e., from 

helping others, giving alms, &c). 
When, my body, you are turned out from your house. 
Afterwards, afterwards, a thousand people will come waving 

their hands. 
They will come and set you in a field, laying you to sleep on 

Zour right aide. 
versa of Lai DSd's constantly quoted in part, or in tato, in time 
of tronbla. 

Hiod^ bom tlie bodies laying thDm upon the rigbb aide, witb 
tbeir bead towards the south, because the gods and good spirits 
live in that diiectioB, and Yama, the angel of death, alsoreBides there. 

Diniioilid diyik ; dinal h/ah diyih ? 

The generous person will give (whether he can sparie or not) ; 
the prostitute (although "flush with coin") will not give. 

Vieh dinat tah SMdi Ganai nah. 

All the people except Shadi Ganai (her husband) will live 

with her. 

A faithless wife, or a fmit tree, of which others pluot the frait, 
while the real owner gets nothing. 

Shadi Ganai was a butcber'a wife, and a very wicked woman. 
Ditut na, aih mngah pkulrit ? 
Has it not been given to me 1 Yes, bnt after breaking my legs. 

Once upon a. time there was a man wbo was carried away by tbe 
thought tjiat God was " The Giver," and that somehow or other He 
would give food to those who sat all da; in the house meditating 
npoQ Him. This man sat in his hoase for tbrea days without food. 
Ho became so thin that he could scarcely walk. He then went ap 
to the roof of his house and sat there, thinking that, probably, God 


meant him to live apon tax. In a short time be became faint 

and ienaelesB, and rolled off the roof on to the gramid, and broke 

bis legs. 

The people beard of thia and brought him sherbet and oooked 

meat. The man Boon revived, and said the above words, which 

have passed into a proverb- 
Cited when a man has obtained bis livii^ or anj position vrith 

great difficulty. 

DiHh berih y^tik pkerih. 

Diz& yirik yetih gatnhih tdrik ? 

One should plant the tree tX the edge of the field, vhere it 

will spring up. 
Shall it be plaoted in the place where the fir-lree grows, 

where it would be checked and die 1 

To lend monej without interest. 
Dohi tund garah nanik u doh. 
The washerman's house will be known on the great feast-day. 

The washerman's family wear the clothes which are sent to them 
to be washed ; but on the day of the feast everybody takes all their 
clothes, and so the poor washerman and his family are left almost 
naked. (This is not true of every washerman). 

Persian. — Khdiia i gizur ba tox i 'id ma'Eum ska-mad. 

Dohi fund hun, nah garuk iah nah y6thuk. 

The washerman's dog is not of the house or of the ghit. 

Expectations unfalfilled. 

The washerman's dog fares very badly as a rnle. He is always 
following his master to and fro from the honae to the gtlit in hope 
of getting, some scraps, bub it is very seldom that anythii^ is 
thrown to the poor animal. 

Hindostint— DJioM M fcirita na ghar ka na jhtit M. 
Dod gdtul. 
A philosopher and a half. 

A wiseacre. 

Dod nah iah dag not kawah yiyam uthye ? 
I have neither pain nor smart, whj should I cij t 
Let every man bear his own burden. 

Dog dit t\h burav j dog hat tih birav. 

Strike a man and he complains (before the magistrate), and 

strike him a hundred dmes and he complaius (and no 

greater punishment ensues to the striker). 

A variant of this both in worda and raeaning ia :— 



Dog dit tih birav; dog hit iik birav. 

Whether he strikes another, or whether he himself is struck, 
it's all the same— he grumbles. 

J)oh eKhuk diwdn Uhoh ; doh ekhuk Ickyiwin gok. 
(One) day gives rest, (another) day causes to eat maDure, 

It is not always Bunshine. 

DokoUh lehotain tah rdtalih mandaehMn. 
Fearing by day and being ashamed at night. 

An altogether wretohod and bad character. 

Don liitsan huwi har gayik wahraU kund rid. 
Strife between huaband and wife is like the monsoon rains. • 
Although Kaahmlr ia out of the tropica it ia visited by ()eriodioal 
rains, which finish aboat the laat week in Jnlj. 

Don kwlai batah wiwah. 

The wife of two persons, because of food. 

" The bitter cry." Anythii^ for bread. 

Von aaUh tran %o&kweU. 

Agreement with two people, lamentation with three. 

Two are oompaay, three are not. 

A Pir once sent his horse to a certain village, that it might 
graze upon the beaatifal graBS there. He partionlarl; told the 
Bsrvant to lead the animal and not to ride it. When the 
servant had gone some distance the Fir sent aubtber servant to 
lookafter the first servant, and, especially, to see that he was 
tiot riding it. He went and toond the man leading the horse, 
bat being both of them tired, and the horse also tired, they 
rested awhile, and then set forth again, both of them riding the 

The PIr was still sospicioaa abont the horse, thinking that the 
two servanta would perhaps agree together, and both of them 
monnt him at the same time. 80 he sent a, third servant to look 
after them. The third servant came and fonnd them both astride 
the horse. "I will tell the Fir," he said, "1 will eiplain the whole 
matter to him." "Don't, don't," they replied, "butyon come also 
and ride, and we shall have a Jolly time." The man consented. They 
all rode the horse at one time, and arrived at their destination. 
But the next momiiig the »"''"''l died, and groat was the distress of 
the three m 

Don imgajan ehkuk nerSn li». 
One snapa with two fingers (not with one). 
It takes two to make a qnarreL 



PoMi f:ulit TeijiA-waf. 

A pestle to the walnut-tree. 

A Bharp fellow in their midst, of whom thej are atj^d. 

DmH kkutah ekhih riitij/m. 

Truth is better than friendship. 

Doetas a^xma ni tah dushmanae wukarmani. 

A straight open countenance to your friend ; a dawneast look 

to your enemy. 

Most frequently cited bj the mother, when lier bqq niahes ber 
"good-bye" before going to hia day's work. 

Doffih atkah eheh tear wasin. 
Clapping is with both hands. 

It takes two to make a qoarrel. 

Hindastfini.— £% Mth ae tAU naUh hajU. 

Drug tsalih tah dig tsaltk nah. 

The famine will disappear, but the stains will not disappear. 

Dnring one of the terrible fainitieB that bave now and again yiBitett 
Kashmir, a brother wa« nearly dead from want of food, when ho sud- 
denly remembered a long-forgotten sister, and determined to go to 
her and see whether she conld help him. On his arrival his Bister 
happened to be making bread ; but she was too sharp for him. Sha 
had seen his coming, and gueseiog the reason of hia long-deferred 
visit, took up the boming hot bread and hid it under her arm. Her 
boaom wae very much scorched by this, and she retained the marks 
of the bom up to the time of her death. 

Kashmir baa aoSered very much in morals from famines. Driven 
to extremities the people seem to have lost aU senee of selt-reapeot. 
A little knowledge of the people and their language qniokly oon- 
vinoea one too forcibly of the truth of the above worda. 
Drigaa id chfud goy& hih Migai nirah vhik. 
Employment ia time of famine is like uie warmth of a fire in 

the month of January. 
Hr&lah hunar ekhai hy&lthui. 
An agent's profession is another matter. 

There's nothing that he is not np to. 

Merchants keep such men by them. At the time of bargsiniog 
thay ooioe in as if unawares and try to make a bargain for the 
sShib, or intending buyer, out of pore good-heartednesa. The Drid 
gets a commission on tJie sale. He is a good-for-nothing, nnpiinoipled 
fellow. There are two or three Und of DrSl Ifik, Those who lend 
ont money at interest, those who hire out their daughters for evil, 
and the merchants' agents. 


Drili nilah. 

Like a sickle to cut meat with. 

A stnpid workman. 

J)a-tavff Ichatin tnn-iangis. 
A two-legK^ mounting a four -legged. 
A man of interior rank promoted, and " lordiDg it" ore 

Dudaa kandi Uirani. 

Picking thorns or bones out of the milk. 

Ad oTerscmpiiloiis Bribmao. 

put chhd dazuH. 

The end of (your) garment is burning (with envy). 

Extreme envy and je^ouaj. 

good family, and had hi 

pumatat ruia. 

(Like) a roarble against a dumat. 

Advice to a fool. 

Theae dumatg are very hig conidll BtoneB (lingfims). and according 
to tJie FaaditB as old as the P&ndavas- They are supposed to be 
the petrified bodies of wicked man, whom aome good people in olden 
timea curasd, becansu they were troabled by tbem, and so they 
became stonea. 

Gnliat&D of Sa'dl, — Tarbiyat nii ahl ra. cKuh girdgdn bar gumhai 

Vuvnb tah Uap liinsih mah dap, 

" Stomach and bowels. Don't tell anyone." 

When a. father forbeara to beat hia child, and another peraon 
blames him for Ms lenienoy, he thus repliea* 

" Dumhu, Jajir " " TaiySr, Sibo." 

" O dumb, Hukk;a." "Ready, Sihib" 

A iharp, willing aervant. 

Jiwubak skurinai hhukarh&H Mwun, 

Showing a thing (mask, &c.,) to frighten the D&mb's children. 

" Don't Buppoae that yon're frightening me." 

The I>iim(s are a placky lot of fellows. They carry the letteca at 
night throogh the jungle and over desolate hill and plain. 



Tiani/i ehhuh nah aki danjih roian,pmUk doh tokh lahpinUh 

doh dokk. 
The world does not continue in the same state ; but there are 

five days of happiness and five dajs of sonow. 
1}uny6 tah dy6r. 

The world and wealth (go together). 
Burtyi ham Duragi Iw; yita mij tit» Mr. 
Durag's stick (according to her height) ; and as mother, ao 

Darih, darih cAhuh maaaU metkan ; ndkhah, ndkkah chhuk 

kand tefhan. 
From a distance black pepper is sweet ; near at hand angar is 


Disbanoe lends enoliantiuent to ths viaw. Familiaritj liieedB 

Duikmanth aandih lagih nah hanih ttanjih ; dottah tandih lagih 

poshih Uanjih. 
The slap of the hand from an enemy will not hnrt, but the 
angry touch, even with a flower, from a friend, will wound- 
A king sentenced b man to death by gtoniug. The order was that 
every man in the citj should throw a stone at the priaoDer. A frieod 
of the man heard of the etern order, and said within himself, " What 
shall I do F How can I throw a stone upon my friend P I roast 
not, and can not, hart my dear and kind friend." Accordingly he 
plucked a Soirer, and determined to throw that when the time came, 
and to throw it ao skilfully that the people wonld think that he had 
thrown a stone. He went to the p1ac« of eiecutiort and Bong the 
flower at his friend, who then spoke the above proverb. 
Dyarakwol chhuh nah bod ; batahwol chhuk bod 
Not the rich man, but the man who gives dinners, is great. 

What was given to me was taken away again, Sliukr's mother 
lost a hair or two (that is all) ! 


Gabar cKKi& Jubar eih gai gwrU nithik tak ani ? 

Are children like manure, which people go aod buy from the 

milkman ? 

Children ars not ho easily obtained, that thej oaa be so easilj 

Gabih hutkih rimahrhun. 
A sheep iu appearance, but a wolf at heart. 

A wolf in sheep's clothing. 
Gabih tih wuMi lat. 
A sheep also caa lift bis tail. 

The smalleBt worm will tnrn baing trodden Upon, 

GM chkeh daryuvas andar trefkik hipal martin. 
The fish dies from thirst in the river. 

Every opportanity, jet he did not succeed. 
Gid yelik chkeh hhewdn handrer, tak adah ehhSh lagdn butk- 
When the fish feels the icy-cold it leaps upon the bank. 

Affliction ia a, hard, bat a good, teacher. 
Gddah tasbik tak thvikah takirat. 
(To carry) rosary (iu one's hand) for loaves (and fishes) ia as 

if to (perform) tahEtrat (with one's) spittle. 

Tahdrat is the Mohammedan's ablntioDs before prajeri. 
Gddah tolil piraang. 
Seeing whether the scales were correct, after the fish had 

been weighed. 

Without premeditation. 
Gidofo hechkih wulah tah hamuv keehkik n/d. 
The fishes leamt to jump and the boatmen learnt to use the 

Gagar-tnirani gang. 
The hole of Sir Rat. 

" He has well feathered hia nest for some time." 

The lat is always laying up uteres. A Pandit di^ out the hole of 
a rat the other day and fonad pieoea of cloth, iron, little piles of rioe, 
apples, &,!}., enough for several months' proviaioDB. 



Gagarik kanx hkitjiarih Uj. 
The mouse's khetsarih 16j, 

Kkeharik ISj U a aaacepaa ia which spiced rice ii cooked. Tha 
moose ia very fond ot thia rico, and aa it doBi not tamain very long 
nlisD the mice are by, ao money doea not continae long in the hand* 
of a man in debt. 

Gagur ehhuk harin hririi m&t. 
The rat nonplusses the cat. 

Oited whan anyone or anything Bnntll haa escaped the oppreaeion 

of a greater, and also oaoaedbims, little trouble. 

Oaffur t»&v kakirih banih. Set hyak tiiv zt'A Jchlt drvt T 
A rat entered a stock of wood. What did he take with him 
going io, and what did he eat comiag out ? NothJDg. 

Inatita ijy.o. 

Gagur wtUih nahpanaaih w'j, j>ataA hit mij ! 

The rat himself cannot get into his nest properly, and yet 

he takes his mother afler him ! 

Hardly enough for one, and yet two or three people are to share 

n tab. tomum, gayim sheh 

I took out the ashes from the fire-place, I put them into a 
basket ,andithen threw them away. I have done three works, 

I woke up the baby and gave him a little milk, and then I 
put him to sleep again. I have done six works. 

Aa buay ae a hen with one chicken, 

GdiM ehkuk hh&m ; ghahr ckhuh mr'ntndi hakar. 
The village is kachcha (i.e., not the place to get anything) ; 
the city is like a river (there everything goes on swimmingly). 

G&mat garah Jcaiyd mi'idf 

Shall one house give answer to the whole village ? 
'' What can I say f Ton are all against me." 

G&muk »uh tah akahruk hm ekhuk banbar.' 
A village tiger and a city dog are equal. 

A atnpid man trom the city is cqaal to the great man of the 


GSid hwdin tah yiniar leatin. 

Wben the prostitute becomes old she spina the wheel. 

Ointk hawai einik pr/s iund tkikir T 

How can the kit« know the prey of the hawk 1 

G&nth leyah x&nik bachah dod tah hdntk kgah edniA putrah 

Does the kite know anything of the pain of his prey 7 Does 

the barren woman consider the child's pain ? 

Cited b; Che beggar as he tnniB away nnhelped from the ricli man's 

Gbk\K %ak kunih tah, ffdifak aul ? 
No kite anywhere, but the kite's neat ready. 
Buildup a stable belore the horse is pnrohaaed. 

Gais t»ul gimak tah gah* phakah nishik mukale. 

The tiuiner has run away from the village and the people are 

relieved of the ttumer s smell. 

Bid of the ofEendi^ party. 
Gar ffuttdah. 
The fat man of the honse. 

A lazy master of a honse. 
Gar mora Otmg&. 
Ganges in the house. 

Hindnst^ni. — AW, i Iiwnal apne ghar haiihe hi dimlat pimge 
Y6ir g}u>r i Jiegi to dhuTidhne ky«n jdenge. 

Gnrfi Ninak to Ai^od. 

Gar na hi»had hebik andar ndrak phih, j6n i shtrin mbardyad 

khwih ma khtadA. 
If there is not the warmth of fire in one's bosom, the precious 

life will certainly come out, 

" Warmth of 6ro in one's bosom" refers to the tSngar. 

Gar pelk xdmulhttr bar pelh Aun, 

A son-iu-Iaw who lives always in his father-in-law's house, is 

like & dog at the door. 

Hindfia are so very fond of their children, malo or fomalo, that 
they eamnot bear Che idoa of a eeparation, and eo the eons- in-law aro 
invited to come and dwoU nndar the same roof. Nearly every 
wealthy family has its quondim of sona-iQ-law, who generally spend 
their time in eating, drinbiag, Hmoking iwd sleeping at the expense 
<it their fathers-iii-I«iW. In this way they contract the most demo- 

ralixiog habits, and are a scorn and reproach to all right-minded 
people. Snoh are Cfllled Gar Zfimnthur. In Bengal thej are isalled 
Ohar J&mi'L~~Vide " Hindoa as they are," p. 73, f. n. 

Garah gav Udkah-ndv, dakah dakak pokaniv. 

The house is like a maaure-boat, (oaly) by GonBtant Bhoving 

and pushing (does) it makeB progress. 

Teakah-ndv is a la:^ barKB generally stuffed full of vegetable 
manure gathered from the pal lake. These boata are bo loaded that 
only an inch or so appoara above water; conseqnently a Uttle stop- 
page might CDiDae it to sink. Thoy are towed and pnshed along to 
their destination, and are at once nnloaded on their arrival. 
Garah ftur attih tah Mnih, gardK rov m&nm&nih. 
A blind womaa and a one-eyed woman tried to keep house 

together, bnt they disagreed and brought the place to rain. 

Garah loandai garah gasA garah nerahah nak xa&. 

O home, I offer you a thousand houses, and I will never go oat 

from you. 

No place like home. 
Garaxmand ehkuh dewinak. 
A selfish man is mad (so grasping is he, and so incessant in 

his solicitations). 
Gari nun til. 
Salt and oil in the house. 

cited against a man, who makes money on parohasea for his 
father, bnt does not take np any special work for himself. 

Gdri gojih. 

(Like) the kernel of a water-cheatnut (singhirah). 

A Kashmiri cnrse, meaning '' May year eyes start out of yonr 
head through trouble aud sorrow." Also when a person is not sharp 
at finding any thing, anothar person will sometimes say, "Ton, giri 
gojfh, can't yon see itP" 
Gari warih dagin. 
Pounding apices in the bouae. 

A coward. 

" Founding spioes in the house" hers means living indooTB and 
afrud to stir out. 

Garibas tjiye Mir tah mandinen t&m iurhas jaahnah. 
A thief entered the house of a poor man, and they feasted 

themselves until mid-day. 



It ft of no nte for a poor man to oomplain. The police onlj ver 
hint more, until he is obliged to bribe them to keep quiet. 

Again theae words are often quoted when more than the invited 
people are present at the wedding-feaat. Hearing the sound of 
mnsio psssers-b; go in, are lost in the company, and eat, drink, 
and steal to their hearts' content till mid-daj. 

Garth ehhtiAah, kih nah yaxmanak handih ? 

Are you in your own bouse, or in your diaciple's house? 

Brihmans and othei" holy men do not eat mnoh in their Own 
honaoB, bnt save the money, IThen they visit thair disciples' hoosee, 
they eat their fill. 

Cited to B child who is going beyond bounds at the dinner. 

Garih diyin tdh edmin mah aUin. 

Better to give something from the house than to become 
surety for anyone. 

"He that is snrety for a stranger shall muarttorit." — Prov. li. 15. 

Garih gaiak tah mathidih tsohff. 
Darkness in the home, but a light in the mosque. 
Miserable and miBerly at home, bat pleasant enoogh and libeisl 

abroad. A frequent answer to the MnUahs, when they became im- 
portnnate in their demands for oontribntions towards the support of 
the mosquao^ 

Garih maia chhuh garyil; dam ganhnat atl. 
The bell-striker at the hour ; breath is as spoil. 

A man, Az&n KMn by name, became mad from much reading, and 
went about tbe city ehouting these wDrds, He was of very good 
family, but turned a fakir. All his money, excepting a small portion 
which WM given to his wife and children , was distributed amongst 
the poor. The wife married again, and the children were taught a 
trade, and are now earning a respectable livelihood. 

Garih nah bazin iah nmibat waiin ! 
No oil in the bouse and the band plays ! 

A man who is obliged to stint his stomach in order to cover hig 
back or feed his horse, or pay his extra servants. A hard struggle 
to keep up appearances. 

Garih tih hilt parih ttk hSk tt^-kalckah ziak gari dr&h. 
Vegetables in my own bouse and vegetables in another's house. 
O life, you should not have come forth from your bouse. 

Vegetables here means tronble. Cited when one has trouble in 
the house and goes to another person's house and tliere gets mora 


Garih yelik Ualik, tai SMh tapanih rM ; adoA hd mSKh 

ckhui Ti'ik Bat Un. 
When a man escapes from the boose, and the king is luqipy, 

then, O Father, is Tazi Bat's arrow. 

After adversity oomes prosperity. 

A mftn OTert^en by misfortnne ran away from hiB hmiBB. To 
support himself he hanted with hia bonr and arrow. The king ot the 
coantry had promised that the loaii irho ooold shoot on arrow 
ttrongh his ring at agrven distance should receive a robe of honour 
and other reivards. The ring was hanged np in a certara place and 
a man always stationed by it to see fair play and report to tbe kin^. 
The poor man wag shooting birds one day near to tbe place whoro 
this rin^ was suspended, when hj the will of God the arrow was 
whirled by the wind straight through the ring. Ibo man in charge 
immediately sent word to the Conrt, and the poor hunter was 
rewarded, and able hencefrath to lay down his bow and airow and 

GutaA Aun lak aholak kin tah puji Aun, yim trih kvni ekhih 

Tbe landing- place Aog, the riTer-bed Ao^, and tbe batcher's 

Ao^, these three dc^ are alike (a wretched lot). 

GaUh Prunts tattk chhai zilak. 
Go to Piinch and there get ague. 

I wish you wero at Jericho. 

P&vch is abont five marches from Srfnagar in a north-west direo 
tion. It is a compact town and has a good blis&r. lUji Mot! Singh 
resides there, and holds a considerable tract of country in fief under 
his cousin, the present Mahirfljah of Kashmir and Jammed. 

Gi'iv diyik nah tah wuUA eASyih ■iiah. 

The cow will not give (milk) and the calf will not drink it. 

Sl«p-mother and step-childrsn, who generally hate one ancrther. 

Also cited concoming an old servant and his master. Both have 
got M dislike one another, bat eaob does not like te give the ' other 
" notice to leave." 

Gowih ehhvA wonamut katih hini ditam tah tattk ht'ni dimai. 
The cow said, " Give to me bj the throat (i.e., feed me) and 

I will give to you hy the tail" (i.e., I will snpply you with 

milk, ghf, and butter). 

Food a servant or an animal well and they wiU serve yon wi^ 

Ger ehhd dmut. 

You have got very earnest (about tbifi work). 

■,G Otitic 


There was a lazy woman, who never oafed to spin or to do an^ 
wod. Her hasband spoke to her aboat her lazineHB. Slie replied, 
" Ah ! let me atone now. The time la coming, whan I shall be m> 
fond of work, that I shaU ^t throngh any qmuitity in do time" 

One day they were going to Tnlamula. and as they were starting, 
the wife said to her hnshand, " I ehonld liko to do some work. Get 
jne a apinning wheeL" The hnaband said the abtrre words, bnt ha 
oonld not at that time obtain a wheel. 

Qhoakah tah gyav Ichyotn hr&rih. 

I would Bing but the cat has eaten uit gh(. 

CircnmBtanoes are so that a person is afraid to spealE at to aot ftnr 

Hindnstinl. — Kofittn, met mar jae; 

Sa IcaKwn,, dnp hiili khd«. 

Oil tik okMh d&nye hdhchhun. 
Gil also wants some rice. 


Gil is a Mohammedan woman's name. 

Gov m&r hoxan *6n tah dandah m&r nah hotfm Itanh. 

Strike a cow and eTeryone . will exclaim, (" what a ahome to 

strike the cow which supplies you with milk!"); but 

strike an ox and nobody will say a word. 

The cow here represents the great man and the 02 the poor man. 

Gov s&B viutxh »id mlh guMi. 

The cow bore a calf, which I should hare (and will hare). 
Where there's a will there's a way. 

Griit sund hakkur hyuh. 

Like a farmer's young untrained ox. 

A useless fellow. 

Grfuiu agar autiyd bithad liilc-i-bvriyd ne»t. 

If the ploughman becomes a "lord," yet he is not then eren 

fit to sit upon the matting. 

A Persian proverb with only the first word altered. Persians say 
PiMdn agar, ^e, 

Grutta xii hjutu. 

The huabaudmaa is like an elephant (i.e., a strong, big 
clumsy fellow). 



Gudah driv Jum Bat dum dvmat, het ; pataA driya» Rotian 

bhtih pothiA ndlah kSt. 
Pirst came out Jum Bat, bringing a drum ; aftenrords came 

out Roshan, his sister, bearing a garland of fiowen. 

From horses to aases. 

Jum Bal w&s tonnerlj a well-to-do officer in H. H. tlie Hahtkriijah'» 
Court. He became very poor and item obliged to do the mean work 
of a town-crier. His sister, too, eqnolly bombled herself by going 
about the city celling garlands of £owerSi 

Gudah lorih-han tak patah korih-han. 

First (he asks for) jour walking-stick and then (he wants) 

your pet daughter. 

Eiodnetini— OhgU pakarte pahuneJid, paJsornd. Boil deka baJcri 

Gudanich htlai ehhai hit tai tit ; 
Jhiyim kulai ehhai garik garih drii; 
Trtyim hdat UaUn gufUih tah kadalf 
Tsttrimih badal lagih nah hahh. 
A first wife is as jasmiue and income ; 
The second wife swears hourly by your name ; 
The (bird wife cuts bridges, great and small ; 
The fourth wife — there is no one like her for all manner of 

wickedness ; she is a hopeless character. 

" Swears hourly by your name" means she makes great profes- 
aion at love (or yon. Eaahmirfs frequently swear by the person or 
thii^ they moat lore. 

" Oats bridges" is said of mischievoas and extravagant wives, who 
alti^tether binder their hnsbands from crossing over to the other 
side, where prosperity and peace are to be had. The reader will 
please remember that Kashmir is a valley fall of rivers and streams* 

Gudanich Tculai ehhai rani matsui ; 

Duyim Teulai ehhai lotih kehtjhah ; 

TrSpim kulai ehhai tHih makaUm ; 

The first wife goes mad over her husband ; 

The second wife — there's something good in her; 

The third wife is as an axe to the head. 

Gudamik todA gatihik nah riwarun. 

One must not lose the first offer (lit., trade). 

Eashmfrl traders, like those of Some European oonntries, are very 
BaperstitiouB abont refusing the offer of the day's first customer. 
Ihey will frequently rather lose tbau allow him to depart wilheat 
purchasing sonetbiag. 



Cuh graiiah-hal. 
Manure by the mill-house. 
Cited against a man who after promotion is rodnced to his former 

Cuh %6nih tah Ulehik. 

The duDg will know and the spade (but I am not the person 

to have to do with, or to know anything abont, such a 

mean affair as that). 
Gtthali ffupan nun khheiht, garik sapati m&n Uw&n, 
Jungle cattle eat aalt while the home cattle lick the wall. 

Charity ihoold begin at home. 
Ghv badih son, Mnah kkeyih ckon. 
Our horse will grow big and will eat yoar grain. 

Cited when a wife's relatione keep her rather a lon^ time; also 
when a friend bon-owR a horae or anTthing, and la not partionlar 
as to when he retoma it- 
Cur chkuh nah hkew&n petg ; yelth ohhaa buehih login, telih 

e^uk lehhD&n mttii. 
The horse does not eat the bulrash, but at the time of hunger 

he fvill eat earth. 
Gar dapiyi, JHh myon dud ekhuh t»oh t 
Will the milkman Bay that his milk is sour ? 

HindnstJnt. — Apvi cftacfLJi fco Khatln koi lutUn ftihCd. 
Gut gwrik tah ndkhliia» mwl pariMn. 
Leaving the horse in the house and going to aak the nakhas 

its price. 

Wishing to aell the gooda withoat first showing them. 
Vafchns ia the officer appointed over the sale of all horsea in the 
Talley- No peraon can sell a horse withont first arranging the prica 
with this officer and paying him one dnfi in the mpee. 

Gur j/in tumj'in, yil jin, eMl jAn, kadam nai. 

The hoTSe is a good one ; the hoofs are strong, the mane ia 

nice, the whole appearance is beautiful ; but the step ia 


A man with one glaring fault. 
0^ kawak zdntA Jeur haharit ? 

How will the milkman know how to many his daughter! 
(»,#., outside his own class of people). 

" Like blood, like goods, and like age«, 
Make the liappiegt marriages." 



Gur kyah pakHHk gird ehhuh pali&n. 

The horse does not walk, but the secret walks. 

People generaly tsiks a man for what he Beema to be, and not for 
what he is. It ia not the real man thef aee walkiag bat his dia- 
gniae, his secret. 

" For man ia praotieed in dlE^niae, 
He cheats the moat diaceming eyea." 

Gsifa Fafalea. 
Our ianhtak, toK ahanuher, yim ir^nawai ekhih be-tea/d, 
A horse, a We, and a sword, these three are unfaithful. 
PeraiaJL — Aep o mni o shanwber ma/ddar sa bighad, 

Garat giv bait toth&n batat giv lehH rosAdn, 

The cow-herd's cow, whether she gets a good meal or not, is 
ft comtbrt to him ; but the Paudit's cow eats aad is angiy. 
What ia the good of keeping a beast for mace show ? 

Gvrt ehkuk dupamul '' Kkaeawunit UMrat, watavntnit 

The horse said "I will help 700 to mount the ascent, hut 

you lead me down the hill." 

Guri garih chhui wutjh riw'm t 

Does any harm happen to the calf in the milkman's house ? 
A sarrant of a good master ; a son of a good and clever father. 

Gvri garth watxki kur buhik wakari d&h. 

The calf lowed after twelve years in the milkman's house. 

A little child aomatimes speaks after a long silence. After manj 
feara of barrenness sometimes a Woman gives birth to a child. 

Girt wohawak ehkuu imitjh tnarin f 
Does the calf die by reason of the milkman's curse ? 
A child's reply to a parent's hard throats and words. 

Gurxh kAtml tik bethckod tah gurih, wagit tik bSlAckod, 
Whether on horseback or on foot he ia a scamp. 

Do what you will somebodj will speak evil of yon. Yon cannot 
please everyone. 

The Kaahmtrla have a story similar to oar sohool-book story of 
the "Old man and Ms donkey." 

A very wicked Kashmiri owned a pony. One day he was riding 
upon the animal, while his daughter waa walking on in front. Ihe 
passera-by on seeing this cried out, " Wliat a shame ! WTiat a lazy, 
cruel man !" The man felt a little ashamed of his thongbClossncsB, 
ajid calling his daughter took her ap with him on the pony. Thns 


fhef proceeded for some digtance, when other people met them and 
Biclaimed, " Eather a big load for a small pony"j whereupon the 
man and bis daughter both got oB and led the pon; along by a 
string for the raat of the jonniey. 
GuriA lawdri tak hMrackih atah-gat. 
To the mare ridiag, to the foal trouble. 

Going to work a man calle after his mate to oome along as well. 
The latter replies as abova, " What ia the goodP I ahonld only bo 
like the foal rumiing after its mother." 

Atah-gat coirespoadB to the Hindastinf inA-jini. Eereitmeans 
tronble, beoanse people run nboat hither and thither in time of 

Atak-gat is also the name of that money whioh the Hindii father 
places in the hand of his married dsQghter when ahe goes on a visit 
to her hoaband's family. The " going and coming" pay. 
Gurin Ugih nde tak Ichar ptd padar d&rit. 
The horses got shod, and the donkeys put out their hoofs 
(for shoeing). 

Seek not what ia beyond jonr position. 
Gwrin nahpoiMn, lixpkaUn ehoh. 
He caa't manage the horses, and so he beats their manure. 

Too weak to trouble the " big guns," and therefore he oppresses 
the poor. 

Gurmut pingah tak mnmut myvnd. 

Money made up (iuto gold, silver, and copper ornaments) is 

like a cooked mouthful (i.e., they are ready for sale in case 

of need, and until then thej are useful omameuts). 
GuTtatm&l tak Uud fvet patak kant. 
Wishing to dnnk the butter-milk, but hiding the vessel 

behind him. 

To eat little when dining oat, and to refnae more, yet all the while 
longing to eat a big dinner. 

Gyav kkewin tak gardatUk kun aikak It'gan. 
£atiDg gb{ and then feeling his neck (to see if be was getting 
fat, the fool, — as if results would happen so quickly m that) ! 



Hd milih, E& miji ! 
father, O mother I 

Among other oocasioos used on the following : — A man wants » 
loan, and the person wliom he asks far thia loan, replies : " I would 
lend it jou willingly, bat ' So, maXih, So, mtiji' when Bhall I get 

Sabbah »Mh ioiti telih nak tah wuni. 

O Babbah Shih, tumour wdli, then, not now, was the time 
(for removing it) ! 

^pporfiinit)' passed, 

Sabbah Shih bad a big ngly tumour on his forehead which might 
easily have been removed at one time, but he allowed the opportonity 

Hachivis guru eachuv zin. 
Tat hut hhaiih f Maii-Din. 

A saddle of rags for a wooden horse. Who will mount him T 

Let a fool have to do with foolish things. 

Mahidin was a great student. Beport says that he was well-Dp in 
all languages and religions ; at all evente, he became mad and his 
name a proverb. His son now wanders about the cit; in a mad 
condition, and everybody does hlTO honour. 

M6jih Bdbak maehdmoA, khUnak tjarit/d ? 
O H&j{ B4ba, give me some dinner 7 Is it any trouble for 
you to eat ? 

This is replied sometimes, when any person wants a. Bpeoial favour 
from another person ; or when a servant applies for increased wagee, 

ULaxhAiRoh is a company dish oousieting of rice, vegetables, raisins, 
coloaring matter, and sugar. 

S&hak Mrat gedih ekapdt. 
A cabbage to a thief is as a slap on the cheek. 
Little punishment for a small theft. 

HaJdmat tah hdkimiM nithih raekhta»t SkudAvo. 
O God, deliver me from the doctor and the mler. 

Both Mahammedans and Hindlis are frequently beard praying 
this prayer as the; squat by the i^t in the morning, washing them- 


HaJck nahpdthiA lah inim I 

IVe not got my righta, and yet he g^ves me a reward ! 

When Kashmfri people give & little more than they intended, ot 
tbink riglit, for anj article, thej' are apt to tell the shopkeeper thsdi 
the overploB is largeBse. The seller nonld then reply aa above. 

Sdl gatskuni cHKeh pil gat»hvni. 

To form habits is to make pain [e.g., a habit of drinking, 
Btnokiog, gambling, and extravagant dining, &c.) 

Saldlai hudb iah hariimas ast&h- 

A reward for things legal and punishment for things illegal, 

Sdlav galan nd tah ddnls dih karit ? 

The locusts will certainly decrease, but (meanwhile) they are 


IB bat his in 

Small nninbers of locoata rlsit Kaalunfr almost every jear. Bome- 
timea a great army of them invades the valley and does terrible 
injary to the crops. 

MnhammedaiiB eat the locnst. They dry them in the son, then 
grind them into powder, and afterwauls make cakes ot them. Thej 
are r^^arded as a gi«at delicacy. 

Boatin of S&'dL — Sa dor kok labzi na dar JAgJ* slvMt ; 

Malakh bitstdn khurd, o marduni moEaj^. 

HeiUn b&nan wukari fh&n ; hiheti kihi gaimakMn. 

Dented covers for dented saucepans ; and like men for like 

Saminim harih rizah iah tivjie garib ; 

BukhAri learih garib lah tSwis rdmh. 

A wealthy man can build a bath-room and a poor man can 

make it hot ; 
A poor man can build a fire-place and a rich man can burn it. 

The whole world is one great family, each member of whioh, be hs 
ever so lowly, is indispensable for the help and comfort of the other. 

BamsSj/ak wandiyav, garo. 

house, I will make an offering to you of my neighbour. 

To try and pass one's misfortnao on to the head of another. 

In time of sickness and trouble people are aooastomed to make 
offerings onto the honse. Sometimes a rsm is slain, and the priests 
are assembled and fed, and special worship is paid to the gods. 
Instead of offering anything at his own eipense the man in the 
proverb wished to offer somethii^ belonging to his neighbonr. 


Hand truh mand ranih, Jcaehal ink karik nah kehh. 
A pereon with a little tact will cook a maund (i.e., will do 
Botnething), but a dull, ignorant person will do aotiiing. 

Bangah nah iah rangah nah zangak eiehk ha»hye. 
Dod nah tdh dag nah. Kaieah yiyim auikge ? 
I am independent of fou, O long-legred mother-in-law. 
There is no pain or agony to me. wTiy should I weep ? 
No love is loat between motheiB-m-law and their cbUdran-in-law. 

Hdhlhgayih barae g&ht dit. 

The barren woman fastened her door and went. 

No heir to look after the property. 

E&htik ndy&o guhar thitulipajih ddryiv i». 
A barren woman bore a son, and the small-pox swallowed 
him up. 

A man who sntferB much pain rather tlian give np & work, bnb 
attar all dies in the midst of oairyiiig it ont. 

Min»a» gubeyih Inlih, dittkan ddrit Jmhh. 

It became a weight upon the boatman's bosom, and bo he threw 

it into the river. 

Cit«d when a man of some family marries hia son to a daughter of 
lower birth, cs does anything else eqnaU; ignoble, becaoBe he cannot 
afford to do the right thing. 

M&nzat yUih ehhuk daryivas andar w&v yiwdn, puth namah 

ehhuh bronlh namah hardn tah brohth nantah ehhuh puth 

namah kardn. 
When a storm arises on the river the boatman rushes from 

the fore-part to the hinder-part of the boat, and from the 

hinder-part to the fore-part. 

A man in trouble knows not what to do. 


Scarcity (lit., an outcry is raised). 

While these worda are being written there is flap* Myun in the 
oit; of Srinagar Qonaaming rioa. For soma reason or other rioe ia 
soaioe and dear. 

Sipat aakud hyuh gamut tuh ekis n&ydb. 

Like the bear's ashud that thing has become scarce. 

It is said that when the bear gets this grass, he doToors it moat 
greedily, and beeomes unoonsoious for six mooths afterwards. 



Hipat y&rws. 

A bear's friendship. 

A stupid friend. 

A baaT formed friendship with a man who was pasBing throngh 
hie joi^le. For some time he brought hia friead large quaDtitiea of 
honej. One day the maa fell asleep after eating the honey. While 
adeep a bee attracted bj the swaetness alighted npon his month. 
The friendly bear seeing this thooght that he noald save the man 
from the pain of a sting, and so he went and fetched a great pieoe of 
rock and aimed it with all his might at the place where the bee was. 
The stone frightened awaj the bee, but killed the man! Cf. "Folk- 
tales from the Upper PunjSb," by the Eev. C. Swynnerton, Joiwnai 
Aaatic Soeiet]/, Bengal, 7ol. LII., Fart I-, I8S3 ; also the story of the 
oalf who got its head into the pot in " Notes on some Sinhalese 
Proverbs and etoriee in the AtSta-V^kya-Diponiya," by A. M. 
8en£niyaka ; also the story given in " Dosent'a Nomogian Folklore," 
where a goody iB discovered by a friend beating her bosband's head 
with a mallet in order to make a hole for the head in a shirt, which 
had been previoofly thrown over it ; also the Hakosa Jatoka, whero 
a son broke his Mher's bald head to kill a mosquito, which had 
settled npon it. 

Hdpatas at aul Ssiheh tah ruh hariheh ni Uuehih ? 
If the bear bad flour would he not make bread I 

Cited agunst a poor man with extravagant ideas. 

The bear may be sometimes seen smaokit^ his pawa together a« 
natives do when tbey are making ohapitls. 

"Sar har, har har, har wiiih sur kar. 

Fight by all meaoa, but at the time of fighting be careful. 

B6r Ithhodn gut tah "k&r m6ri ntdri. 

The starUng eats dung and then shakes his head in a pleased 

Bort of way. 

A shameless man. 
Mar rangah munbat chkm ak diio&na^. 
Every kind of miafortune is a madness. 
Sirah t«Mf. 
A cowrie thief. 

A mean fellow, a stint. 
Sarimuk m&l hardmaokih toatih ; nak hheyihp&naa tah nai 

nSt/ih athik- 
Ill-gotten wealth goes in the way of wickedness ; the getter 

neither eats it himself, nor takes it with him. 

Persian.— Mai t horanv \rud hi^ e haram rajt. 



SardtA ffurtu melras, tontah gurut shetrtu. 

Antamn butter-milk for the tnend, and spring bntter-milk for 

the enemy. 

The antnmn gnus is much better than the spring grata t oohm- 

qaentlj the milk is better ia the autumn. 

Harqfat gatoih ioA mendia sAarik. 

A witness against (my) words but a sharer in (my^ monthful. 

The man who u always " loafing" about like the tD&hallad&r or 
■pies, appointed over evety village and diatrict in Kashmir. 
SArih at louhih htnun 6nh tah i4r mft ^tih tah herisis h/ah ? 
If an elephant is to be sold for a cowrie, and there ia not a 

cowrie, what can be done 7 

Nothing can be done without money. 
H6rih am hharah kanit Ueh ehhtd »yud hozanak yiwSn. 
Yon think him a righteous man, but he would Bell you for a 

cowrie in the market. 
Birth gov ndv Ityak t 
What is the name to a H^ T H£r, of course. 

"That's a table? A table, yon stupid I" 

£<fr is a black and white oow. People gire a special n«ne to 
ereiy oow except this one. 

'Rank, Aarih tamih hoh. 

Gradually from chippings a mountain is made. 

Hany a little makes a mnckle. 
Mdrih nakjH ; ndiadpktdU ghM ! 
No place for a cowrie, but place for sweetmeats I 

" The doctor orderB this and that, but how oau I aSord it ?" 
Birth tod& tah Mzarat hkalbali. 
He haa only a cowrie to spend, but he rushes about and 

makes a stir all orer the b&z4r. 
R&rih tah totat toanttn. 
(May as well] speak to a starling (or a parrot). 

An inattentive person. 

Bin fang tah eulaknai j muAuri tsohl tah eulit. 
If the pear cost only a cowrie it should not be peeled ; but if 
the apple coat a muhur it should be peeled. 

Natives ot Eashmir, from H. H. the HabaiAjah down to the ham- 
blest Bubjeot, ieldom over skin a pear, but t^waya skin on apple. 
Apple-akin, they aay, is not easily digested. 



Mariat har tah barkat lean. 

Be up and doing hdcI God will biees you. 

Persian' — Himmaf i worddn modad i KhudA. 
Saramulckuh Gosdni. 
The jog( of Haramukh. 

Harnimtlih is a, moantRin 1B,90S feetliigb, to tbenorthoFEMhmtr. 

A person with a bad jaemory. 

There was a JogI who tried to moant HarEunnkti. Every da; for 
twelve years he tombed to a certain height, aad evei; night for the 
Bame space of time he deeoended as far ae he had ascended. How 
it came to pass be could not tell. Perhaps he was a soEmambalist. 
At any rate everif moniiiig he fonnd himseU reposing qnietly in tha 
very spot, whence he had started on the previons morning. 

One day, the last day of these twelve years, a shepherd was seen 
by this Jogl coming down from the mountain. The Jog{ asked him 
whether he had reached the snmmit and what he had eeen there. 
The shepherd replied that he had reached the top of the monntain, 
and had seen a sweeper with his wife, and they were milking a 
bitch with a human head, and they had asked him to drink that 
milk, which he had refneed to do, becaase he thought that it 
was onholy ; and then they threw some tiki apon bis face, which, 
perhaps, was there now The Jogf knew that that the sapposed 
sweeper and his wife were none other than tbe god and goddess 
Shiva and Parvati, and so be went close ap to the shepherd's faca 
and licked off the tSkA, He waa then canght op into the oloods 
mach to the astonishment of the poor shepherd. 

Tbe reason the shepherd was able to climb the mountain and the 
Ji^ onable, was, that the shepherd went np heedlessly and totally 
ignorant of the great deities who resided on the summit. ("An 
ignorant man fears nothing.") 

A boy with a dull memory wockB hard all the evening, and the 
nert morning, when he comes to appear before the schoolmaster, be 
finds that be knows nothing, and is like the Jogl, as he was, and 
where he was, before. 

Hirueh gugaj iah Ldrueh gunat chhih bar&bar. 
A June turnip and a "Lit aerpent are eqael. 

A native wonld not eat a turnip in the month of Jnne on any 

flwnai (or af'a) is a short, thick, round-headed aerpent, whose bite 
is generally fatal. Some say it has a black back and yellow belly ; 
others that it is aah colour. It is met with principally in the 
district of Lir. The native method of tiwiting snake bites is amns- 
ing. " When a person is stnng on the arm or 1^, a ligatore is 
applied between Uie heait and ^e woand, which is besmeared with 
foam. The patient has 'arak and conserve of roses given him to eat, 
while musio is played to cheer him up." 

LAr is a parganah of the Eamr&i distcioi 


ffaiak Matin leatamat 
Hasah the madman's wealth. 

A. BpendUirift's money. 

Eath tih had tak nosh lih bad tej dux tah w&Uh hut ? 
The mother-in-law is ^reat, the daughter-in-law is ftlso great ; 
tlie pot is burnt, who will take it off the fire ? 

Sotnsbodj mnat do Che work. 

Hath gayih tah notMh kur dr6m. 

GraDdmother (on husband's side) died and the daughter-in- 
law got peace. 

TheM old dames hare great authority orer the entire hooaebotd. — ' 
Vide " Hind^ bb they are," Chap I., pp. S, i. 

Batti dareyi nak wivak tah bujih had Jcapat. 
The elephants couldn't stand because of the wind, but the 
old woman went out and gathered the cotton from the plant. 

A poor, insignificHut "in.n can often acoomplish what kinga and 
otbeiB in aatbority have ntterly failed to do. 

Batti yad gitah gyad, 
A handful of grass for an elephant's stomach. 
A mere drop in a bucket. 

Hattit yadphal tah hangih delih with ! 

The elephant's stomach burst open and tbey mended it with 

hemp-akin 1 

Imp^ect lepflira. 

Hatah dedi ruhana man dii, tah hheni turn nah ak leuj ! 
" 0, mother, two and h&lf ntaunds of onions will be given to 

you ; " and she has not got a plant to eat ! 

Fromiia of help, but no means of fulfilling it. 

Hatah juwah puhtshi mek'tik hetah manx. 

Hie, sir, here's a puntshti. Take me into your company. 

A man who foroes himeelE npon people who do not particularly 
cate for him. 

Pimtth& is the twentieth part of an &n&, a small coin, not in use 
now, but to be obtained in the bdaSr. 

Hatah mvr hakim. 

The doctor killed a hundred men. 

A doctor of some experience. 



Hatik gav eih matih gov. 

A promise is a charge to keep. 

Workmen who have promised to do eome work, and on that 
promise have received some rupeoa in advance, often repeat tliese 
woFda as Ihej walk away from die pcraou'a house. 

Satis kkagh tak hangani miihi. 

Kisses for the chin and an ase for the throat. 

A traitor. 

H^xirtu bog nMras chob. 

A share of the dinner to each of those present, hst a beating 

for the cook. 

aic VOD non roiis. 
He& pantsk, dih pantsh bar&bar. 
To take five or giye five — all the same to him, 

Hellah haro, Hdjo, pallah, chhid dor. 

Be encouraged, pilgrim, though jour destination is far off. 

Enconraging a man in a difficult work. 

E^dyai iein tah hiwwni mahpayin hdiaik. 

Patronize and be patronized, but do not tell any one, lest 

there should be harm (to the person patronized). 

Keep jour own coimBol. 
Hern Tcemi, 
Like an insect to the pod (so is sin to a roan). 

Sin brings its own punishment vjith it. 

S&nah is tah meh nah roh. 

Involved in difficulty, or taken prisoner, but for no fault of 

Tho gniltlesa pnnished for the guilty. 
Heng &s nah tah teatshartti chkeh .' 
She has not got horns yet, she is only a calf! 

Cited DOncemicg a woman who bears her lirst child lata In lite. 
A beardless man. An elderly person withont a groy hair. 

Herat /lyih wandwni leuk uah tah nah kaiik. 
When Herat came eleven days of winter, or nothing, re- 

Herat (Shii-a.rdlH) is a Hindu fosLival hold on the tomLceutli 
of tho daik fortuight in tho month I'hiiguu (I'cb.— Match). 


Berih tnutjhai anigalih, hut chhulum baritih naiik yet garag 

yii viatih. 
I came down BtniTB in the dark nnd wRstied my face in a 

waterpot filled with water. This must be done in this 


If jon go to Rome yoa mast do as Home does. 
Hisib h/iriA tah bakhsAiah Icharwiirih, 
To take account of every cowrie, but to give away money by 

the maund (80 lbs). 

Cnretol bat geaeroos. 
Hojtav ratshvi id. 
A festival without dc^s. 

Pleasare without difficulty. 
Hand man'-n kih nah hat, Lalih nalawat Ualik wik zah. 
■Whether they killed a big sheep or a small one, it was all 

the same, Lai always had the nalawat in her plate. 

Hardly treated. 

Lai DM was very badly treated by her One of 
the waya ia which this woman delighted to toaee her was by sending 
a atone called nalawat ia her dinner. Cf. " Panjab Notes aoii Qneriea," 
Ho 30. Note 743. 

Eonih cAon buth nahjak cMnia hhuwanda/t mnd lik n/i ? 
You have not a face like a bitch ? Then your husband has 

(i.e., all the lot of you are bad). 
Honili kkhfihjctx sin, bani hheyikpancA »&n. 
He will eat a bitch, fur and all ; and he will eat a chindr 

tree with the leaves. 

Qv/sreKda fiecania jirtmum, virlaa post nunmios. 
Honin neUn tah monin tachun. 
fleecing dogs and scratchiiig walls. 

Pluughing the seashore. 
Hor h-v. 
A black and white crow, 

A marked man. 
Hud yav kunui mi/und, 
Jast a morsel without vegetables left. 

Natives are accnstomed to eat their dinner in tho following 
manner. First they tako a monthfnl of rice, and thon a little vc^'e- 
table, and so on regularly, until the muiil ia over. Should tlii^re 
happen to be a Httlu rico left, but no voi;etabIe, &«., left to vut with 
it, that little rice is not eatou. 


Hud is drj and poor food ; withont v^etablcs, Ac. 
Cited coQoorniii!j one who ia eipcriencioR a littlo trouble in his 
old age. All the previoiis time he has been vor; prosporons. 

IIukm-i-Ai'.him o hakim chhuh marg-i-mafi'.ji.t. 

The ruler's aod the doctor's orders are (like) suddeo death 

(i.e., they both roust he obeyed quickly). 
Hul gandit batick natxi'in. 
Tightening her girdle the duck dances. 

Cited against a woman, who wishing to quarrel, goea and naitoB in 
a '' row" going on close by. Eashmfri women have terrible toogues 
and moat ahrill voices- At the time of qaarroUing they eoreech, 
shout, and dance to any extent. 

Hul gandit har kar^n- 
To tighten one's girdle and fight. 
Ho meaaa bnsineas. 

Hul kyah harik »edis ? 

What shall a crooked man do to a straight man ? 

The strength of a good character. 

Emi atin tah "kwa tnak ihin. 

May you be a dog, but not a younger son. 

Yoonger sons are generally the father'a butt, the mother's scorn, 
and the brother's fag. 

Persian.— £iig Jidah 'kM.Td ma bash. 

Ilan hvs netik tah kw" lent mangit nh/ik ? 
Who will fleece a dog and who will take and marry a girl ? 
A good miuTiage is not such an eaay matter. 

Htw nak tah hutswrta. 
Not a. dog but a pup only. 
A childiah-looking or childish-mannerud pereon. 

Buni hvni har hardn tah shilah sinzih lungih wizih hunt. 
Dogs fight among themselves, but at the time of the jackal's 
cry they are united. 

GnemicH are nnited against one common foe. 

Huni luf ai thamtSa kandilat andar, tatik tih tterih huni 

If a dog's tail be set in a kandil, there even it will remain a 
dog's tail, 
Plouu dous not allor race. 


KandU {Kandfl, Arabic,) is the painted wooden or sHvet boi abont 
1^ ft. long and J ft. in circaniferenco in which tbe heron's feathers 
are fiied, and from which they depend. Aa many as three hundred 
fcatberB are sometimes worn, and an much aa one rupee has been 
ffiven for a feather. Rich people keep them banging from the ceil- 
ings of their rooms from fear of the cat. Poor people can only 
afford to hire them for weddings, i^. P There are three or four 
Letonriea in Kashratr. 

Hani misaa wHal wAxak. 

The sneeper is the cook for dog's flesh. 

A wicltod, dirty man tor bad, dirty deeds. 

The WAtvl has been called the gipsy of Easbmlr, and indeed these 
people have all the manner and appearance of gipsies. They live 
ieparate from others, and by reason of their indiscriminate nse of 
food are despised by all others, both Muhammedans and Hindlis. It 
is a mootpoint whether the gipsies are not thedescendants of Kash- 
miris, who wero obhged Ui leave the valley at one time and anotbec 
on account of persecutions and famines. 

Huni neyih baslah hhalari. 

The dog took away the piece of leather (while the men were 

quarrelling over it). 

The dog represents the lawyer. 

Mini sund kyuh aahur, aehh pur, baUi dar, bulhis nor. 
May you have patience like a dog, aod may your eye keep 

undimmed. Let misfortune remain at a distance from yon, 

and let cheerfulness be always upon your face. 

A Kashmiri's blessiDg. 

One may often, see both Hind& and Muhammedan women spread- 
ing forth their hands in a supplicating manner and offering this 
prayer aa they squat by the river-side in the early morning. 

Sini tooriin tah Ic^^rawdnah pahin. 
The dogs hark but the caravan goes on. 
A dog may as well bark at the moon. 

Mhd-wuahhdh yur nak watoin iur how6n. 
Tares spring up where we do not sow them. 

Hini-iimshiah literally is dog-barley. 

Hunik masMdik hundjinn. 
The ogre of the deserted moBqut 
A wretched, selfish fellow. 



Banis athih aut mdndan^.nmn. 
To knead flour by a dog's paw. 

He milor nltra cre^dnm. 

Shtria o Khngrag. — Ki az 6i*i(nffl najjari jw liyad. 
Binit chob dmah nerih gaevi yot. 
You only get mannre from hitting a dog. 

What is the good of a, polioauutu beating a poor man J Ho will 
not get a bribo. 

Bunts mukhtttMr. 

A string of pearls to a dog. 

Casting pearls before twine. 
Bunii pt/av " Sdbirah" ndv, tui, MmiUh, idnih yaa wuthit 

The name "Patient" has been given to the dog, but he 

knona, father, nhom he has come to bite. 

A generally good man, who uow and again breaks oat into a fit of 
paaaioc, &c. 

Burih hen wurik hyak tah Mnaa t 

"What ! will he throw a handful of grass into the fire-place ? 

Like a handfnl of graaa in a fireplace is a little mone; in a big; 
conoerQ — aoon swaUovred up, 
Burdui tah burdus! 
A heating and smiting 1 

Sach a bnllabaloo \ 
Busih WM» lah musih iyik paMi. 
A woman said something and she believed it. 

Byut hami tah dyut hami, 
Who took and who gave ? (God). 

" The Lord ^To and the Lord hath taken away." — Job i. SI. 


I. J. 

Jahi'muh tamok. 

Tobacco from Jah^m (i.e., splendid tobncco). 

Jahdm toliikcco is said to bo tho finest in the valley. 
Jahdn ehhuk asKkun matkar. 
The world is a theatre of love. 
Jam&at gayik harAmat. 
A company of men is as good as a miracle (i.e., difficult 

matters are eaailj accomplished by their mutual and united 

Jiin hua chhuh f Panun p&n. 
Who is good ? I myself. 

iSuion cuigue jrulcniin. 

JAnah, ditah doilir pinah ros tah Kvdah nun. 
Beloved, give me your turban and you remain bareheaded. 
Oited when a man saks for something which is indispeiuablo to 

Jandanui ehheh tuwak i»<'-n. 

Lice is in the be^ar's ragged cloak. 

A qniok reply given to tho importonate mendicant. 

Lice here stands for ■noDej'. Henco " Yod'vo got as much money 
as there are lice and dirt sticking to yonr garment." 
Jandtu p&ri, yalh kari^h wandaa rihat. 
Blessed be iJie ragged garment, which keeps me warm during 

the winter. 

The poor man's retort when twitted conooming the antiquity ot 
bis garment. 

Jangas manss ehhai Ikil tih tah gUi tih. 

You get purse and bullet, too, from fighting ; (therefore think 
over the matter before you enter the lists against an adver- 

A man bad on ass wbich ho used for carryiog loads by day, and 
WBB leaving oat in tho fiold at night to pick np wliat grass tho poor 
animal oonld find there. The aas robellod against snch treatment, 
and one night ran away to the king's stable, and was thero ted most 
liberally aJong with Uio royal horsua. Ho bocame very fat and 
strong and was very liappy i but, alas I a war comiiioocod, and when 
the enemy bad arrived near to tho king's capital, all the royal 


horasB, and tho eolitarr aea, won) turned onl and sent forward to the 
fight. There tlio aaa eaw one horao aftar anothor ehot down, and bc- 
oomii^ afraid he escaped baok nguiu to hia former master. '' Huro 
is theglili as woll aa thethil," aaid ho, as be galloped back. " Better 
to havo littlo and aure." 

" Jat pat " tih Khudi'i rat. 

"Quickly" you must lay hold upon God. 

Thore ia bat a step between yoa and death, or aome terrible mis- 
fortune, or some great event. Yoa mnat act at onoe. Then throw 
yonrgelf npon God to proaper you. 

Nee Deus intersit, nisi digitus vindice nodus. 

Jiyik ehkuleo xih skiyih ekhuko, 
Yoa are safe in your owo place. 

Landed and house property are Bnro investinents. 

Jawims nak rozgur s Ivhviis mdj marani ; iah hudis aakani 
marani. Tim trinawai k itiak chheh salcht munbal, 

A young man without work ; a mother dying and leaving a 
baby ; the wife of on old man dying. These three are 
terrible misfortunes. 

'Id gi'ih wasil sun hyak ranwo ? Watih harav maslahat Ttatih 

Icarav dun ? 
Tendaras bihit gvtah panun kiwai, thusih pan hk&rai ajih 

dwik tin. 
Daharik pihtsh gas jpat pdwak niwai; Mwai garah harun 

heho gav. 
Sulih wuUh gov pdat»h sah lih nov ehawai ; umrih thiwai 

gursak tamann'i 
Kalik peth walik pSIh bunah pkularovn ; baurai garah Itarun 

heho gan. 
Semit hket ckU pingah tkoh iMwai ; Mwiai garah learun heko 

Jiej pathpuwai itii\} mashrawai ; h'lwai garah learun hvho gav. 
Going to 'Id gah what shall we cook? Let us take counsel on 

the road, where we shall make the fire-place. 
Sitting at my wheel I will show you my wisdom, 1 will 

stretch the bad cotton to half the height of the wall. 
I will get a five-yard than for vou out of six pounds of wool ; 

I'll show you the manner of my house. 
I will uever g<.4 the milk at early morning from five cows; 

but 1 will keep you all your life waiting for milk. 


At a word upon the road I will break the pot ; I'll show 

you the manner of my house. 
I will eat and drink with my friends, but keep the millet-seed 

and straw for you. I'll show you the manner of my honse. 
I will give you the strainings of the pot ; and you will forget 

your mother. I'll show you the manner of my house. 

A laiy, ill-tempered woman. 

The anther of theae words is unknown, but everybody knows them 
and qnotcB them, in whole or in pait, and somGtimee in song, against 
that woman, throngh whose bad temper, indiscration, or estcava- 
ganc«, the haeband has been bronght to min. 

'Id gah, 'Id., Arab., (the place ol aacritice), is a bcantjfnl park-like 
plain tying jost ontaide the right of Srloogar. At its norUiem end 
there is a fine old wooden mosqne overshadowed by some lofty 
chinir trees. The moaque is called the 'Alf MaRJid, and was built 
in the time of Sultin Husaiu Bidshih by Khwdja Hasti, Sonar, aboat 
1471 A. D. No Mohammedan obaerves the fast of the Bamazlln 
with greater aCriotnesB than the Eaahmlri. 

Than is a piece of cloth. A fire-yard thdn wonldbe an extremely 
small one ; and eix ponnda of wool, if properly Hpnn, &tt., Bhoald 
make a full thSn of ten yards or more. 

Illal galik tah Adat galih nah. 
The ill may go, but the habit will stick. 
Ilm he-amal goyii hik an eindis athas maskat. 
Knowledge unused ii '" 
Persian — 'Urn i be 'a 

Jlmas gatihih amal lUuni, 

Knowledge should be brought into use. 

7n*.'n ekkuh poshih hhulah droeZ tak hanik hkutak dur, 

Man is more fragile thau a flower, and yet harder than a 

A man's own paia or trouble affects him, but not he tears and 
pain of another. 

Iniinah tund kirnat ckhui tatowttk-shat rupayik. 
The price of a man is Rs. 2,700. 

Two men get angry with one another and fight. The aboTo saying 
is generally quoted by the man who is getting the worst of the 
acrimmago, and wishes to and it. 

Two reasons hare been told me why this anm especially has boon 
set as the price of a man. One reason is, that in the days of tho 
Ileitis Bnpces 2,700 waa the fine imposed npon every murderer in 
lieu of hie life. Auothez roasou is, that Akbar, like other o<jually 


great anil enTiod moDarohs, was accoatomeil to sleep in secret places. 
Sometimes be woulil disguise himself as a faqlr, or as a shopkeeper 
and sleep by the roadside or in a, shop. One night ho iranilcrod a 
little farther than nsusl and found himself in a foroig^i and nocul- 
tivnted country. 8trauRBtosay.hisfayoritemimBtcr,B(tBal,hadals(i 
Btrayod to the same place. They mot, and whilo they wore engaged 
in coiiTOTBation, an one-eyed man camo up to them, and said to the 
king, " You have taken out my eye, which I think to be worth ths 
sum of Rupees 1,200. Give mo this money, or restore to me my 
other cye.^' Akbar was nonplneaed by tbo man^s sudden appear&ncd 
ami audacious request ; bnt Blr Bal was eqoal to the occasion, and 
replied, •' Yes, it is qni(« true. We have your eye ; and if yon will 
eomo to-morrow morning, we will return it to you." The man 
agreed and left. B£r Uat immediately sent oEC to the batchers for 
some sheep's eyes. After some time they arrived, and he had them 
pot each one separately into a littlo wooden box by itself. In the 
morning the man came again ; and when he arrived he was informed 
that the king had several eyes by him, and that it was imposaible 
to tell which particular one belonged to this man. Would he kindly 
allow his other eye to be taken out, bo that it might be weighed 
and measured ; in that way they would be able to tell which of 
the number of eyes belonged to him. 

The man was blinded for life, and henceforth gave no more trouble 
to tbo king. (Bo much did the poor man value his sight, that he 
estimated each eye at Rupees 1,200, and the whole rest of the body 
at Rupees 300 only.) 

Insdntu gaUhik iauni Moe, 
Poihcu gatshik uBuni boe. 
Politeaess ia required in man. 
Scent is required in a flower. 

" As charity covers a multitude of sins before God, so does 
politeness before men." — Gretille. 

Ini/mas tah ins'maa ehhek iiij ta/awat, 
Yit» Ichudiijaa tah bandas chkah. 

Between man and man there ia as great difference as there is 
between God and a slave. 

There arc no two persons alike. 

Jumak Mashidih handin jii'mne athah. 

The Juma Masjid people have given up praying. 

While people from the country come in crowds to the great 
mosque of tlie city, the people living close to the mosque sit in 
their shops all through the Friday hoping for trade ; and they are 
not disappointed. 

JJvmai alhsh, lit., prayers from the haud— out of hand— gone. 


hiat okkuk pancmii dim andar. 
HoDOur is inside your mouth. 
Take heed to your words, 

Izxatick kar tak be-ix^aUch khSr chkeA bardhar. 
A cowrie obtaiueil honourably aad a tcharwSr obtained dis- 
honourably are cc[ual in value. 




Kakak rat sanz b''i»h. 

Like an eleven moDth's inaD. 

A man who stinta bimset^F dov, that he ma; be rich hereafter. 

A man hearing that rice was cheap and good, bought as mnch as 
he thought would be anfficiout for the next year, and stored it away 
in his honse. Kaahmfris are conBtantly storing BOmething or other, 
BO that their houses generallj resemble a small godown. Well, it 
happened, that thia man had not correctly reckonal, and that there 
waa only enough for eleven montha in atore. What waa ho to do P 
Be had apent ell his money, and to borrow ho was aahamed. 
Accordiogly he determined to f&at for one month, asd atapid mui 
tike he waa, he thoaght that it wonlil be mach better to hare the 
fast now inatead of having to look forward to it all through the 
eleven montha. He had not faith in God to anpply his wants here- 
^ter. The conseqnence waa that the man and wife and aU the family 
died jnat before Uie fast was over, and left eleven months' rice in 
the bouse \ 

Kahan garan hum tdv ; himmat rdv tak loanav kas ? 
Only one frying-pan for eleven houses ; courage gone ; and to 

whom shall we speak ? 

Time of great distresa- 
Kahan g&o rrfrmuts. 
Eleven men have lost a cow between them. 

A great loss, but many to share it. 

Kahan gayih kuti wani, tint gayih rani anini. 

Eleven men came to the same unfortunate state; they each 

went and fetched a wife for themselves. 

Cited when aeveral male members in a household are aiifortDiiate< 
Kahan hah watah. 
Elevea roada to eleven men. 

Tot ftoraine*, tot sententia:, 

Kahan hunm thaitdn. 

One wicked fellow for eleven men. 

Hindnstinf.— £jk machhU s<ire toiAh Ico ganda ftflrK Imi. 
Kahan mult puturan hunui arinah-pat. 
One loin cloth to eleven fathers and sons. 

Climax of distreaa. 


KaAan Ihaio&n t^.i aki> nah f^hanon tm'.i. 
He promises eleven people but does not throw food to one. 
Great promises bat little deeds. 

Kajih hanxah horih sat, 
Kaj and hei seven daughters. 

There was a poor deaf woman who bad seven dai^hters, whom 
aheanpported with the greatest difiionlty. At last God seeing her 
struggle gave her soven handfuls of food secretly every day. After 
a time the mother thought that if she left one danghter to go her 
own way, she might save one handful of food, or, at all evens, have 
a little more to give to the others. Bnt God only gave her sii 
handfnla then. After a while she sent another daughter away aad 
then another, bnt still QoA oontinoed giving one handfnl less for 
each girl dismissed, nntil at Iset not one daughter and not a scrap 
of food were left to the woman. 

Eikun Mput. 
Father's near. 

Nothing raaU; lo be afraid of. 

Kashmiri parents are accustomed to fr^bten their children into 
good behaviour by saying " There is a bear coming. Qniet, quiet," 

Kal at karak tah kaji marak ; hal nai learak tah marak 

nak tah. 
If yon worry, it will bring yon to the grave ; but if you do 

not worry, you will nerer die. 

' Tis not from work, bat from worry, that half tho people die. 

Kalam-xan, shamsher-zan, kuste-zan chhih be-aklaa nish 

A quill-driver, swordsman, and brothel-keeper, are (each one) 

no more than an ignorant man, 

Kalas peth gdri phutarit kheni. 

Breaking a water-nut upon one's head and eating it. 

Earning with difficulty. 

There was a very godly Hindli, a Rishi, living in Kashmir. Upon 
a certain day one of his discipies came crying unto him and saying, 
that bis motber had died. The Rishi enqnirsd the age of the woman, 
and finding that sbe was very old, he told the man not to weep ; 
because it was time that bis mother should die. The disciple, 
however, did not agree with tliis, and begged the Rishi to allow her 
to live a few years more. Tho Rishi told him to cmsh some water- 


nntB (Traha bispinona) upon his mother's heail ; and it shonld come 
to pass that she would leviva, anil livo as man; jeors as there 
were broken water-nnts. 

Now the bereaved son did not like the idea of breaking htiFd nnta 
. upon his deceased mother's head ; still it was the order of the Biahi, 
and BO he did so. Eleven nuts were broken and for eleven years 
longer the mother lived. 

Kali sami bol-bdsh zdnih kali mnd mol mdj. 

Only a dumb ra&a'a parenta understand a dumb person's 


A little child's prattle is comprehensible only to the parents ; and 
a man's speech is understood b; his oonntrTmon only. 

Kalas tik raz, nalas tik raz. 

A rope for the head and a rope for the legs. 

A strict watob over any body or anything. 
Kal&yih bisini Ihulas hardn treh sim. 
A tin finger-ring turns an egg into three dishes of meat and 


A great show, bnt tittle mider it. 
Kalii ntundis Khuddi riizi. 
God is pleased with the dumb, simple >nnn. 
" Kali nun lih nwnui ?" " Kali, ayup zik ht/unvi ?" 
" O dnmb man, salted ?" " Yes, salted." " dumb man, 

nnsaited ?" " Yes, unsalted " 

A story of a nervous young Eiglishman comos jnat now to mind, 
which exactly illustrates this' sayjng- He wb<h breakfasting^ out i 
and at the breakfast- table the hestesa remarked, "I'm afraid your 

roil is not nice, Mr^ ~." " Oh, yea, thank yia," he replied, " it is 

splendid." In a little while eggs were placed upon the table, and 

Mr. took one, which turnod out to be bad- The host, who was 

sitting close by Mr. , noticed this, and begged him to let the 

servant take it away and give him another ; whereupon Mr. said 

" Oh I piease don't, I like bad eggs." 

Kam gattkih kkyun tah gam gaUhik nah kkyun. 

Better to eat a little than to eat grief. 

" Any price rather than you should be angry," says the shop- 
keeper to the customer. 
Ki'imadewan cAhus athah dolamut. 
Kamadev has smoothed that man's face with his hands. 

Cited on seeing any beautiful man or woman. 

Kdmadev is the Hindd Cupid or Eros, the god of Love, thought to 
be one of the moat pleasing creations uf Hindli fiction. 

Kamat ehkuk hamul tak tsaris chkuh sawi'U. 
Perfection is to the less and destruction to tlie more. 

A man Homewhal spare in speech, eipensea, tc, will become 
great ; but a man extravagant ia wards and eipeoBea, &o., will come 

Kaminaa khidmai ekhek taminaa ehob. 
To serve a mean man is like beating the earth (i.e., it is a 
profitless work), 

Kanah-dol chkui Botani toddha» bard&ar- 

A roan who turns away his ear (from scandal, &c.), is like 

the Botan or Lad^k trade (i.e., receives great profit). 

A briak trade its carried on between Kashmtr and Ladik. I have 
heard that about lbs. 128,000 of kil-phamb (paahm) or Hbawl-wool 
are imported annually into the valley by the bntahwini or Ladik 
meFohante. For the preparation, &o., of (hie wool,' cf. Drew's Book 
on Kashmir and Jammli. 

Kanak Itrtpaa Itaduni. 

To bring cotton from the ear. 

Impossible. Borne people attempt to do tbinga in aa imposaible 

Cited also against that servant who hears everything pro or cim 
about hie master, and then goes and retails bis information to his 

Kanai chhai nah batah laddn. 

I do not load my ear with food {i.e., I am not such a fool 

as to try to put the food into my ear instead of into my 

mouth. I know what I'm about). 

Kaahmlrls say that a dmnkord, who was very mnoh under the 
influence oF drink at the time, tried to feed himself by stuffing 
rice into his ears ; henoo ths aaying. 

Kandas lah mujik Tcunui add. 
The same taste to augar-candy and a radish, 
Qood or evil, noble or mean, all the same to him. 

Kank nah horn Kulakgom 
(Going to) Kulagom without work, 

A man going an errand calls a friend, whom he meets on the way, 
to come along with him. If that friend doeB not wish to accompany 
hira. he will probably reply as above. 

The workmen of Kulagom are aaid to be the cleverest in the 



Kani lagiyd n/tr xik amis yiyih dr ? 

Will the stone burn, that the acqufUDtnnce should bare 

mercy ? 

" Save me from my friends." 

Kanitah nunah pkul gav darydva». Kanih dup " BukgujU." 

Nunan dupus " Yuevi gut airi gul." 
A stone and a piece of salt fell into the river. The stone 

said " I melted. " The salt said " That which melted, 


We should never complain as long bb there are others worse off 
than ourselvoB. 

Kdnik atkh surmah tak lanjih zangih paiji'imah, 
Antimony for the blind eye end tTousers for the lame leg. 

" Madame Rachel will rectify it." 

Kdnih achk wwsik hyah nindarih ? 
What will rouse the blind eye from sleep ? 
What cannot be cured must be endured. 

Sdnik, Jialii, tak athas het. 

" O, one-eyed man, work." " It is at hand." 

A one-eyed man is always ready for mischief. 
Fanillbi — Kaii&jterha, biidfinlA. 

(Also) Kana, hachi/a ' hoch — gardavA : zek tinon IcamiAt I 
Jablag baa apnd thale, to lot na pnckhe idt. 

Kanih garak barunj6n tah wdnguj garah nak. 
Better to fill your house with stones than to have a stranger 
in it. 

Kinih gurih hah mirah-lihur. 
Eleven grooms for a one-eyed mare. 

A very strict watch over a very wicked person. 

Cited also sometimes when there arc a lar^e number of people 
appointed to a small work, which one man could oasily perform. 

"One-oyod" is an exprossion generally introduced to show the 
wicked disposition of the persou or beast. Vide supra. 

Kunih korik Icaryok run tak s/tavgun Ici/vf got ktil kdmuni. 
The one-eyed girl was manicd ; but she had not a room for 

sleeping in. 

An imperfect arrangement. 


Kanih nakhak kani tah in'ih nakJtak nak hahh. 

One stoDe lies close to another, but there is nobody near to me. 

Sikandar-nima. — Bijafina man o gwrha ta poatin. 
Kanih patah ckhdhpun. 
Sling after the atone. 

lo send another meaaenger to got news of tbe first, to. 
Kdnia ekkua butkis pelh " Kdni/i " dapAn ? 
la it wise to say '' O one-eyed man " in his presence ? 
Kanjar huttak. 
The brothel- keeper's dog. 

Qnotod against fba person who bears much liumbng aiid pain at 
the hands of another, becausa he eventually hopes to got some profit 
out of bim. 

There waa once a dog. who day-by.daj visited a certain house of 
ill-fame in tbe city. Every lime the dog went, tho harlots used to 
beat it, but nothiof;; discouraged tbo dog went again and ugaiti. 
One day his brother doga got to hear of this, and enquired why he 
tbns went time aftor time to a place, where he generally got beaten. 
" I do not go there for what I get to eat," replied tbe dog, " but 
becanse aometimea, when the chief harlot is angry with tbe other 
harlots, she says, turning to me, ' This dog shall ho your hnsbatid. 
That is the reason of niy enduring all this abuse." 

Kanjar Imttdh. — Kanjar is Hiuduatini ; the Kaabmirf ordinary 
word is gin, Kuttah of course has been Kashm!riaod from the 
HindustAni knttS. 

Kar gai karil tah phiskal gav zat. 

The work ia all over, and an unlucky child ia born. 

The deed is done. No alternative now. 

Several times are mentioned in tho Nechih-pntor aa nnlnoky 
moments for a child to be horn in. One time, Mul, is especially uq- 
propitions. A child born at that time is sometimos separated from 
its parents, that it may not brii^ harm upon their bouse ; at all 
events, it is an object of muoh earo and espenso to its father and 
mother, until its fate, perhaps, changes. 
Karim nanahwor. 
Barefooted Karim. 

Give a di^ a bad name and you may as well hang him. 

Karfm one day was scon walking witboot shoos on. Tho people 
called him " Barefooted Karim," and although always afterwards 
he wore nice shoes, yet the people continued calhug him so up to the 
time of his death. 



kashirih hahai garah. 

Only eleven bougea in Kashmir. 

Dark daya. 

Tho reader may have noticed the frequent occnrrence of the 
number eleven, and eapecially in the last few pages " Like an 
eleven months' man" ; "Only one frying-pati for eleven honaes" ; 
■' Eleven men have lost a cow between them" , " Eleven men arrived 
at the same unfortunate state"; "One wicked fellow foe eleven 
men"; "One loin-cioth for eleven fathers and sons"; "Eleven 
Kpooma for a one-eyed mare"; and "Only eleven houses in Kaeb- 
mir," &c., &c. As far as one can ascertain froin the limited means 
of information at hand, this number is qiiite peculiar to the country. 
Captain Temple, in his moat valuable and interesting " Survey of 
the Incidents in Modern Indian Folktales" (one of the appendices of 
" Wide-awake Storiea") does not mention this number. ThenomberB 
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, e, 7, 6, 9,' 12, 13, 14, 18, 24, and larger numbers are 
quoted as occiirring in severfil tales, bnt never the number eleven. 
This is somewhat remarkable, and the isaXy reasons suggested for the 
frequency of this number in " Happy Valley" folklore are the fol- 
lowing stories ; — Nearly 800 years ago a faqir named Bulbul ShSh 
came via Tibet to Kashmir. When he had been here a little 
while he ancceeded in turning Rentan Sh^h, the son of Rski, then 
king of the Valley, from Hinduism to the faith of IsUm, and 
then Sentan Sb&h killed all the Hindda except eleven families. 
. A valiant of this story, leading to the same result, is that ZaJnu'l- 
4badin had a most hot-headed son called Snit^u Hiji, or gultAn 
Hjder. One day as this yonth was goiog down the river Jhelom, 
*hen the boat reached 'Alt Kadal (the fifth bridge), he shot an 
arrow at a water-pot, which a bttle PandiUini girl was carrying on 
her head on the bank close by. The pot was broken to pieces, bnt 
thairaterwaa not apilt owing to ita having been inatantly turned 
into ice, which reiiiained perfectly still upon the girl's head- The 
little Panditini went heme Crying to her fathor, a Bishi, who waa 
so much earned with the young prince's conduct, tliat then and 
there he cursed him, saying, "May bis hand be paralysed." It 
happened according to the Uishi's word. From that moment the 
prince waa unable to move his right hand. 

When Zaina'litbadin heard what had oome to pass he was much 
grieved, and at once went to his son's house to enquire further of the 
matter. Said the prince, " I fired an arrow and broke a little 
PanditAnf s water- pot, and soon afterwards I felt that my right arm 
waa utterly powerleaa." The king then summoned his ministers 
and bade them enquire where the little girl'a parents lived, and 
when after aome time they bad discovered the abode, he himself 
went to beg the Rishi's pardon, and to beseech him to invoke the 
gods that they might restore the hand of tho prince. The Rishi 
heard the king's requeat and prayed, and then turning to Zainu'l 
Sbadfn aaid, " The prayer will be answered, if you will take one 


bf inj daugbter's grass shosB and burn it, and theu irab the ashes 
thereof over the prince's hand." The king thanked the Bishi for his 
kindness, went away with a glad heart, and did aa he had been 
directed ; and no sooner was the prince's hand rubbed with tho ashea 
of tbe burnt shoe, then ita former nse and strength returned. There 
was great joy in the court that day. 

When the king saw this, he perceived that these Hindlia were a 
very holy people ; for none but the good and righteous oonld thns 
afflict and recover again by their durses and prayers. Accordingly, 
he at oace began to think of a plan for rendering them unholy. 
Persian tBachers were introduced into the valley, and the Hindfia 
were ordered to learn that language ; and they were also commanded 
to eat yeeterdaj'a food and pickles Onder penalty of the king'a great 
displeasure. A bajid of officers called Tsrili were appointed to see 
that this latter order was carried out. Tsril is tbe ancient name 
for the fonctionary called Maballadir, for which see note to " Khati.f 
kakund ckhiii, ^c, ; cf. also note to " ifol gav tsrcl," ^c. 

At length through threatenings and bribes all but eleven familiea 
Complied with the king's order. (Another story says that all but 
Bl»i<en famiUeB refused to obey, and so were killed or obliged to flea 
the country.) In consequence of this the Hiadlis became unholy ; 
therefore their prayers and curses were of no avail, and they remain 
SO to this day, eating yesterday's food and studying Persian. 

However, the gods conld not lightly pass over this matter, and 
therefore a JogI went to the king and predicted that he would soon 
be ill, which prediction was fulfilled. 

On a certain day the king became very sick and the nest day he 
Was worse, and so he continued nntil all hope of his recovery had 
qnite gone. While in this state the logi with his disciple was 
walking aboat outside the palace, and telling every one that he 
could divine ; and that by virtae of his art he wae qnite cei'tain Hiat 
there was no other remedy for the king bat the following : — 

" The Jogf most take out his own soul from his body and place it 
within the lifeless body of the king." Presently ZainnlAhadin 
died, and the Jogi with his attendant was admitted within the 
palace and conducted to the corpse. In a minute or two the J'ogi 
and his disciple were left alone in the death chamber. Turning to 
the latter the Jogi aaid " I am about to take out my spirit, and put 
it vrithin this corpse. Take care of my body after death, aud put 
it in some secret place." It was so done ; and when tb.t> king's 
waatrs and servants came into the room afterwards tbcy beheld 
Zainu'Ubodfn sitting up in his bed well and strong. Great were 
the rejoicings of the people and great the gratitude of tbe king, 
who lived for many, many, years aiter this. 

These accoonts are most perplexing. Rontan 5h£h, the Bon of 
EaW, has perhaps been mistaken tor Ratan ShSb, the successor of 
Riji Ten or Veni of Ventipfir, conoerning whom the people say that 
a famous faqlr named Bnlbul Shih flew over from Baghdad in ei 
eight and converted him and all his Bubjecta to tho Mubammedan 

faith on tlie following moraiiig. But ag^n this Bentan ma; have 
Vieen RnnjuQ, Bon of the king of Tibet, who iaviuled Kftshmtr in tba 
time of Sana Deva, 1315 A. D., aaanmei the mle of the country, 
&nd became a Muhammedaii under the name of SlianiB-ad-din (the 
Bun of Ihe faith). 

A story just crops up, in nhieb E4]i Vea ia called Baton Sbib 1 

Theu in the second stor; ZuQu'Idbadin has certainly been oredit- 
ed with the eril deeds of his father, Silrandar Bntshikan, of whom 
it is related, that he did paC to death all Hindlls who refused to 
embrace Islant. (Cf. latter part of stoiy attached to " Maltanuk 
ialah," &c) Zainn'libadln is generally represented as a good and 
merciful Icing. " Tawirifch-i Birbal" gays : " He was good and kind to 
ever; one, whether Musalmiu or HJndA, and he brought back again 
to the Valley the BrShmans, who had been compelled to laare it 
during the oppreasive reign of Sikandar," 

A few notes from a Persian work by the late Diwin Kirpi Rfim, 
and entitled " Gutz^-i- Kashmir," are still njore confusing. Runjun, 
son of the king of Tibet, ia now SulCiln Rattanjco, an imbecile 
pritice of Tibet, who aa a mere cbild was brought into this country 
and so knew nothing of his father's religion, and was therefore 
easily converted to laliim by Bolbnl Sh(ih. Snltin Shams-nd-dia 
was the third ruler of Kashmir after Sult^ BAttonjeo, It was 
during Sikandar'a aucoeaaor's, Snltlia 'Ali Shiih's, reign (1418 — 1434 
A.D.) that those Hindils who refused to embrace IsUni were obliged 
to leave the country, and while on their way out of the country 
many of them were aeized and burnt alive. 

Whatever the tmth may be, it will be seen that the Kashmiri 
Hindus, especially, have reaaon to romember the number eleven. 
{Cf. also Drew, ", Jamniu and Kashmir, " p. 69.) 
Kalhik hhuUh watih p(deawam. 
. A bribe for a word aad bab^abiah for juat going (to call a, 
friend, &c.) 

A man keen upon bribes and gif ta. 
Kathih m'lt ehhuh viil''n Mhthi dud. 
By a word to cauae milk to flow from the breasta of a barren 

The power of a word id season. 
Kathih »uet watih toeh tah leathih luU waeik sreh. 
A word atirs up anger or love. 

Jialih. B''i, ilk ? Kut, B6, gaUhah ? Kyah cKhui niv ? 
Sirinih i». Sirakom gaUhak. Sat chhum basfih. Salih 

ehhum w'.v. 
Whence have you come, Brother ? Whither are you going, 

Brother ? What ia your name ? 



I hare come from Sinn. I shall go to Sirabom. I have some 

pulse in my wallet. My name is Saiih. 

A take-off upon the conventionalities of the day. Notice plaj npon 
the letter ij" b!u. 

Kdtiur dapfm bdUan gutii nak d/mah dyu n, 
Kon dapdn son guts nak kanh tik t/un. 
Kkotak dapiin gosah guU nah h'.nsik gaUhvn, 
The brown-haired man (or woman) saya, " Why should I give 

food to my family ?" 
The one-eyed person saya, " We do not want to see any 

The khosah says, " Why should any person be angry ?" 

Kashmirfs say an ordinair brown-haired poraon is invariably 
Btinxy and selfish ; a one-eyed person ia generally diarespected, cf. 
" Kiinih jialA," £o. ; and the khosah Is a man with the little 

f oat-like beard who has got a name tor affahUity, — cf. "Khosah 

Kdwak, hdwak, hdioah, hat. 

A crow, (another) crow, (a third) crow, a hundred crows. 

Cf. '■ The Three Black Crows— Byron. 

fCi'iwah yanihwol. 

A crow's wedding company 

A bad wedding arrangement ererytbing npside down 
These words are the first line of a little verse annj; or rather 
shrieked forth, by little children who gather t gether in different 
parts o! the city at evening time to play and watch the crowa 
come home to rooHt I have seen thousands upon thonsanda 
of orowe, a procession at least half a mile in length retnrnmg 
past my honse ; and a tremendous noiae thev make during the 
five roinntes or ao they are passing This is the song the little 
children shont : — 

Kaviah, yamhwol. 
Murddwn ntol, 
Diham nai raa kan. 
Kadai mwlah aid. 
Ot which the translatioQ is ; — 

O company of crows. 

Keen after your own interest. 
If yon don't give me a little wine. 
I will pnll oat yonr neat by the roots. 
The orow, on account of its bold and aelfiah character, is called in 
Kasbmlr " The father of Matlab. 



Kown gojik hkar. 

A big bsaket of kernels for crowa (soon gone). 
Cited to a man who gobbles up his food quickly. 
Kdtvan kichhuv kahku sand pakun. Pananui paiun mufu*. 
A crow learnt to walk like a cuckoo, nnd forgot his own 

Si kandar.nimii— BTiiZrij^e tage kabak rd gash la^-d. 
Tage hhweihtan rd /ardmoeft kard. 

Kdwaii niih ndtih-han. 

A small piece of meat in a crow's claws. 

A bad debt. 

Xd'jri hur Icdv bjA tjheliwoni trdv. 

The crow has cawed ; throw away the tehetiwoD (i.e., the 

water in which Hindus wash their honds after a meat) ; 

and be off to your work. 

One of the divisions of the city of Srlnagar ia bo far removed from 
the Shec Gaii (or Sher Gadi,) where all the state apartments and 
government offices are situated, that the goremmant servantB, who 
reside there have to rise and eat their breaktasta early, so as to arrive 
at their posts in the Sher Gari at the right time. 

Kiwuj yutdn hi/ih kilih kheyam, tat&n mathinam, nak titam 

As long as the burner of the dead will Dot poke me (i.e., to 
arrange my body so that it may burn quickly and proper- 
ly), so long shall I not forget your tyranny. 

fiyur n/ir tah parud yi-r, yim donomai ehhii na/i wap'dvr. 

A pine-wood fire and a strange-countryman friend, these two 
are not lasting. 

^•',zii tah IdhUhat myu/ui hyak ? 

What has the kizi to do with an eunuch ? 
the judge is not for the good but for the evil. 
There are many onnachs ip the valley and they are alt Muham- 

medans. Nearly all of them live in T^shaw^, Srlnagar ; aod are 

employed in marriagos to make amusement, or at funerals to join 

Sehkih chkuh dan Mmn pelk, trek man ranin tah shek man 

K^hldh's fire-place is in the top storey ; she cooks three 

maiinds and boasts ais maunds. 

A lying b 


Kfhk mak tah ditam tah Itani tali tiitam. 

Don't give me unything but let me have your ear. 

A patromsing loot from those in anthority ia -worth a large Bnm . 

KenkaMaehi'h chhuh pewin, ddt/ih garik y&d. 

A lizard remembers a matter one hour afterwards. 

NatiTSB believe that tbia animal treasures ap enmit; against a, 
man and bitea bim afterwarda, when be cau do ao safely. 

KehUah cknn tah hekUah myon, »m gav wisah-pon. 
A little for you and a little for me, thia is friendship. 

A friend is one not merely in word, bnt also in deed. 

KenUan ditlkam guUlah yeisui ; 

Kentsan ionthaitt, nah dinaa w^it ; 

KenUan Uhunitkam nCli brahmo-hatmii. 

BagawonaA eMnih gatj namaekdr. 

To some you gave many poppies (i.e., sons) ; 

And some you haltered (with a daughter) for murdering a 

BrEihman (in some former existence). 
Bhagawant, (the Deity, the Most High,) I adore your 

Kentmn dyuttham aured olae,lte'iUav rackeyih n/dah Welk, 
KeiitjaK ackh tajik maa chet tulav, kmh gox waHaa pk/ilati 

Some Thou (0 God) called from Thy heaven ; some held the 

Jhelum in their bosom. 
Some have drunk wine and lift their eyes upwards ; some 

have gone and closed their shops. 

Whom God nill, God blesses. 

Kentmn dyuttham yut hiho tut, henUan yat nah tah tut 

God has given to some (blessing) here and there (i. e:, in 
both worlds), and He has given to some nothing either 
here or there. 

Kentian rant chhai shtMj Sunt, nerav neiar shukul harao, 
Kentjan rani chhai bar peik hint, nerai) nebar tah tang 

KenUan rant chhai adal lah taadal ; kentsan rani chhai 

eadal tshai. 



Some have wives like a shady chinir, let ns go under it and 

cool ourselves. 
Some have wives like the bitch at the door, let us go and get 

our legs bitten. 
Some have wives always in confusion, and aome have wives 

Uke bad thatch upon the roof. 

Lai Di^'s snTiDKa. 

Kelak TeaV.i tah bdzar josh. 
False coin and bnzsr noise. 

The ooneeqaence of going into the hixir. It is better to have 
thinKB made at home. Then one may be erne of do deception. 

Khairah nak hog tah tharah. 

No share in the good, but in the evil. 

A real friend. 

Khairas ti'ijil tah ny'yat tutU, 
Quick to do good, but alow to quarrel. 
Good advice. 

Khairuk pom tatalli eMnih tharah nishih raeknam Khudii. 
I have got the comfort of having done good ■ God will bless 

me from your wickedness. 
Kh/iish-i-zan petk katii, hhaish-i-maTd lar-gardin. 
A woman's relatione are honoured, but a man's relations are 

Khfim tama huchhtmaUih holih. 

An avaricious man goes to a dried-up stream (t, e., gets no 

Avarice is always poor, but poor by bis own fault. 
Khum lama tak apazyor. 
An avaricious man is a har. 

Khdn hadti hk^n bad&, matuMg ehhe* him tsuf add ! 
A big tray, a big tray, and in the middle of it half a loaf of 


Khanabalah KMdani Y&r. 

From Khanbal to Kb&dan Xhx (i.e., as far as one can go in 
a boat in Eashmfr). 

Dan to Beersheba. Land's Knd to John O'Groat's. 



Khi'mam/dSn nah ho) lak partanan mimuz. 
No breakfast for the son, but a luDcheoa for the meaner 

Khandaw&v bor. 

A shawl-weave r's load, (i.e., a little light load). 

Stiawl-weaverB are in general a sicUy nlaaa. If thejr get five 
traka ioBtBod of six traks of paddy, the proper measnre now-a-daj-s 
for one rupee, they will not notice they have short weight ; on the 
contrary, they will think that they have a^ven traka. (A trak is ^ 

^Kkandawdv hem&yaU 
Uefendiog a shant-weaver. 

B^i^ KAk, who died aboat eighteen years ago, was over the shawl 
trade in Easbmlr. If any person In those days took upon himself 
to order or harm a shawl-weaver, he was immediately enmrnoned 
before HfljS K^ and severely punished. Consequently these weakly^ 
ill-paid pBople then enjoyed such immunity from petty tyranny, aB 
they do not experience now. 

My servant (I am sorry to say) is constantly Strifcing and ooia- 
manding others " as good as himself." He thinks that being the 
servant of the sShib he is infinitely Superior to ordinary folk, 
and has a licence to do bo. Frequently he receives the above reply,' 
" Who are you, a shawl-weaver, to do such an act P" 

KhaT buA t»alinai tak ved bud laginai 

May bad knowledge (lit, an ass's understanding) flee from 

you and good knowledge '(lit, that derived from a study 

of the Vedas) stick to you. 

A Kaahmdf Pandit's prayer before teaching his child, or before 
sending him to the Br^hniau to be taught. 

Khar khmai hhar-kMv, 

(Called an) aas-eater before he has eaten the ass. 

Undeserved blame ; a faJsa chaise. 
" Khar Itiriyth. AihnU kyak ?" 
" Worked like an ass. What is fiiendship ?" 

Work is work, whether done for a relation or friend, or not ; an* 
the labourer ie worthy of his biro. Don't be afraid to ask for the 

Khar puiis guri put londhwani. 

Asking a colt as a gift after buying a' young ass. 

It is the custom in Kashmir to give " a trifle in " with the put- 
chase. This U caUed dastdrf. 



Kharat gor yij 

A big sugar-biscuit for the donkey. 

Inatrnction is wasted upon the stapid man. 
Kharas likarhharah, ' 

A comb for the donkey, 

Kharaa Jchasit tah huth path leun harit. 
Mouating the eas with hia face towards the tail. 

A brazen-facsd fellow> 

The whole saying is — 
Kharat khasU tah bxtkpatk hun harit ; 
Kulahchan manjanak kharahan phirit ! 
He mounted the ass with hia face towards the tail ; 
And at night he asked the ass from them ! 

Darii^ the rule of the Palhina, debtora wore aometimes punished 
by being made to sit upon an aaa in this way and driTen through 
the \AikT. A certain Pandit was once thus treated, and was each 
a sbameleaa man as to ask the government for the aaa, when hia 

Kharis rij ddyanui garin, 

A wicked man's reign is of one hour's duration. 

Khatl dit tah ehheh dapiin, zik »inen ckkih bar wathx. 

Giving a bill of divorcement, and the woman saying, " The 

door ia open to me" 

Some hope of re-instalment. 
Khguf kahund ehhui ? sih pananu mahalladurah sund. 
Whom do you fear? My Mahalladdr. 

A Tmihalladdr is an oMcer in charge of a division of the city. Hia 
principle duty seems to be to spy over the people in hia district, 
lla ia always fee'd by the people, and generally hated by them, 
which ia no very great matter for sorpriBe. 

SAii, hka, gamut gh/is inaiitick ckhai nak khahar. 
Eating, eating, he has became lustful, and there is no care of 
death to him, 

KhSA gi'ivi gdaah dkarviakih pdtak. 

O cow, eat some grass for the sake of dharma. 

Come let us bo friends again. 

Dharma ia a Sanskrit word, and moans the duties of the masses 
of the Uindii people. Sometimes these are called Abhi-dbarma. 



Shonld the family oow be tick, tlie owner will often rtroke het 
neck and face, sajiiig the above words. Great is the love of all 
HindliB, and especially of tlie Kashmiri Hindfi, for the cow. It Ja 
gratitude that prompts this affection, and has lead the Hindda to 
r^;ard the cow as eacred — gratitude to the beaat for soataining them 
dnriDgtheir wandering southwards OTorbarrennioimtainB and throDglt 
treeleaa deserts. If it had not been for the cow's milk then, pro. 
bably hundreda npoa hnndrecte of them woold have periahedi and 
BO in gratitude to the oow, which fnmiahed them with sustenance 
and carried their burdens, the Hindds magnified her into a god, 
and worship and honour her accordingly. 

Ehemat kkdr lah hora» Rah Mr, 

I wiU eat hU kharwir and not pay him a cowrie. 

A bad debtor. 

Shenah khewin tah mdshihwil. 

Eating dinner, but as if be did not want it. 

A very nice, prim, prond fellow. 

Khenak kkewin tah icenak ^dri Udri. 

Eating his dinner, as though he were picking the nSnah plant, 

Wenah is a plant like mint in shape of leaf and flavour. It ia a 
favourite ofiflhiva'a, in whose worship it ia mnoh used. 

Khhnah hkusk hil tah h&mih dilgir. 

Happy enough at your dinner, but sorrowful when at work. 
" If any would cot work neither should he eat." — 11. Theas. iii. 10. 

Khenak rncmeak wukus. 
Separate from eating. 

A quarrel in the house ; father and aon wiU not eat together. 

Khenah my&th tah horcmah tyuth. 
Sweet to the taste but bitter to pay for. 

Fly the pleasure that bitee to-morrow. 
Khetah, mallah, hektshih. 'A'vzu bi'Uah. 
Ditah, inallah, hehtsh^k. Na'uzu h'Cllah. 
O mullab, eat aomething. (Ans.) Let me fly to God. 
mullah, §^Te something. (Ans.) God defend us. 

Kheomut p&iaah uxfjias dyun chhuh dandaa bardbar. 

To give back a paisa that has been eaten, is equal to losing 

■,G Otitic 


Kketi mSlik tuefi. 

The field must be always under the eye of tbe master (i.^.^ 

needs constant looking after.) 

Mind jonr shop and yonr shop will mind yoo- 
Khew^in pdnas tah thekdnjak&na*. 
He eats to himaelf, and then makes a boast (of bis grand 

dinner) to the world. 

A eelfiBh bra^tut. 
Kheyiheh Ttrdlia horiheh nah mMt*. 
HewouldeAta Tsrol'a money, biit would not pay (even) 

hia father. 

A. man who will make money any way, bnt will not pay any oa^ 
•TDn, his own father. 

For Tp-ol, qf. note " Saehiri iahai garah." 

Khidmat Tearizih nah Batah gdna* hati wahari dapea ner 

Never serve a vile Pandit, for after a hmidred years (service) 

he will tell you to go away. 

KhwTnat ehheh azamat. 

Service is greatness. 

Khojah byulk wdn tah d&gilmi sdn, 

Tbe Khojah sat in his shop among the pots. 

Carpenter (rith tools, bnt no work, ko. 

Shopkeepers make a great display of pots, althongh iometimes 
tbere is nothing in them. A very poor Khojah la here gnppoaed, all 
of whose pota are empty. 
Khojah chhuk hhwM liarSn hih riechva ckhuTn g&tul ; necAuv 

eKhu» f&mak diindn leiA molui ehkum 6e-akl. 
The Khojah is happy in tbe thought that his son is wise ; the 

son is reproaching his father for his foolishness. 

Giilial4n, chap. TI. — Kkieija shAdi ftundn ki farnandam 'dqil oat o 
pilar iafTia lanctn hi padaram fartllt att. 

Khojah ehhuh pathid tah Ide wot brohlh. 
The Khojah is behind, but news of him has come on before. 
Newa beforehimd. 

KAojaA Hiji B^ndiyaa svet ntujih bijwat. 

To go shares in a radish with Khojah Hiji 6£adi. 

Little people Daunot afford to speoalate, thongh there may b* 
•very chance of making a lot of money qnickty. 

■,G Otitic 

Khojah Hiyi Bdndi was a great man in Srfnagw. One day ho 
Ram his Ban playing with the greengrocer'a son, and noticing that 
the other bay hai) a Dice shawl on, he weot oS straight to the 
greengrocer and said, " Look here. I see that your buaineea is 
thriving, and ao wonld like to do fiomething in ' your line' for 
myselt. Will you go partners with me T Will you give me rapeee 
1,000, and allow me to spend the money in radishea ? I also wilt 
give rupees 1,000, and we will share the profits half and half 
alike. — Ton know how these regetables pay for growing." The 
greengrocer agreed and paid the money. Radishes were purchased 
to the extent of rapees 2,000 and planted. When the month of 
ffobruary came round, the two partuera determined to take up their 
radishes, bat, alas ! thoy wore every one a failure. The poor 
greengrocer was ruined, whilst the wealthy Khoiah simplj lost a 
little money. 

Khojah Moniuni ikul, leak keni tah hah hanani. 

Khojah Mom's egg ; huv at the rate of eleven and sell at the 

mte of twelve. 

A non-paying concern. 

Khojah Mom once broT^ht up oleren melons with him from 
BSramala direction, to sell in Srinagar. On reaching the cuatom- 
hoDse he was obliged to give twelve melons as a tax for Lis eleven 
melons. He gave the eleven melons and then went and sold his 
blanket to purchase another melon to give the toll-taker. Things 
were carried on in a very loose way in Kaahmir in those daya, 
Khojah Mom then went and sat down by a cemetery and would not 
allow the people to bury their dead without first giving him some 
money. In the conrae of a few days the king's son died and a 
great company, including the king, went to bury him. When the 
crowd reached the borial-ground, the Khojah went forward and said, 
" I cannot allow you to bury the body." The king enquired, " Who 
are yon to speak thus f " The Khojah answered, " I am the queen's 
brother-in-law," " ISuh cfiAus Earii hitnd kahar." When the king 
heard that, ho begged the Khojah to permit the burial of the body, 
and gave him a large preaent in money. On the king's return to 
his palace he told hia wife about the relation whom he had met 
ia the cemetery, and she replied, " O king, how stnpid yon are ! 
Did you not know that men only have hahars — not women ?" 

A wealtliy man, the Khojah now began trading again, and used to 
buy o^^ at the rate of eleven and sell them at the rate of twelve. 
Of. " story of the villager who, going to sell his eight brinjals in t, 
villago where there were nine headmen, returns minus vegetables 
and baskut, bocnnso he had to conciliato the headmen with a brinjal 
apiece, and the ninth with the basket," given in " Notes On aome 
Sinhalese Proverbs and Storiea in the Mita-Tikjo-DIpaiiija," by 
A. M. Seniniyaka. 

Hahar is Kosbmirf for the Hiudustiui eUi. 

■,G Otitic 


Khojah, nun HI Jcakt ? 

Khojah, what's your salt and oil ? 

Cited by people when aaked to do something beyond their power. 

A Khojah through change in the prioea of things lost all thai he 
possessed. For some time, however, until his case was thoroughly 
known, the peoplecame as usual to enqaire the prices of his goods. 
The poor old man would sit at the back of his shop and my, 
" Hamph ! What's yonr salt and oilP" 

" Khpjah sA gi'imah han niyikawak" " Asi irov p&nai," 
*'0 Khojah, you were turned out of your little Tillage," 

"(Oh, no,) I left it of my own accord." 

Balvi digrvitaie. 

Kkpjak tik mod tah tjds tih baleyik. 
The Khojah died and got relief from his cough. 
Death puts an end to all troubles. 

Khojah, tsak tih yik na/t, tah buh tih samakhai nak zah. 
Khojah, you will not come to me, and I shall never see you 

Khojah vsaffovi heyik mukimi'Mok, tah Khojah aagavi hanih 

tah miiki'minaA. 
If the Khojah buys a mat, it is a fee, and if the Khoj"^ ^^''^ 

a mat, it is a fee. 

Khojahs are very sharp in striking a bargain. 

Khojah, wuthii Uhun tah audah kamih. 
O Khojah, take a leap. What's the good .' 
Look before you leap. 

*' Khojah, tnulath." " Suk talun punah pathrah." 
Khojah, (give me) the remains of your dinner. (Another 
man replies. What is the good of asking him T) He him- 
self even picks up (a piece, if it falls upon) the ground. 
A Btingj person. 

Khdkhar Mirun bror. 
Khoktar Mir's cat. 

Too lazy to do it himself. 

It is said concerning this cat that tt woald scratch the ground 
immediately on seeing a mouse, as if to inform its master that 
there was a mooie about, if he liked to try and oiitch it. 



Khoran nah kihsh tah Pathi nJe. 

No shoes for her feet, and yet her uame is Pdsb. 

K^ihsh — a kind of alioe having high iron heela, and the npp«rv 
lesBening towards the heels, Trom only b; the ver^ respectable claaa. 

PAsh is a grand name. 

KAoran nah lehrde tah Padm/mi ntJtr, 

Not a patten eveo for her foot, yet called Padm^n. 

Padmiin is a Hindd female name of great bononr. The Pad- 
mani or Padmini (Sanakrit) are the most eioellent of the fonr 
grades into which womankind is divided hj tbe Hindlis. Aba'l 
Fail thns deacribes her;— "Padmini, an incomparabla beauty, 
with a good disposition ; she is tall and well proportioned, has a 
melodiona tone of voice, talks little, her breath resembles a rose, she 
ia chaste imd obedient to her hnsband," &o. The name P£mplir 
(chief town of the Wfhfi parganah, Eashm:^',) is supposed to ba- 
derived from padma, a lotns, and pfir, cit;, hence, "the city of the 
lotus" or "the plaoe of beauty," from tbe beauty of its inhabitants; 
which must have very much degenerated of late years. 

S.ho»ah khen. 
Khoaah's dinner, 

Wtien a lot of men are hired for one work, bo that the work nutj 
be quickly acoomplished, people say " Khosah khin " style. 

A certain king made a great feast for all his subjects, and com- 
manded them all to appear on a certain day, except the one-eyed 
paople and those who had not beards (i.e., big beards, the Ehosah folk). 
Everybody obeyed, and each had placed before him a great tray of 
food of about six sers in weight. Xhe order was that each man was 
to finish his trayful on pain ot pnnishment. Tbis was a difficult 
matter. A Khosah, however, who had made up for his deficiency 
by an addition of a little goat's hair, was equal to the occasion- 
He Bu^eatad that they ahonld alt gather in small companies around 
the trays and eat their contents one after another. In this way 
the royal order was fnlfillsd. 

A variant of this story is as follows : — 

A great man had married his daughter, and as ia customary on 
such an occasion, be made on immense feast. He invited one 
hundred people, but ordered that only men who had beards should 
attend. However, a Khosah, sticking goat's hair upon his chin and 
face, determined to go. 

Now the bride's father, being very anxious that bis wish shoold be 
carried out, himself stood at the entrance door and tried the 
beards of the gnesta aathey passed in. The Khosah feared the 
examination ; so when the time came for him to have bis beard 
pnlled, he begged that that appendage might be left alone, as nearly 
one hondred people hod passed in and were fonnd to be thorongb 
bearded men. The host, supposing him to be some great man 


— perbapB tba father of the bridegroom — allowed him to go by 
trithanl a trial 

Twenty lafge dishes of food were provided for tha gaegts, and as 
B good dinner snch as Ihia, was not to be obtained every day, tha 
Khosah snggested that they ghoold finish tha diahes ; and the only 
way to finish them, was for them all to stick at one dish aotil the; 
had got throngh it, and then go on to tha next, and so forth, until 
the whole twenty disbea were completed. The plan succeeded. 

The Bev. A. W. Bnrman, in a most interesting w^icle contributed 
to the "Church Missionary Intelligencer" for October, 1883, and 
entitled " Notes on the Siooi Indians," thns writes ; — 

" During their saored feasts a. cnrions law is enforced. Each 
pert^n is com^elUd to «af what^er may be let before him, no matter 
hovi great a yortion fie may rective, or else pay some one of the com- 
pany to do so for him. tfot a ecrap of food, must remain uneaten 
vihen the eempa/ny breake up. As no invitation to each a meeting 
can be refused, and there may be occasionally, two or three in a 
night, at each of wbiob a bonntifnl help villi be served, this moat 
prove a somewhat formidable mle." 
Khotatt wi'it^ fulan tak Itohshih badai ehkes ati. 
Khotan bad arrived to grass shoes, but a little shoe was in 

her walk and manner. 

A person consiierabl; reduced pecnniarily, but who still COU' 
tinoes the same high manner and extravagant way of living. 
Khudd ehhuk thulas sit diwdn. 
God makes the egg to live. 

Have faith in God. 

Shuddi ahhvh diwan t^ali y& hali, nah tak xaimnik tali, 
God gives without our knowing or working, or else from out 

of the ground. 
Kkudiyik suiid j>dtouT, yami yetih dwur, 
God dwells, where he has taken posaeaaion. 
Khud&yih «unz Ichar tak n&tmdak lund ^ha»h. 
God's scab, and the barber's rubbing. 

To trouble a man, whom God hafi terribly affiJcted. 

Eashmiria suffer veiy mncb &om a disease called scald-head 

Kkantit peth hhunt. 
Misfortune after misfortune. 

Kkur ax &nk hilkull tiftotih 6sana» hat pkepkarak. 
If a scabby head be perfecti)' clean, still there remains a 

hundred pimples upon it. 

A great man who bears traces of his previaiis mean estate. 



Shuri tik iigun tak walak-wdshik tih. 

A fishing-net, a lying-in-wait, and a net spread for the 


Per faa et n^at. 

Khru, Sk&r, tak Mandak Pal; m<mzbig ehhut Ludawig n&r, 
Khrii, Shir, and Mandak Pal ; in the middle of them Ludu 

is burnt by fire. 

Shel:h Ntir-nd-diD cursed the village of Ludn, because the iubabi- 
tants were once rather nnciril to him. Id consequence of his corsei 
ever7 jear some houses in this village are destroyed by fire. 

The natives, both Muhammedans and Hindis, are terribly afraid 
of the curses of their saints and religious leaders. Only a few 
months since I witnessed the burning-down of a house at P&mplir, 
which had been cursed the previous evening by a Jogi, because the 
owuer would not give him some wood tor a fire. The Jogf was 
present at the time, and from bis manner and a few hints which I 
picked up on the occasion, I am almost convinced that the Jogi was 
the inceadiary. 

Khyun dyunpuUv lah atkah chkalun grumit. 

Giving puUv to eat and cow's uritie to wash the hands in. 

To nullity the good done by abuse of word or look. 

KhyurCgatfhik leutkui yuth beyis lihuik yiyih. 

Dinner must be eaten in a manner pleasing to the other. 

Kihraa ehhuh niah. 
Destruction to pride. 

Pride goes before destruction. 

Kijih peth hdjiwai ; welinjik pelh wukhul. 

A pestle upon a peg, atid a mortar upon a clothes-line (will not 

hold, but will tumble). 

A man appointed to a work for which he is in every way unfit- 
ted. A weak man thrust iuto temptation. Prendre la lune twee les 

" Kisar Uridyl dalia dul den." 

"The barley stained the hem of the garment. Clean it," 

Shiva Kik was a Pandit oi very high family and great learning. 
In course of time he was appointed overseer of the village of 
Wntrus in the Kotabir district. His duty was to collect H. H. 
the Mah&rAjah's share of the grain in that village. Once when the 
harvest waa over and the grain all gathered in hu invited the 



TiRi^ers to come to him to tlio granary, wharo ho would give 
them each one liia share of the produue of tlie aoason. When tlio dia tri- 
buticra was orer, and whili; he was returning to hia liousc, somebody 
uotil^ed that his clothes had been stained by the dirty grain and 
told him to shake it off ("Eisar IdnAiji dalis dul den"). Oti this 
remark the thot^j^ht struck the Pandit, wiiat an unprofitable basitiesa 
thia fOB, md theuce his mind took flight into luftier ro^ons. 
" Behold," said he, aa though to himself, " Behold, heart, the statu 
of afiftira. Here am I, who all thia day havo beeu giving away, 
retamiDg, as I came, empty-handed, nay, worse than einpty-liauded, 
for my garments have become atained. Listen, O heart, thus will it be 
with you. When youdieyoucannottakcanythiiigwith you. Empty- 
handed you arrived and empty-handed you will return j moreover, 
you will repent your birth, because in this life there is nanght but 
Borrow and pain." Therewith ho tore his clothes, from off his baek, 
and went to live in the jungle near his village, there togivo 
himself up entirely to a religious life. Attracted by his devotions thti 
goddess UmS {PSrvati) appeared unto him in a dream, and said how 
pleaacid she was with him, and promised that he should know more 
and more of things divine ; and as a guarantee for those words 
three springs arose in that place, by the which if any person in 
sickness or trouble offered the sacr^ce of Homa (a kind of burnt* 
offering, the casting of ghf. £c., into the Sacred fire as an offering to 
the gods), he, or she, would be immediately rid of these things. 

On awaking from his sleep, Shiva Edk saw the tliree springs, and 
while engi^ed in worship close by them, behold ! several apaoris 
(beautiful female dancers from the Conrt of Iniira), came and Sang 
to him and played some heavenly music. 

It waa some time after this that a famine arose in the country; 
and great was the distress of the people. There waa no rain ; and 
harvest-time came, bat there was no grain to gather in. Thousands 
upon thousands of the poorer claasea perished, and the corpses of 
horses and oows and sheep and goats were to bo seen stretched out 
in every direction. The ruler of the country waa very much grieved, 
and thought of several plans for the relief of tho people, but what 
could he do against the great monster " Famine !" One night, 
however, he sent for hia minister, and asted him with mnoh 
expectation what he would advieu, and whether there was not a 
religious mendicant, to whom they could apply. " Yes," replied the 
minister, " there is one called Shiva Kik. who resides in tho jungle, 
a good and holy man, and in favour with tho gods." On hearing 
this tho mlor went to Shiva Kik and worshipped before him- 
" Wherefore came ye hither?" said tho faqlr. " For this reason," 
answered the ruler, "that my country ia dying from lock of rain. 
O pray ye that rain may descend and water the ground." Whore- 
npon the faqfr bade him to mnko a burnt-offering (Homa) untfl the 
gods, and promised him that then it would rain. Tho ruloi' did so, 
and the rains came and replenished the parchod lauds, ao that they 
yielded food again, ajid the poopb lived. 


There are otlier tales concerning this wan — oue eapocialJy gofnl, 
wherein the king is aaid to have Bent to seize this BhiTA Eik, 
because he was bo very holj, and got his prayers answered BO 
qiiipbly; hnt hb soon as the kind's messengers drew near, lions and 
bears came Forth from tlie hills to devonr them, tc-, to. 

Koh Teotwal tah yi'r subadi.T. 

MouDtnin the police-officer, and piiie-tree the diatrict-officer. 

No government. Everybody does as he likes. 

Kolik Ic'jiwal hkasih nak kukh. 
The pestle will not come forth dry from the river. 
A poor fellow, who has a case in the Coart. 

Kolih Jckutttk hoi tarani. 
One- river is colder than the other. 
Ont of the frying-pan into the fire. 

Kolih tshan'un ekhuk I'-tdn tak hh'run muihJcil. 

It is eAs^ to throw anything into the river, but difficnlt to take 

it out again. 

Easier to light than to conciliate i easier to give than to take. 

Koni gayih huni, " dui'aJi" hurat nik gayih. 

Work has become a dog, and " durah" has frightened it 


A workman afraid to undertake a certain work. 

Durak is a word spoken sharply tO frighten dogB away. 

Korea hande ti'lie fforen ffruniit homani gav. 
The daughters' stars were so unlucky that the milkmen got 
only a httle, eren, of the cow's urine. 

A daaghter, bom onder an anlncky star, So hard to get married. 

Eindds have a custom of washing their daughters' hair with milk 
and cow's urine two days before the marriage. 
Eorik hund batah gav dorik himd ge»- 
The daughter's dinner is as dirt in the streets. 

It is thought most despicable to depend upon one's danghtor'e 
husband for a liviitg. 

Korih lekh gayih torih dab. 

To hare one's daughter abused is like receiving a blow from 
an adze. 

Kri'la*m chkuh hhund bdnah iaun. 
To the potter a broken vessel. 
The washerman with a dirty shirt on ; the cobbler, &c. 



Krtim ehhiii phn iih t»ak yiyih ? 

Is krilm a reproach that one should become augry, vhen 
another calls him by it. 

KTdm, a uickaame. A name nhich has been added to the 
original name by reaaon at the man's special calling, or becanse of 
some peculiar circnmatanca which has occatTcd to him. For 
instance ; — There was a very respectable oitiBCD of Sriiiagar, by 
name iHax Mir, nho had a beaTitiful pear tree grOTriag iu hie 
court-yard. One day during n huavy wind this treo fell down, and 
in its fall wounded Jifar Mir's grandfather, vtho unfortnnatuly 
happened to be sitting under it at the time. Heacefortb laiig, 
which is the Easbmiri for a pear, was added to his ordinary name 
by the common folk j and even to tbe present day the third genera- 
tion are thus named. 

Tot3 Rim, who now baa tbe supervision of H. H. the Mahfirijah's 
mules, is never called Totti Bam. but TotS Khachchar. 

Buiii Wdtul is thus invariably caHed, because he happens to bo tbe 
clerk of accounts to the witnl or sweeper class. 

Bahaz Chhin . i.e., Sahaz the carpenter is so called from the reason 
that one of bis predecessors for a short time helped a carpenter in 
his book-keeping. 

Darfia KSndnr is the name of the Pandit, who accompanies tbo 
baker's coolie on his rounds with the bread'baaket every morniiig. 
Kindur is the Kashmiri for baker. 

TiUb Kalah is a wcll-kaown character in Srfnagar. Ealah means 
a head, and this word was added to the family name by tho 
common folk, when Tdlib's father, who was ft Naqqlah, or painter, 
tumbled from off the ladder, upon which he was standin(; and 
decorating the roof of the Shilimir Bdgh pleasure -house, and very 
severely bruised his head. 

HSji Muhamnind SiAii\ came to this country from Bombay sik 
years a%a, or more. He brought a parrot with him ; that waa 
sufficient. From the moment tliat this was known everybody called 
him ToU H^ji, 

nearly every person I have met with has a krSm, with which 
the majority are not at atl pleased. I can only account fur the 
estrcrae frequency of these nicknames from the fact, that there are 
Fio many people of one and tbe same name, and a difference some- 
times must bu made. 

Kranjilik, hranjilik, poni a'run. 
To take up water in a basket. 

To draw water in a sieve. 

Krayih khutak ekkoh inadf. 
Justice iti better tlmu worship. 


Kruhnn bafah tak chhut T>um tah wazul MuialmAn. 
A black Panilit, a white Bum, and a red Musalm^u {are 
wicked, deceitful, characters). 

Kruhun uhur gar gar hare ; chhut Ttbur dare nak xah, 

Susmiir m/.r hare ; wi-d hare nah zak. 

The black cloud will ouly thunder, the white cloud will never 

stop raioing. 
The malicious man will fight, but without giving an answer 

(i, e., he will not smite openly, not just at once, he will 

not retaliate at the time, but will wait until be gets a quiet 


Persiaii. — At abr i safed hilars o ai ddnm i norm. 

At abr-i-siydk malar$ o ai ddam t yarm. 

Kub-ktttkus? Mutih hund tulah kul. 

Which is the crooked tree? Mut's mulberry- tree. 

Who ia tha fag P The badly .paid, hard-worked janior aerrttnt. 
6'>pal Mat had a garden, in which waa a stumpy and crooked mul- 
beriy tree- All the boya and girls of the neighbonrhood were vont 
to come aoH annoy Gopil very mnch by climbing hia tree. It 
vonld aometimea be filled with childron, aiiiging and ahonting, and 
making a great noise. In ahort thia tree was a source of nuisance 
to Gopil and everybody around, 'i'he regolar reply to the quea- 
tion, " WTiero shall we play to-day ?" was at " GopSl Mpf's mnlberry- 
tree." Sveiy little boy or girl could climb it, it waa so email ; and 
nearly every child in the neighbourhood did. 

The above saying is freqnently cited by tha nnder-aervant in any 
establiahmont, who ia constantly impoaed apon by the other aervanta. 
They are ao araall in years and inferior in position, that everybody 
feels a perfect right to send them there, or coran»nd tbera here, or 
to toll them to do thia, that, or the other thing. 

Kuhi» lat dawdk. 

A kick is as medidne to the crooked old man. 

'Tis falae mercy to try and patch np an old, decrepid man. 

Kueheh-hdm hana Tiyuh. 

Like a kucheh — boatman's mortar. 

A fat man. 

Kuchih-Mm, a class of boatmen who ponnd rice at sn much the 
kharwir for the great folk in the city. They keep boati to carry 
about the rica in. 



" Kudaris nisldk doh kethah hvdul ?" " Yii dupnam lih tit 

" How do you raniiHge to spend your dnys with this pas- 
sionate man?" " Whatever he says to me I do." 
Auytbiug for peace and quietness. 
Kulcarati niuhhtah chltalitin. 
To scatter pearls for the fowls. 

Casting pearls before swine. 
Kukaras Icunvi iang. 
But one leg to the fowl, 

A certain master-in -trada. cave a fowl to one of his apprentices 
to kill for him. The ;oung fellow killed it and cooked it ; but beinR 
cicee<iing]y hucgry he was tempted to break off one of its lega and 
eat it. When the fowl was placed before the master, be enquired 
the reason of there being only one leg. The apprentice replied 
that the bird must have been bom so. The master became very 
angry and wont about the room beating the young man and saying, 
"Where is the leg? Where is the leg?" 

One day. when there was a great storm and the wind blew fierce 
and cold, a cock belonging to the master was observed to be stand- 
ing on one leg only. The apprentice was delighted to see this, and 
went at once and called his master : '' Sir, sir, there's another fowl 
of yours with only one leg." The master wont outside, picked up a 
little stone, threw it at the cock, and cried " hish-h-h-h," and tho 
cock at once put down the other leg. "There, you fool," said he to 
the apprentice. " Ah, " replied the yotmg man, " yon didn't throw 
a stone at that other fowl." 

The Kashmiri Pandit who told me this tale does not know a word 
of English and extreiiiely little Hindustani. I particularly aaked 
liim where he had beard it. Ho said that ho didn't know. l)Mt that 
lie had heard it when ho was a little boy, about thirty years ago. 

"KiikKT dapdn " Meh hyah rdTi ! 
Batah ihulan dyutlvm phdh." 
The hen says what a wrong I have done ! 
1 have given heat to ducks' eggs. 

An ungrateful prot^g^. 

Kitker hariheh nd mdn tah pilen hyah karih. ? 
Of course the hen would have self-respect (if she could); but 
what would the chickens do ? 

A good and respectable man overwhelmed with a large family, 
or rather degraded by it, i-e., ho has to seek some inferior sitnntioii 
for the boys, because he cannot affoni to tcaeh tliem a profession, 
Ac, or else he lias to steal, and lie, and take bribes. 



KuMr tachhiin ink putt hiekh/m. 

Tlie hen scrntches and the chickens lenrn. 

Ah the old cock orowa the young ones learn. 

Kiik':rih hinsih latih ckkik nak pati marun. 
Chickens do not die from the hen's kick. 
Spare tie rod and spoil the child. 

Kukf.rih hitide iatah thiilo tsah hawak sdnak " titi li ?" 

O duck's egg, batched by a fowl, when will you know 


Don't interfere in matters unknown to you. 

Titi ti is the call to fowls at feoding-thnc. 

Knkttr at Ithhji W^V, tolih sapadih nah hlu'r. 

If a fowl eata a kharwar, it does not appear (in the bird be- 
coming bi^er). 
I£ a man ot low birth becomes rich, he doea not become great- 

Kvkur ai thawi^enmuhtah derasmans taiih tihhSyih taehhun. 
If the fowl should deposit a pearl in a heap, there even will 

it be scratching. 

The man who, for his purse, or his stomach, will do any meanness. 

Eukur galjikah bah trak 1 
Could a fowl become 12 traks in weight ? 
Can snch a man over became great ? No. 

Kukur yak kaa katf du kas. 

A fowl is enough for one man, but for two it is nothing. 

Kalah pe/kai salra dafd. 

From the very beginning oppression is oterconne, 

God is the beginnini; ot the world ; the king is the beginning of 
the kingdom ; the husband ia the beginning of the house — if any- 
thing goes wrong, these aud nobody else can right it. 

Kulig khasit gudak rah. 

To climb a tree and spread mud over the trunk. 

To promote a roan and afterwards degrade him. 

It is a favourite amusement among the villagers to climb a tree 
and then get the trunk plastered with mnd. This causes them to 
come down with a run, aud not unfcoquently they are hurt by the 
Budden shuck. 


Kuni hat ckheh nak gajih tih dasdn. 
A siDgle stick upoa the hearth does not burn. 
A man is no good alone ■ 

Kunih gabih mulhi lej. 

A. vessel of muth for the one ewe. 

A spoilt only child. 

Muth is a spcoies of legnminona plant. 

Kutiik gabih ikdl. 
The jackal (attacks) a single ewe. 
An onl; cMld wilt die. 

Kvmd Idt pkenlane ; ahm phash tak rentane ! 

Just enough to go round once and vet he fastens it like a §;rBnd 

pagri ; only just one stroke (in the water would clean it), 

but he wants aonp-nut for it ! 

A poor man with grtat ideas and eipensive wishes. 

f until lang pup jdn, phut hkartt hhdm not ; garah an/larieh 
gunjda, gdmah andariek xdm nai ; wuparah sunz ISk jdn, 
pit art h sum pdminai. 

A single ripe penr is better than a whole basketful of unripe 
pears i a second wife in the house is better than a zAm in 
the village ; a stranger's abuse is better than a cousin's 
Zdn is a daoghter's husband's sister, 

Kur badtna* tah Uer papattai elikuh- ttah kink tih lagdn. 
la a girl's growing and in an apricot's ripening there is no 

Kashmfrfs say that girls grow faster than boys. The growth of 
the latter is hindered Tory much by anxieties, 4o. 

Kur ehhek dtanat ekhenrdwdn tah nah dsanas manda- 

A daughter lessens the wealth of the rich man, and is a cause 

of shame to the poor man (i.e., it coats a lot of money to 

get her married into a suitable family). 

Kir chhUk hhur. 

A daughter is as a heel (i.e., a great hindrance). 



Kur dizih nah Ishihare. 

Tatih Mr buehhih mare. 

Siriyih khases nawili yare. 

Do not give your ilaugtjter to a man from Isbibarl ; 

liecRuse there she nill die from hunger. 

There the sun rises after nine garis. 

Oari ia a space of time equal to our twonty-four minutea. Tho 
nonntama bide tho saa from Che yillagc until a late hour- 
There IB a Tcry famous spring in Ishfbar, ciillcii Gupt^ Gaii^ii, 
after Gnptanatnari, a rikhi, a very holy Hindil. He was bo holy " 
that he frequently visited (rangd, and Gangi was so pleased with 
the trouble which he underwent to see her frequently, that she one 
day said to him, '' Yon saSer mnch to see me ; now I will go and visit 
your viitage.'' Guptanatsari asked when she would come andwhera 
he shoold meet her. She replied, " Throw your cup into me and get 
to your house. Wherever yoa see this cup again I shall bo there." 
The man threw his cap into the water and went his way. On 
reaching hia village the following day he saw his cup floating about 
in a, little spring, whcreiu be at once bathed. 

There ig a great festival in honour of this spring every April. 
H. H, the MahilrAjah baa just iasuod an order for six temples 
to be built in Ishibarf for the priests, &a., in cunnection with this 

Kw ffayih lorxh rv» jtiyddah, 

A daughter is like a runner without his stick. 

These piyadahs or cbobdArs give their orders showing their sticks, 
and then the demands, &o., are paid. The chobdAr is of littlo 
authority without bis stick. 

Kur, hur, hariin pananih garih tak tkut trdudit Ivkak 

handih garth. 
Crying "kur kur" in your own house, but laying eggs in 

the house of another. 

Kwr lair is tho chuckling of a hen. 

Kurt, diUmah gin gdman, tdri hhaijik losai leanjih tjdpdn. 
O girl, I gave you to singhara villages, but your jaws are 

tired with chewing the shells. 

Apparently a good marriage, but it turned out to be a moat nnfor- 
tnnato one. 

Sinjh/tiri vUla^es. — Villages wherein those people live who gather 
this water-chestnut. The Singliard is found in tlio lakes of Kashmir. 
It ripoua iu tho mouth of October, when it is gathered by tho i>eople 



__ I qnantities. (Cf. "Tho Aboilo of Snow," p. 377.) 

These peoplo arc callod giri-hlaiz. The oats oro somotimes tried 
with butter, and eaten with salt and pepper ; but geuorally they aro 
oruBhed into a Soar or meal, oF which cakes ore mado. Tbeee cakaa 
are eatoD with ghi and salt, Ac. To tho girf-hinz these water-choet- 
□ata serre as a substitato fcf rice. 

Kiili huhur. 
The room fowl. 
An eftTeB-dropper, 

Euijamut kim h^uh md darydvat inane budpdnah khut butk 

tah barin luk. 
Like a wet dog if he remaned in the middle of the river ho 

got drowned ; and if he climbed the bank be wetted the 


A man who is doing no good for himself or for otbere. 

Kuisuri lihyoa budah him aandih hasah. 

The pup bit the man at the old dog's incitation. 

A great, respectable, man never beats a refractory servaot, but 
alwajs gets another aervant to do it for him. 

fins, an exclamation for stirring up a dog to fight. 

" Kntui ffotshi^, giLiye ?" " Berth, berth, Jchudh." 
" Kihai karinih, giliye ?" " Thulan dinih pMh," 
" Kdtiy&k chkii, giliye ?" " Kah kih nah bah." 
" Akhuh ditai, giliye ?" " Putrah mdz hahh." 
" Kihaigok, giliye ?" " Ekudai luduk rdk." 
" Where are you going, O water-fowl V 

" Along the path to the field." 
" What are you going for, O water-fowl ?" 

" (Going for) — to sit on my eggs." 
" How many are they, O water-fowl 1" 

" Eleven, or twelve (they may be)." 
" Give one to me, O water-fowl." 

"By my son's life, I have none." 
"What's become of them, water-fowl?" 

'' God has destroyed them." 

A woman boroft of hor children — any person at all rataorable— is 
often hoard chanting these Unos iu a most melaucliuly toae. 



Syah ffov Hanh Tsandar Rdsanih rant t 
LulSth thawttnpeth kane ; 
Topih mv4w» bosagune. 
Sonak tiiJe chhth KSwdn tdlahwmne. 
What has happened to Hari Chandar, the 'BAji'i wife I 
She has placed Lutdsh (her son) upon a stone ; 
And he has died from the bite of a snake. 
And the " k^wij lilk " are taking golden pdada for the burn- 

Chanted in a most melcmoliol; tone bj tte Hindlia in time of great 

Moat Brdhmang can tell (olio wprm tolioa of BtorieB eonoem- 
ing thiH HariBchaodra, who waa once ntlor over the whole world; 
and then by wa; of alma parted with hia wife and child and king- 
dom. It waa after his separation from hia wife, that the poor 
woman, now obliged to go into the jnngle and out her own wood, 
once laid her child apon a big atone, while she clomb a tree to cat 
off aome of ita bianchea, that a snake came forth from the grass 
and bit the boy, so that be died. Bhevya waa the wife's name, and 
the child's name was Lnt&ah or Bobitiawa. Great was the grief of 
the woman, who somehow got back to her first hnaband Hanschau- 
dra and told him what had occurred. Hariaobandra became over- 
whelmed with sorrow, and caring no longer to live, he at once went 
and sold himself for " sonah tAnk, t, a., the golden paisfia wherewith 
to pay the " kiwij llik (or buniera of the dead) to bom bis son's 


Lahah kolanih hanadarih. 

The tassel on the roof of Labah Kol's house. 

This man built d honae bo high, that a mao on the rooC of it could 
not beai any one in the court below, let that man shout as loudly 
as he was able. It is a Kasbtoirf ouatom to affix wooden tassets to 
each comer of the roof bj way of ornamentation. 

Cited wben a m^L does not hear or accept. 

Ldl thindtui zdiUh Idlaeh hadr, 
A ruby-dealer will know the worth of a ruby. 
A bon chat, bon rat. 

Ldlan mvlah mul. 

Price upon price {i.e., a great price) for rubies (but not for 
thia article) . 

It is to the intersEt of the buyer to depreciate the goods in ques- 

Ii&htih huddn iak pulahari phirdn. 

The eunuch gets old and weaves grass shoes. 

Hard times for the old people who haTs not been able to save tor 
their old age. 

Oraaa shoes, Or rather sandals, are worn by the poorer claSBes in 

Ldhtfhah ganh tatult, 

Sntuk in Uie house of an ennuch. 

An extreme improbability. 

The sixth day after a Hindd ohild'a birth biroh-wood is burnt in 
the honse, and a lighted piece of it is passed aronnd the head of the 
obild and of all the persons present. This is the work of the mid- 
wife, and the cnstom is called m(u& in Eashmfri. After this puri- 
ficatory act the mother is allowed to leave the room for a short time, 
&o. Ct. Sanskrit word " siitak." 

LahUhaa mdl hatih tak ndl. 

An eunuch's property consists in his (jewelled) throat and 
(embroidered) garment. 

These ennnchs, who are all Mnhammedans, are hired to sing at 
weddings or weep at funonkls. Ihey get a lot of money sometimes, 
bat generaUy spend it all in jewels and embroider; work. Tbey 



arc very particnlar abont tho work aronnd the " nil," literally, tie 
border of the garment, called the " knrtah," round the neck and 
Howa the breast. Most eitravagant work Is lavished upon this pEut 
of their apparel. 

Ldpk gatsinam mdph ! 
God forgive my boaating ! 

Often cited by the Ka^mlrl, when he has promised to do anj 
work. Ho is afraid lest God should become ar^jy at his pride and 
check him. 

lAr khewdn pdnas tah ddkar trdwdn begis- 

He himself eats the cucumberi and belches in the face of the 

other man. 

An eitremelj selfish man. 
lor lorit tah kut. 
To pull down a house for a room. 

Cited when a thiiig costs more than it is worth. 
Ldri kini Ldhur. 
To go to LShor by way of L&t. 

A roundabout way, on jonmey, or in work. 

LdT is on the Ladfik road. 

There is a tale in Kashmir about a man who was onco asked 
where his nose waa. Ho did not reply by at oaoe putting hia finger 
on that organ and saying ' ' Bere it is j" but he pnlled up the right 
sleOTO of hia Jong cloak, and paaaing his right hand aronnd his head, 
eventually and with great difScutly, touched his nose with it. 
Laren bdU tah b6Uan batah. 
A family is needed for the house and food is needed for the 


An empty, desolate house, or a poi-erty-strioken family, or a man 
withoat knowledge, &c. 

"Latah Hwan, 

(Like a) spade for the feet to kick (and shove). 

A bntt for tho master's anger, &o. 
Lalih hanih latehul. 
A besom instead of a tail. 

Turning good into bad. 

Tjatiye wethramh matiye di. 

O woman, you have come in a poor wretched state. 

Natives are great swells when they visit their relativcfl. This ia 
quoted when any pcraon does nut uttoad to this cuatont 


Ldv bud gayih sdv. 

A young intellect is rich, 

LAv — a boy between the age of twelve jearB,— free from care, 
and able to devote liimself entirely to stndy. 
Zasan magd^ vaisan. 

Unworthy people deserve to be played jokes upon. 
£g tah tekur ckkeh Icum ; martzbdg gdldn pctnh tvlpdrt, 
A Icj and tekur are the same {i.e., both are made Irom earth, 

both are employed in the same work, both are heated in the 

same furnace, &c.), and the grass bums itself in the midst. 

Be careful not to separate frieads, lest in bo doing thoa destroy 

LSj and 'Tehir are two earthenware v^aels used ia cooMug ; ooo 
Ih a little bigger than tbo other. 
Zej tih Mir, gag tih t»ar. 
The pot a thief, the fireplace, also, a thief. 

All of them thieves together. 

liejih milatean, 

A sharer in the pot. 

Close friendahip. 
ZefcA ehheh nak rek eih dalia lirih. 
Abuse is not bird-lime that it will Stain the hem of the 

Lelia pkarun chhuh phak. 
To steal a pot ia like a smell (certain to be detected). 

Lochih Jiamh bud han. 

A great matter from a little matter. 

An sjogry word aometimea oaaeeB murder. 
Log nah tah jog dv put pktrit. 
Couldn't do the work — the lazy stupid fellow ; and so he 


A man begins a work and ia not able to finiah it. 

hokaoMr Ghhnk blbtk ndr. 
Childhood is without care. 

BSbih ndr, lit., fire in the bosom. EaahraWs whilst sqnatting on 
the ground in the winter time place their k^ngors undor their long 
eloak next their aUn. Give a Kashmir! a kdngar and ho ia perfectly 
liappf. Henco the worda " bC^ih n^' come to meui without esre. 


Lokaehdr ekhui andahJcdr. 

Childhood ifi darkness (i.e., the time for sowing wild oats). 

Lohachdr ehhid mokahjdr. 
Childhood is freedom. 

Ldkah hund Teatit neihamm pin ; 
Lokah handih raehhil neputrah pdn. 
Spinning for others, and one's own back bare ; 
Nourislung other people's children, and oneself childless. 

Lokah hundih Tch&ndarah methar dradani. 
To make one's friends happy at the people's wedding feast. 
Di aUino eorio Uberdlis. 

Ldkah, Autm nt^eputrah dag peyiyai. 

O, mother of the people, the pains of travail will come upon 


Cited to a laz? fellow, who ee-ta tHe bread of another'B labonrs. 

Lokah wns har ehkeh Idkas diwai. 

The wrangling of the people is the people's pleaaore. 

Hot a few qoarrels in Ea^hinir are ezdted purely and Edmplf for 
the sake of a tamiahi. 

Lokatt Mts todnti gdo, meik kits ah&nti giv. 
For the people a cow with milk, but for me a cow that does 
not give milk. 

" Evraybodj seemB proBperons and hapi^ except me." 

LonohiA latnitn. 

To pull the garment, 

Aating a man to " pay np.'' 

Bhopkeepers, and. espeoially, hankers, frequently lay hold of m 
man's " pheran"imtilIiepayB torthegoods jiutpurohaaed. A tnie- 
sion servant brought me a " teidar " or wrap the olier day, saying that 
he had seized it as the owner had not paid for a book bonght ftou 
oar city book-shop. 

Lorih kttitmit dattdr gandun. 
To bind a turban on the top of a small stick. 
To give work to a man who is unfitted for it. 

■,G Otitic 


Lorih Tru'ntf put, 

Measnring pattd with a stict. 

A snepiciooB anangememt, becanie e, properly nurked yard meft- 
Bare ia the proper thing. 

Paiti ia a oourse wooUen doth maimfactnred ia Kaahmfr. Iha 
' cloth is washed like blankets m« washed in Scotland, bj trampling 
them imder feet. 

Lorih fithi tarufpitwun. 

To exteod a snake towards a man by means of a stick. 
Any meaa false triok played by a fiieiid. 

Lot&manah nmd fhap. 
The seal of Lotiman. 

A men oarelsBB of bis aeconnts. 

Lotdman wa« a Kashmiri banker of great fame and respectability, 
bat most careleBs concemicg his books. He would put hie eeal ta 
any paper preseoted to him. The conBOquence was that he soddenly 
toimd himself bankrupt, and endod his days most sorrowfally 

Luk »ai dtih tak bud katih gaUUh pmdahi 
If there were no (young) people, whence would the old peo- 
ple be bom ? 

" Yonng and old, this and t'other, 
Cannot do without each other." 

Litfwiatit Myun. 
To beat a tixed man, 

A siak man ordered to work, or a tired man aaked to go a fresh 

Litag tah hmaa hdjhat. 

A partnership with plunder and uproar. 




Maokh leyah tinih pdmpuri gat ? 

Will the fly understand the revolntioDS of the moth (around 

the light) ? 

A place for overy man and erei; man in Ilia place. 

Mi'dav Bilawani ahoht han. 
Midav Bilav's little piece of ginger. 

A aprat to catch a mackorel. 

M^av Bilav was accustomed to squat down beside any man ha 
might see cooking hia food; and to give the maa a little piece of 
ginger, expecting a good ehare of the meal in rotom. 

Mdg auwi drdg wuthut, Kdngri. 

Phdgan auid zdffun t^oi, Kdngr t. 

Tsithar auwi muthar piyoi, K&ngrl. 

Wdkeli auwi raheh kati, Kdngri. 

Zet auwi bret gagak, Kdngri. 

Hdr auwi Idr laji, Kdngri. 

Shrdwun auioi ydwun surui, Kingri, 

Sddarpet auwt widar peyi, Kdngri. 

Askid auTtn h&sid »mmai, Khtgri. 

Kdriik auwi ndrah-fik lanmai, Kdngri. 

ManjhoT avm konjik lajai, Kdngri. 

Pok auwi toh ludmai, Kdngri, 

January came aud there was a famine for jou, K&ngrf.^ 

February came and a plot was laid gainst you, Kdngri. 

March came and you were put to a mean use, O Kdngri.. 

April came and where will you abide now, Kdngri. 

May came and you were thought a senseless thing, Kdngri. 

June came and you were pursued, O Kangri. 

July came and your youth was numbered, Kdngri. 

August came and sickness fell to you, O Kdngri, 

September came and I aent a messenger for you, O Kiingri. 

October came and I placed a bit of fire in you, Kdngri. 

November came and you were a matter of anxiety, Kdngri. 

December came and I burnt, even chaff in you, Kdngri. 



The iniytt ot K&ngar, as it is generally called, is the KashniH 
portable fire-place- It K^nerally coneistB of two parts, the inner 
earthenwaro vesseE called kundal (soraewliat like the charcoal -Tinnier 
of Italy), wherein the fire is placed, and its encasement of wicker 
work, Bometimes very pretty, being tastefully orcamented with 
rings and brilliantly coloured ; a little wooden or Bilker BpoOQ 
(tsilan) tied to the handle (k^DJih) completes this oriental brazier, 
which may be purchased in any KaghmicI bdzir for the anm of one 
iijii, and upwards according to the make and size. Should the 
kingar oonaist merely of an earthenware veHsel a little ornamented, 
it is tbon called a raanan. These are principally used, I belieTe, in 
the Leh and LadAk direction. 

The beat kdngara are said to bo made in Zainager, a big village in 
the Kamr&z district. IsUmibid, Sh^bdbild and Sopbr are also 
noted for good kSngara, which aro very often called after tho places 
where they are made, e. g., lalAniSbddi Kingar or Tsrdri K&ngar, &o. 
An ordinary peasant's kdngar, very rudely made, is called Grfsti 
KAngar, from gmst, which in Kashmiri means a husbandman, while 
a finely-worked, bigbly coloured kingar nsed by the wealthier class 
ii called Khojah kilngar from the Persian Kbi^ah, which means a 
master, a gentlomau, or man of some distinction. 

Kingars are alao to be met with in the bizirs of those cities and 
Tillages, whither oppression and famine have driven the Ea^hmir!. 
I have beard of them at Dadrawih. Kashtawir, Bdm-Nagar, Uisanli, 
Nfirp6r, Kingri, Amritsar, Lndiiniandotherplaces; butthe kingara 
manufactured outside " the Happy VaJlcy " always seem to boot a 
very inferior pattern and quality, and to be used by a very limited 
chisa indeed outside the Kashmiri emigrants. 

The Kashmiri is very fond of h is kii^ar, and wherever he goes 
whenever you see him, whether asleep or awake, at work or at play, 
sitting down or walking, be has this little fire-place held in one hand 
underneath bia loose, long, night gown-like garment called pbcntn, 
and in immediate contact with bis stomach and thighs- As will 
be expected this very close familiarity generally proves very dan- 
gerous ! a person is tripped up by a stone in the way and tumbles 
upon his rod-hot kdngor fire, or a child roiia in her sleep and upsets 
the fire-place, and burns herself, the bedding, house, and everything. 
There are really very few of the wealthier, middle, or lower classes 
who some time or another have not been more or leas burnt from 
accidentia vrith tho k^ngar. 

However, the kingftr continues more popular than over, and not a 
few songs and sayings in its honour are extant in the valley. Thoro 
is no doubt that this portable brazier keeps off many a disease from 
the poor Kashmiri, when so terribly osposed as bo is sometimes to 
the bitter winds, &'eezing rains, and biting hail; — for King Winter 
now and again makua Kashmir the coutro of his dominions and 
rules supreme there. 



A Htioty ia told of a nativo dootor, who once viaited tho valley to 
Boe nliet hia ekill oonld do for the poor people there during tho 
severe winter eeason. On reaching Biramula, the place where Tisi- 
tora chaise the horso, kahir and coolie for the boats, on their way 
into Kaabntfr, be noticed a boatman with only a loin-cloth on, Bqnat- 
ting in hia boat in the cold wind, and eating Bome cold food. The 
doctor thought that the man was mad and wonld certainly soon die. 
Bat the boatman had a Ungor between hia kuees, and when the 
doctor on a cloaer obaervation aaw this, he at once determined to 
retnm wbooce he came, saying, "The Eashmlri people have got 
their own antidote for their winter cold. There is no necessity for 
me to go there." 

It has been suggested that the Kashmiris learnt the use of tho 
kin^ar from the Italiana in the retinne of tho Mughal Emperors, 
who often visited the valleji bat no reliable paiticnlars have as yet 
been ascertained. 1 have enquired from high and low, rich and poor, 
bat no one oan tell me anything, fact or fiction, aa to who originated, 
and whence originated, this popular and necessary artiola. (Other 
portionlars, conceming the derivation of the word K^ngar and K^gri, 
Ao>, Ac, may be found in my article pabliahed in the Angoat num- 
ber of the Indian Aniiguary.) 

Mdgi thin kunun. 

Selling snow in the month of January. 
An nnseasonable wort. 

Mahdrinih mdjih patah kantk pilur hm. 
Behind the bride 19 her couain (on father's side). 

Take care. There's an enemy present. 

It IB a wedding cnstom among Pandita, when the bride ia taken to 
the house of the bridegroom, to place her in a lower room, while tho 
bridegroom ia in the upper room of the hoaae. After a little time 
the aaored fire ia kindled in the upper room before the bridegroom, 
and appointed poriiions from the holy hooka are repeated. Mean- 
while the bride ia breoght to the upper room by ber mother's brother. 
Arrived in the room he sits behind her and is her " beat man," aa it 
were g be aeea that she is thoroughly concealed, gives to ber the 
appointed meats and drinks at the stated times, and leads her aronnd 
the BBCred fire. 

Great friendahip exists between this unole and the bride, but 
intense enmity between her and her father's brethcra' sona, "rhcse 
two are constantly quarrelling concerning property and position, Ac. 

JfaA^MiA nah gukush tah mgi pkirih, tuukush. 

At the time of the wedding the bride had not a straw, but ten 

days afterwards, when she returned to her husband's house 

her face was covered with jewellery. 


Xukush ig B, preparation of sold and silrer leaveB) Jfco., whiob are 

plastered over the bride's face (ten ilaya after the wedding, when she 
retiu-DB to her hasbajid'B bonao) making it look mnch like a model in 
tamialied silTer. Ibis is a Mnhamme&n oustom. 

Mahiriaih nah wdnkahpan tah wigt phirih Mtiharan. 

At the time of marriage the bride uad not even her hair 

plaited, but ten daja afterwards, when she returns to her 

husband's house, she wears a liukaran. 

Lanlraron (Persian, Halyat ; Sanskrit, AUmkiira,) a jewel or woman's 
metallic omameDt. 

Ten dajB after the wedding the bride retnms to her hnsband's 
house splendidly dressed, richly jewelled, and with abmidauee of 
furniture and proTisions, Ac 

ifai tih ali tah mm-khtinah Hk ati. 
Wine ia here and wine-shop is also here. 
Breiy thing at hand. 

itdj kardn "kiiri, kari" ; Tear kardn " renik, renih." 
The mother cries, " daughter, daughter " ; the daughter cries, 
"husband, husband." 

Mdj karin " thurih, skurih " ; thur mah karin " mdj, mdj" 
Let the mother say " child, child" ; but let not the child sa; 
"mother, mother." 

As orphan. 

Mdj tah kw, t*akar tah Mr. 

A mother and daughter are like the handle and stick of a 
spinning-wheel, (necessary to one another ; — and work to- 

" Mdj, txak thmeum kdngar phukit, huk yimai umatat doh 

" mother, blow the kangar and set it for me ; and I will 

come after my work with the teacher." 

" Light the kingar tot me, I will be back again presently," refer- 
ring to the short time one is able to work during the dark winter 
months. Workmen oome, just lay a few bricks, £0., and go again. 

TTtwloJi, a teacher, here moans a master blacksmith, or bricklayer, 
or oarpentet. 



" Mdj wuhawan chhum naJi hanh." " Watihpetk beh tahdah 

zani wuJtawanai." 
" Mother, Dobodv cursea me." Sit by the way-aide (my son), 

and tea men will curse thee." 

Thej who live in pnblio most expect to " rough it." 
Mdji badeyih tkdji tik badeyih. 
When the mother becomes great, the pot, also, becomes great. 

The expenaeH ot a, family. 

M/ijih har dandah-tuj tah shuri hhyav g6»dh Mur. 

The mother used a tooth-pick oaly, but the child ate a bnndle 

of grass. 

A mother'a utter unBelfishneHB. 
Mdjih lehutah Icurui bad. 
The daughter is bigger than her mother. 

Case greater than the original quarreL Wages abore the work. 
Mdjih ISk, benih lek, Jeorth lek ; tah holayth nah lek. 
Abuse my mother, my sister, my daughter ; but do not abuse 

my wife. 

A PathSn sajiiig. PathSna are especially particular concerning 

Mdjih nah laehakah tah gildras gildpk. 

The mother hasn't a lachakab, but the guitar has its wrapper. 

CiCed against the man who has hardly sufficient to keep 
body and soul together, and yet buya books and other dispeuaable 

Laehakah is the pieoe of woollen cloth that hanga down on the 
neck from the barck of the head of a Mobammedan woman. 
Majnunaa parutxhuh zih kheldjat kahan^ ehkek, Dupnak, 

"Lailih him." 
It was asked of Majnun " Whom do you like ?" He replied, 

" Laili." 

Anybody or anything a man ia especially fond of, is called that 

Laili Majnun — a famous Feraiiin love atory tranalated into Kash- 
m(rl by a poet called Muhammad Gamf. 
Makir tah Idlliir garin tah pharin, lejih nah baain (slurwi 

A garrulous, sharp, unconscientious and malicious woman, 
no oil in the pot, — only pride ! 

A woman nho Satterg herself that she is as good as her Hob 



Makhah melih magar nakhah melih nah. 
Mecca shall be found but not your neighbour. 
Neighbours are constantt; going to law aboQb ground, &a. 

Milfitnah yd aulddjilnah. 

Either trouble about one's money or trouble about one's 

If a man has uonej then he haa not children ; and if he has chil- 
dren then he has not money, beoauBe the ohUdren have swallowed 
it all np ; in either case, however, man has trouble in this world. 

Mdl matt lah Ml mtut landih khutah ehkui ntmgah matt 

A naked man haa less care tlian a man of wealth or a man 

of position. 

MqcIi coin, much care ; little goods, little care. 

MAl-i-muft tak dili-he-rahm. 

Property by gift and a heart without mercy. 

Mdl vsuehkit xagSt, 

Seeing (your) property give alms. 

Give according to your ability. 

Zaga.t (Arabic, ZaMt,) a portion of a Mnhammedaa's property 
given in ch^itj according to the mles laid down in the Qorin, ct. 
" Hughes' Notes on MnhammedaniBm," pp. 125-126. 

The KashmfrishareastoryooncemingoneLakshman Dar, an officer 
of the Kashmir goYOrnment. He was one day eating pulSv when 
a jester was present te whom ha gave a little poirtion. The jester 
disgosted with the meagre meal, and in order to make those 
present lai^fh, stuck a grain of rice opon a needle, and laying it oot- 
sido his platter said, " Htini mit" i. e., the dog's portion. On noticing 
this done in snch a Indiorous fashion all the people langhed, inclatt 
ing Lakshman Dar also. "Why are you snch a fool F" they asked) 
whereupon the jester replied, " According to Lakshman Oar's gift 
I have given {Mdl wachhit na^&t)- 

Huni mit, lit., the dog's handful. HindAa before tonchii^ their 
food take oat two or three handfnls, as the case may be, and lay it on 
one side for the dogs to eat. The real idea of the custom, however, 
is an offering to Vishnii. 

Mdlat chhuh nwl. 

Price according to property. 

Good article, good price. 



Mm Wetidr-ndgah tah Bahwano, yai nah peyih ddnaa 
pemno tat Icyah ehkukpdnas rheano I 

fathers Vets^r-nag and Bawan, irhat a aight ! He who cannot 
afTord to have a fire in hia house, yet adoma himself for 
the festival. 

HindliB address thsir sacred places as fathers, becaase through 
them they think they obtain all blessings. Vitsi.T-*&g ia a sacred 
Bpring about three miles from Brluagar towards the tmrth <ai the 
Gangabal road. 

Bawan also ia a sacred spring — the moat aaored in the whole vaUe;. 
Near to the village called after this spring are the fomoos ruin a of 
Mlrtand or MatUn 

Great religious iurs are held at both of these places at obrt^n 
seasons of the year, and it is the custom of the Hind& people to 
appear at them dreaaed in their best and gayest olothes. 

M&,is rdj tah ntvhtdj, bdyie rdj whnkldj ; rmi» rdj tah iher 

If my father has the nile then I want somethiDg, and if m; 
brother inles I shall be in need ; but if my husband rules 
then (I have got my heart's desire), I wear the crown. 

Mdllah dyuihum amalah kardn, Mkas dapdn kackh ; 
Odraueh khewdn aldi baM, miudfira* dapdn maaAidih eAAtd 

1 saw a mullah performing his duty, and calling a cabbage 

Eating the sacrifice of the village, and saying to the traveller) 
"There is a hynna in the mosque." 
A selfish, hypocritical mullah. 
Aldi iaiH is the sacrifice offered to wiird off, or abate, any peS- 

JUallak ffoi pcdah pSH poni dalit. 

O mullah, (my words to you are like) water which trickles 
down ofi' the rock. 

In at one ear and out at the other. 

MaUah har gayih^alah har, 

A mullah's fight is Uke a. fight with stones (so bitter and 
unrelenting is it). 


Maitai fuh ehheh mashdih tdm. 
A mullah's " beat " is to the moEque. 
" Matlab " carries as hither and thither. 

M&m thawih izzat tak gdm lik tkawih ittat. 
If an uncle hunoura (a man) the Tillage will also honour 

a, amile from those in authority is worth mooh. 

Mdmak-hiharah marano ddr nah tah bar no. 

O Mamah-hihor you are worthy of death, there is neither 

shutter nor door. 

Yoa ezaggeratedj^yon decaiTed me. 

U&mah-hihnr iB the hnHband or wife's mother's brother. 

A joung womaD wsa asked bj har affianced hnaband'i mother's 
brother to oome and see har fnCnre home, which he described as 
very grand and beautiful. When the girl arrived at the place she 
fonnd a, vsrj humble abode without even a shatter or a door. 

jtfifn yd mah mdn buh chk»»ai xorah rnhmdn. 
Whether you consent or not, I will be your guest. 

Mananik yiyih nah panani tak hakaddnaa rek. 

A manan does not get sufficient for itself, how (then can it 

obtain,) flame for the hahad^n ? 

Jlfonan is a kingri withont the wicker work. 

Uahaian ia a big cone-shaped fire-place with holes in the topi 
throngh which they Btir-np and blow the fire, &C. 

Mandaehhahan Idhtah Hm hhewdn natsi, naUi, 

The eunuchs ought to be ashamed of themselves, yet they 

dance and eat. 

A Bhamelesa person. 

Mandaehhanas tannak-nannah' 
Rejoicing in his shnme. 

Tannah-natmah, supposed to represent the sowid of the Eashmfri 
cithiri, " Tom, torn, (om, tannak nddir ; tonnon, tonnon tannah 
nannah," the instrument is supposed to say. 

Mangavun ai tahwixen langah-wani andar tatik tik htrih 
' If a b%gar be placed in the midst of a grove of pear treeSi 
there, even, he will beg. 

" Habits are soon Hasomed ; but when we strive 
To atrip them 'tis being flayed alive." 


A EsBhmfrl friond tells me a storj of a beggar, whoeo son became 
a great man. However, his father stiU oontinned to beg. At last 
one day his eon put the old man into a room and locked the door. 
At the regular timea the servant carried food to him ; but it waa too 
much for the old man, who had been accustomed for so many years 
to Btint himself, so he only ate a little of the dinner, and tied np the 
remainder in his clothes, cryii^ " Y£ Ehudi," " Thank Qod," as 
he bad been accnstomed to do on receipt of alms, 

Manffun lah mdjii pakun tah pariiui. 

Asking, even, from one's mother, and walking, even, one step, 

are hard. 
Mangun tak Tiutrun, 
To ask (a favour) is to die {i.e, jou put yourself uuder au 

obligation — you lose your independence). 
Maniinih lejih pdnzu. 
Six pounds weight of anything to a three pound pot. 

Manat tak phamhak dyohg tak MyuA bardhar. 

A three pounds weight and a ball of cotton and the scalea are 


A sharp fellow without any principle, who will, and can, say or 
do anything to accomplish his object. 
Id am atjun chhuh ham afjuti. 
To go between {i.e., to act as a surety) ia to put your head 

into a mortar. 

A certain man borrowed some money, and persnaded a friend to 
become surety for him. The mean man aa soon aa he had obtained 
the money spent it and ran away from tbo country. The poor 
surety was punished by having to keep a mortar npon his head for 
a certain time, "ifani atsitrt, cMiuh kans a^un," cried he, as the 
people going by laughed and jested at him. 
Manz ffdm jesknah htuih r&n garih. 
Dancing and feasting in the village, whilst Huaih Run (who 

has paid the expenses of the tamishd) is indoors. 

Cited when the very person who ought to be present, is not 
MuTix pani mamamis ; kalah earddraa ; lat gunakgdrat tah 

The middle portion (of the tish) for the middle-class man ; 

the head for the host ; and the tail for the sinner and the 




M&m thav tulit dud math athan. Shekh ehkuk hdhim. 
Katkan ckkek kdt^. 

Kub milk over the hands and take off the colour. The 
SheUi is ruler. There is fear of accusatioD from one's words. 


3ke^ ttndm^A-din hated the Hindiis. Ona day, a day fixed for 
the oelebratioD of a, very grand Hiiid(i tredduig, he sent an order 
that no wodding was to take place. , The people heart-aoce and 
weary said the abore words. This Im&m-nd-dfD also forbad the 
Bindiis to wear the tiki. 

MarK is the Lav-sonia inermis, the Indian Hinn^ with which the 
people etaia Che uaila of their hands aad feet. 

Mdr pethid gilkdr ; dr kheni chkii tsuki ndr ; lAr lehsni 

ehhii ghajdr : xdraa gindun Ichaharddr ; fcur leni ekhai 

tabarddr ,- nechuv nun ckhui syud dmldr. 
One should build upon the bank of Mdr ; eating lir is bitter 

like fire ; eating cucumbers is cooling ; beware of gambling ; 

the birth of a girl is like a wood-cutter to you ; but the 

birth of a sou is as a straight turban, 

Mdr is a canal which flows through cho northern portion of Srfnagar. 
It reaembleB the old canals in Venice. It is creased by several ancient 
atone bridges and is fringed in many places with trees and festooned 
with vines. 

Ar, Ali-i-Boihara, Pranus domeeUca. 

K&i xSni chhai tabard-ivr — Like aa the woodcntter "brings down" 
the trees and cuta them ap, so a daughter is t, continual strain upon 
the father's purse. 

Byad daatar is an expression signifying prosperity. 

Marahah tak garih chhum nah kank. 

I would die, but there is nobody in the house with me. 

" Whosover is delighted with solitude is either a wild beast or a 
god. — Bacon. 

Mdrahan ffaUhan dsuni dydrak der tak ydrah der tak hatak 

For quarrelling, a heap of money, plenty of friends, and abun- 
dance of food are required. 

Money — to bribe and pay oonrt fees, &o. 
Friends — to swear falsely and back you up. 
Food — to nourish and streogthen in these troubloas times. 



Maranat nah mokal (ah mast kd»ana» nah Juriai tah harik 

nak zi. 
No time for dviug aod no leisure for shaving (he is so busy), 

and jet he nae not one cowrie's income, 

Lots ot work and sinall paj. 

M&rat mdrik, tiirai tdrik, ydrtu lihydwih tmht tuk tang. 
He will smite the man, who haa to be smitten, will help the 

man who has to cross the liver, and will feed the friend 

with apples and pears. 

A man aii fait at most thinga. 

This is also a Kashmiri riddle, of which the answer is a stick. 

Moras Ijonff zdlun goyd Ttih saratpamposh phulun. 
To hgbt a lamp in the honse is like the flowering of the 
lotus on the lake. 

A son ia the lamp of the fs.miljr. 

Hiadfi saying. — Ktil ko dipak putr hai ; mukk ko dipak pan ; 
Qhar ko dipai ialri; dhar ko dipak pran. 

Marattak wdngan l^hdr ai hheyih ids Uadih nah tyut ckkuk 

tun tah sangin ! 
If he eats one kharwar of red pepper he will not smack his 

lips ; 80 deep and philosophical is he ! 

An noe«jitable diapOBition ; semper idem. 

Marax galik toedah-wdn Adat katih galih ? 
The disease will go by the doctor's shop, but the habit will 
never go. 

Habit is second nature. 

Mardt-o-Kamrdx ; skakr chhvh Yamrdz. 
Mar^z and Kamr^z ; the city is Yamrilz. 

Yamtd^ is the city, where everything finds its way. 

" O, everything in London." 

Iheee are the three great divisions of the valley. Mariz is tho 
whole S. E. end. Kamrii is the N. and W. end anditlie watershed 
of the Jhelnm as far as its jonction with the Kriahua Gai^. 
Yamrdz is the city of Srinagar, &c. 

Maspyav mas bdnih, yes pyav sut stdnik. 

Wine has fallen into the wine-vessel ; that vessel knows (its 

strength, smell, &c.) into which it has fallen. 

Biperience ia the best teaoher. 


Ma» wunchik pelk nxndar. 
Sleep upon a wine-cask. 

A man ot property. In the lap of luiury. 

Mat phuiarit bobna ! 
Breaking a mat for a bobus. 

Spoiling a good thing in order to make an inferior article. Hat 
is a lai^ earthenware veaiiel. SoAus ia a small earthenware Teaael 
about the size of a slop basin. 

The saying or^ioat«d many years ago in this way. One day a 
child was playing fireworks with bobases. HegoCsome gaopowder 
and put a little into each bobuB, and then ignited them. At one 
time he could not find a bobns, and .so he brolie up a mat and made 
something like bobneea out of the shreds. His father was very rooah 
ehocked and said, " What breaking up a mat for a bobns 1" 

Malanas maahk. 
Practising mailnesa. 

An unseasonftblo or impossible study. 

Mdtas iah hahri ehkuh hisdb. 

There is an accouat between the corpse and the grave. 

Maten hund dup ekhui baldyan thup, 

A madman's speech is a check to miafortune. 

A madman's word, and a good man's word, are thonght to be of 
equal value, because mad men are supposed by the common folk to 
be Tery gocxf. Though they sin, the people say they do not sin ; for 
they know not sin, but ore like the beasts of the field. 

Malta chhek batata wir. 

A madman is only ansious about hia dinner. 

ifatlab ohhuh tsatdn pul-lab, 

Slatlab cuts the back wall of the house. 

Any thing to accomplish his purpose. 

Maftanuh balah tah Pattanuk Dumb. 
The Mattan Pandit and the Fattan Dumb. 

There was a Dumb from the village of Fattan, who had to take a 
tetter of the Kbrdfir's to the city. (K^rdir is the llindU overseer of 
a village, a government official, whose business it is to see that 
H. H. the Mahirijah gets his proper share of the grain.) The letter 
was delivered to the man at evening time, and he rose early the next 
morning to go to the city. It was so dark when ho got up that he 
could not see what he was about, and so be put on ths first garment 
that came to hand, thinking it to be hia own. By the time the day 



dawned lie bad proceeded far on his jonraej, and the more Borrow 
for him that he had walked io fast and had bo manj miles to re< 
turn, for he found that he had olothed himself with hie brotber'a 
wife's long cloak instead of hie own. He determined to run back aa 
quickly as possible, because, said be, " 1 have Binned in that I have 
done this thing, and I must rectify it b; all means within my 
power." 8obewentbackto his hoase. quickly, changed his cloak, and 
rtarted off the second time, and when be reached grinagar, he car- 
ried the letter Co its destination, and then went to SSd, Lai Dfid'a 
teacher, and told him what sin he had unwittingly been guilty of ] 
and asked him what he must do to atone for it. SSd ordered him 
to visit a certain BrUunan who resided at Mattan, and explain mat- 
Now this Brtibman was a very bad chara,oter, and wae at that 
time living with his brother's wife. When he heard what the Damb 
had related to him, he fell into a parosysm of grief, and kept on 
saying, " What a sinner I am 1 Here is this poor fellow in such a, 
terrible state simply becauas he once put on his sister-in-law's cloak, 
whilst I, who am living day after day with my aister-in-lkw, do not 
have the slightest qnalma of conscience." The Brdliman asked tbe 
Damb wherefore be had come to bim, and who had sent bim. The 
Damb replied that 8Cd had told him to come. Then they botb, the 
Br^man and the Dumb, visited SEd and asked his counsel. Ths 
Damb was quickly dismissed with the order to perform some very 
small penance. The Brahman was detained alone with SEd for 
many honrs. 8dd told him that the only atonement be could make 
for his enormons crime was to offer himself as a bomt-offering to 
the god- The BrAhman accepted the advice, ordered the pile of 
wood to be prepared, and was burnt. 

It is written that if any man gives himself up to be burnt npon 
the pyre he shall ask anything that his heart may wish for at the 
time of bnming, and it shall be granted him. Accordingly this 
Brfhman waa enquired of as to what he liked. He answered, " I 
want yon to give me some milk and some fiesh. " When SM beard 
his reply, he became exceedingly sorrowful, and said to the peopla 
who crowded around the burning man : " people, this man will be- 
come a Mohammedan king, who will destroy all our idols and oast 
all our shrines down to the ground." This prophecy waa fulfilled, 

Sikandar, surnamed Butshikan, or Image breaker, was the sixth 
Idnhammedan king of Kashmir and reigned in 1396 i.d. He 
destroyed all the Hindi! tomples and broke their idols into pieces ; and 
when there remained not another temple for this monster to destroy, 
he determined to go to AmaranStb and breakup the sacred emblem of 
Shiva, which is there in a cave. On arriving at Qanesha Bal on the 
way, he struck a blow at Ganesha (the son of Shiva by a daughter of 
Hin^laya). There is a fragment of a rock here, which lies in tha 
tcrrent of the L&lnr, and has been worn by the angry waters into 
what the imsfiinatiTe mind of the Hindu discovers to bear a strikiiig 



likenoBB to the head of aa elephant, the repreBentation of Oanetha ; 
( — a trank aai a pair ot ejea have been painted ou bj a natira 
artist), and broke tuB knee. Blood flowed forth in anch abondanoQ 
from the wound that the whole stream was coloured by it. Seeing 
this Sikandar became very mnch frightened and left off bif sacrile- 
gioaa works, and returned home. 

SfaJfnn, a celebrated spring of water in the Tillage of Hattan or 
Bawan, near to which are the magnificent mina of the temple of 
MMand or the sun, 

FaitiMi is a little village in the Bfingil pargana. 

Matyae anegih nosM, «kA tiA mateyih. 

The mad men brought a daughter-in-Jaw, aad she also became 


Evil commnnicationa oormpt good morals. 
Mdy&rdmuni rtatk. 
Mayar&m'B daughter-in-law. 

A contrary person. 

liayirim's daughter was celebrated for her contrariuesB. She 
always did the opposite to what she was told. Tell her to bring 
water, and she would bring earth, &c. One day a friend advised - 
her father-in-law to order the girl to do the very opposite of what 
he wanted. Accordingly the man one morning asked her to jnmp 
into the fire. She went and drowned herself in the rivar, and there 
was an end of her ; and the father-in-law lived . happily ever after- 

Meh chham gdmuU graiiaa lalphusi. 
My hat is under the mill-stone. 

A work to be done — no alternative. 

Fhuei is the cap of a Tach or Yech, the classical Takshas. Some 
say that this cap is made from the skin of some animal — perhaps, the 
inckali while others declare that it is perfectly white — and that ia 
all one can know about it. This cap possesses wonderful powers. 
It is a mist-cap (nebelkappe) by which the wearer becomes invisible 
(of. Schwartz' " Der TJrspmng der Mythologie dargelegt an grie- 
chischer and deutsoher sage, " p. 247) } and the person, who should 
be so lucky as to obtain one, can compel the rightful owner to do 
his bidding — to bring gold without stint, to furnish the rarest 
delicacies, and to remove the greatest difficulties. 

The Yach or Tech, however, remains the hnmble servant of the 
poasesaor of his hat only so long as that precious article is kept aafely 
either under a mill-stone, or under a veaael containing sadorkjnz 
(i. e., rioe water kept in a ghari for several months until qnite aour, 
and then cooked with salt and spices i and drunk, especially, during 
the hot season). Prom underneath these two things a Yach cannot 
remove his cap, thoi^h he conld carry great tocka and with a bmsh 


of bis hand olear away great stre^ae, tbat tis master might pass 
orer without danger. 

This cap h&s came into the poBsession of Beveral people, irho 
apparently have not failed to profit by it. These fortnnate folk, if 
they are Hindlis, have become distii^oiBhod into a separate com' 
munity, and bear the title of Yach, as Kawal Yoch, Gana or Ganesha 
Taeh, Sokha Tach, Damfldar Yach, 4c. 

Unch might be writteo, if needed here, coDCeming the ancient and 
modem idea of Che Yach, hja origin and general character, and 
manv stories might be told contierning the aeizing of this man or 
, whatever be may be. It is my idea to get these pabliahed 

a separate boolc or pamphlet. Captain Temple hea a few interest' 
ing notes on the Yach in the "Indian Antiquary," Tol. XI., Pt. 
duvi. p 280. 

MehaT-i-Ardbl chhuk hahr-i Khudd. 

A farmer's love is like God's anger. 

Persian. — Yar i dih ti l(£r t dih. 

Mebnatas chkeh ntofuri. 
Wages for labour. 

Metros gabar zdi, duskmanat eangik di. 
Sods are born to a friend, and they go to their (father's) 
enemy and bless him. 

General reply ot an enemy to a friend, who wishes to be reconciled. 

" Metro shethar mvdvi," " Metros Hk ekhuk marnn." 

" O friend, your enemy is dead." Ans. — " The friend also will 

Death is every man's debt. 
Mewagari, munjigari, heyih bdgkio&n. 
Tim treahamai chhik Kaunt-i-MaTwdn. 
The fruiterer, confectioner and gardener, these three are a 

Qaum-i-MarwJln.(i.e., a dirtily clothed, wandering sort ofaclass. 

Kawm-i-marw&it. — Marwin was the ninth oaliph of the house of 
Abbaa. Some Kaabmiria say " h&l-i-hair&n" instead of these words. 

jlfiri rmri pAaU, 
From horses to asses. 

V The above is not the translation but only the meaning of the 
Baying. Uiri mtri phatj is a favourite game iu Kaahmfr both 
amongst children and adolts. Two holes arc made in the ground, one 
about half-a-foot deep and hatf-a-foot in cironmference called mir, 
and another close beside it, about two inches deep and two inches 
ronndi called phats. Tho players two, three, or sis, ae the oaao may 


be, range themfielTea in order at aboat a distance of two ^arda from 
these holes, and one after another try to fling a walnut into the big 
hole. If the first plajer racceeds he is oalled mir, until some other 
player, alao, gets in, Tfhen this other player is oalled mir, aud so on 
untl] the lost mir pkyer. If howisrcr a, player fails to get bis walnnt 
in, he is called phafs. When all have tried, the last mfr, who ia the 
greatest man, cullectB all the walnuts from the other players, and 
holding them in both hia Landa together over the m(ri holo he leta 
them fall. As many as fall into the mirihole is his; but those, which 
chance to fall outside are gathered by the second mir and dropped 
by him in the same manner. Should it happen that after all the 
mir players hare tried, there are atill one or two walnuts left, which 
have not fallen iuto the miri bole, theu the phats player, if there ia 
one, takes them, and holding them in the same fashion, hut above 
the phats bole, tries hia Inok. And ao the game ooutiunes. 

Mirzah Basd/tun gddah drak. 
Mfrza RtiZtl's necklace of fish. 

A shamelosa man. 

This man was a government debtor, and not being able to pay his 
debt, he waa ordered by the king to parade the streets, wearing 
a necklace of fish. He did ao, and after he had gone the ronnd and 
reached his home, he took oB the necklace, cooked the fish, and 
ate them. 

Miskin Skdhan datdn, firangdh th'od tah tharafd nak Miik. 
Miakfn Shfih's ziitrat haa a lofty tower, but there is no 

honour attached to it. 

A wealthy, but an ignorant, low-hirth man. A well-dreaaed fool. 

Hirat is a place to which a pilgrimage ia made. 

Miakin Shih's zifirat ia a beautiful building in the Suroh-teng 
division of the KhSuySr district of Srluagar. 

Mitn ai fuE<i% sun gaUhnnai. 
If you pick up earth may it become gold to you. 
A Kashmiri'a blessing. 

Hit pund tah zit umr. 

A pleasant sneeze and long life (to you). 

A Kashmiri blessing. 

By a pleasant sneeze ia meant a aingle easy aneeze, that does not 
cive pain to the throat, or to the nose, or eyes. If each a sneeze 
happens when about any of the seven special works mentioued helow, 
and qaoted from the Sanskrit work Vdrcihiya, then it is a realty good 
omen i some say that good fortune will meet you, and others that 
people muBt bo speaking well of you (as foolish people in England 
do when their ears bum in a peculiar manner). The VSrShiya suys — 
(i,) sneezing is a good omen itit comes at the time of taking medicine, 


BememberthisfoTTOo will no6 need to take another does ; (ii.) eneeE- 
ing is a, good omen if it comeB at the time of settii^ out apon a. borae ; 
(iii.) sneezing is a good omen if it comes at the time of argnment. 
To him who aneezea, or hears soother person aneeza, it means 
eaocess t (it.) sneeiing is a good omen at the time of retiring to 
rest ; (v.) sneezing is a good omen at the time of eatit^ ; (vi.) sneez- 
ing is ft good omen at the time of reading ; (vii) sneezing is a good 
omen at the time of seed-suwing. Great shall the harreat bo. 

Except on these seven occasions it woold be very unwise for a, 
HindO to do any other work, if he himself should sneeze, or hear 
anjbodj else do so. 

However, abore and beyond these, at all times, even on the seven 
occasions quoted above, the sneeze of (a) an unmarried girl ; (b) of 
ft widow ! (c) of a barren vrife ; (d) of ft shoemaker's wife ; (t) and of 
a woman sick from cholera, is an extremely bad omen. Let not a 
Hindfi commence any work, when he hears Soch, bnt sit dovni and 
reconsider what he is about to do or say.' Gf . " Funjtib Notes and 
Queries," Vol. 1., notes 776, 949. 

Mits at tulank hadih banih. 

If you will get earth, then get it from a big mound. 

If yon must work then get the service of a great man. 

Mol ai hrdji harih »uh tih gayih mdji. 

If the father marries a potter-woman siie is the mother. 

A second wife. 

Mol gav t^ol tah mdj gayih aid. 
Father is a tsrol and mother is a nest, 
Tsrol is a Mohammedan sect, who have the choice of three em- 

{loyments. They can become jailors, or bootmakers, or beggars. 
[ they select the latter they visit everybody's house, and generally 
get something. Muhammedana ontside their sect do not eat with 
them. They are said to be most unkind to their children. There 
are about two hundred families of the Tsro! sect in Kashmir. Cf ■ 
note to " Eashirih kahai garah " for their origin. 

Mol ffuUhum iBOrak, m-oj gaMium tah, kkemahai trak tah 

kom hirahaa nak ak, las lagikeh hhtint, suk dapihatn 

vngajih Itarun muthvr, buh Idyahag w.ak. 
O father, I want another father: mother, I want my own 

mother. (In the old days) I used to eat (with them) about 

twelve pounds of food at one time, and did not even once 

may he be wounded, and say to me pour water over my 

toe ; and then I will slay him with ao axe. 

A step-parent. 

■,G Otitic 


Mol m<^ gav Itdzi, t^iit rdn tak akia hdti. 

Parents are like jodges, they are aatUfied witb one child and 

displeased with another' 

i'azV (Qiai) was a, Mnhammedan judge io all CBaes of law, 
■whetherreligioua, moral, civil, or criminal. The office iB now virtnallj 
extincC nuder the Britisb OoverDiijeiit. 

Mol pdn^i; neckvo Murdd Beg. 

Father — a water-carrier, and son — Mur^d Beg. 

An apstart. 

Muract Beg was the head of the chobdire in GuUb Singh's time. 
These people carried a staff, and besides the ordinary work of a 
chaprisf, they execnted the state paniahmcDtB, suchassei^iDgaBum- 
mona. Bogging, *c. 

PaDJibi. — Bap no m&re titart putvr gol-aiidAi. 

Mondih nishih rani ladngai. 
Asking a husband from a widow. 

Drawing blood from a stone. 
Mohgah maj hkU ekst tah kalckav. 
To eat a big pot of mong ; to drink ; and then to run away. 

An angFatefiil servant. Dntiiaely death of a cow or horse. 

Mohg. — Phaseohis Ma3i or Radiatita ; a vetch or kind of kidney 

Kakliov is a species of partridge, bnt here it means to fly or mn 
away ; to disappear. 

Mordah mrUas chkuh Ickord-n-hord. 

A dead man's estate ia eaten and taken away (i. e., the de- 
ceased's descendants quarrel OTer it and eventually carry 
the matter into coart). 

Mordah tik chknh pdhsa» Ag ddrdn. 

The dead even opens his mouth to get the paisis. 

The exceeding love of money. 

Hindbs place some paisis within the mouth of the corpse just 
after death. Ct. Note to " Ayaa tcate," Ac. 

Mordas ehhuk irtarit martabak hurdn. 
After death the man receives greater honour. 
De mortuii nil nisi banunv. 

Mordae chhih toadin Hhit, batas ckkih wadi'.n toudanik. 
People weep for the dead sitting down, but they weep for the 

bread standing up. 

LoHB of bread is greater than the loaa of one's friends. 



"Moruam tah mirnn Tcyah ?" "Rat ohon ai tak wot dini 

feyoA f 
^' It you squeeze me why do yoa kill me?" "If you have 

drunk the blood, why do you leap ?" 

A dialogue between a flea and a man. 

To worry a man before giving tile final pumahment. 

Mudamatii ikarbat ehkuhas moTkam pyoi. 
Sherbet at the time of Jeath is as ointment upon a wound. 
Opportune help is BometimeE spukea of " ae sherbet to a dying 

Mudas lorih hatah tah trukit huni kateh. 

A hundred stripes for a Fool, but a word to a sharp man. 

Persian. — Agar d^H j/oJt Uhdra tos ast, 

Madis mbfid sad kyah ? 

What is the good of giving sugar to the dead ? 

PanjibJ. — Hie na ■p&ehhe, itme dkar dhar pile. 
Mudur dain t^ulcik nak ink tfuk dain mudarih nah. 
A sweet pomegranate will not become bitter, and a hitter 

pomegranate will not become sweet. 

A man is Bccoiding to his diapoaition. 

Mugul dishil gaMtik Pharsi hhasuni. 

On seeing a Mughal one should apeak Persian. 

One shoqld be av, fait in all society. 
MujiA pelhah mulmeni. 
From the radish radish leaves. 

" Can the fig-ttoe boar berries or a vine figs ?" 
Mulan drat tahpatran »ag. 
A sickle for the roots, but watering the leaves. 

Qnoted when a son is treated better than the father. 
Mnli hit hulih Uhanan. 
After buying a thing to throw it into the river. 

Expenditure without profit. 
Mttlk'i beglxnaa andar ehhuh maknyuv sag-i-diwidna. 
A man in a foreign country la like a mad dog. 
Munanin hunan shajmsh tah meh nah halapo&h tih. 
Muna'a dogs have got a big quill, but 1 have not even 

a skull-cap. 

Kol a shirt to hia buck. 


Mttitik, mwfdh Phuli kunih nai kenk. 

FouDding pounding, Ph^tl, but nothing anywhere. 

Wortiag liken horse and spending like an oes — nothing for the 
rainy day. 

Munis nah liman Minis nah nait chkuh thaw^ji. 
He will not let the whitewash remain oa the wall or the nose 
upon the dog (ao cantankerous is he). 

Muridi, hul. Giiitik nm tkul. Wdd kar. Bdd peyiyi. 
O MuMdf, hul. The kite has taken the egg. Give an answer. 
Let syphilis attack you. 

A Ea^hmfri cnrse. 

"The kite has taken the egg," means "Death has taken yoor 

Bill is the sound made for drinng awajr kites-. 

Mnaah KKdnun kmtur. 
Muaa KhUiU's nightingale- 

An obstinate fellow. 

This was a celebrated bird, which would sing when Us master did 
not wish it to sing, and vice vereii. 

MuealmSn marih drdgi. Balak marik Mdgi. i^ 

Musalman will perish tram starvation, the Pandit will perish '^ 

from cold. 

It is imperative apon the relitpons Pandit to bathe in the month 
of January, and not a few die from so doing. The ordiuiiry Musal- 
min is not accustomed to fast, and so in famine time is not able to 
bear the limited living bo well oa the Fandit can. 

ISag corresponds to our month of Janoary. 

Mut Uul put-ddrih kwlai AU atak hdrih. 
The madman escaped by the back window taking his wife 
upon his back. 

A man who forsakes his fatherland, 4o. 

Mydnih kdvz pUho tah vmgrah duly», lah nunak tulyo. 
My drop of vinegar, pot of unstrained rice, and pinch of salt. 

That is best which is according to one's lot and temperament. 

Kdm in rice-water kept till sonr, and then used with fiah, Ao., as 

Piek, lit., a flea, but here jneana tittle, an atom, a drop, &o. 

Wiigrah is unstrained rico. The poorer rlasses do not strain their 
rice, aa the doing so would considerably lessen the qoantity. 

Dul is a large earthenware vessel, big enough to bathe in. 



Myort dsit chon gav, manguti hyvt laJi ashud gav. 

It was mine and became yours, and when I began to ask for 

it, it waa (aa if) colljrium to me (i. e., somethiDg to be 

much desired). 

To give awaj a thing and ver; mnch want it back agoiii. 

Ml/on Udjiwat panuji wachh. 

(Wonld that you would take) mj pestle (and beat) your own 

breast with it. 
A Eaatunfri curse. 

Myulh gdmas tah hrilh pananie p£jia», 
Sweet to the village, but rou((h to one's owaself. 
Charity begins at home. A geatleman should atiov/ himsalf BOob 



N^diin at tintk sik ndddn ehhut, adah ehhvh nah ndddn. 
If the igDorant man kuowa that he is ignorant, then be is not 

N&ddnai nanhat haruni goyd kih panzen nun dyun. 
Giving advice to a stupid man ia like giving salt to a. gquirret. 

Nadarea mdl lah dambuk Ml. 

Wish of nadur, but pretence of dumb. ' 

*' A little, very littlo morB, if joa please "j anii all the time he 
wants a plateful. 

Nadur is a vegetable growing in the city lake, {the stalk of the 
Lotus-Silambi'a'm). It is eaten hj all natives duruig thu winter, 
beoanse of ita heating qaalities, but it ia especially eaten by Hindlis 
on the anoiveFSU? of a relative's daath, when neither fish, nor Seah, 
nor tnmipg, Ao., are allowed for food, and on other great days also. 

Dumh is thin, amal] nadur. 

Node ndm eamjHog ehkui insdnah sting nindagi, 
A meli by the river (all olive nith excltemeot one minute and 
tjuiet the nest) is like a man's life. 

" What ia jonr life ? It is even a vapoor." 

Nadharani nat. 
Nadhar's fright. 

Any special fear. 

Sadhar is a cormorant (P) 

fid-fahm, gav aui, ya» nd-fahmtu eaet kom gaUhik, 
He ia an unintelligent man, whose business is with an unin- 
telligent man. 
A man is known by the company which ho keeps. 

Nafas ckhuh san ddwdn tah tKurak karandwdn. 
Lust causes a man to break into a bouse and rob. 

A glattoD will steal. 



Na/as-parwaras niihih yiyih nah hutiar panoari ; he-Kunarar 

nuhik yiyih nah tarwari. 
From a sensualist will not come a fon<1ne99 for art ; and from 

an unskilful man will not come leadership. 

Nafstd mffon chhvi kustia, ami ha»li munganam ga/rih girih 

b<xl ; 
Ijoehkih nmnsiah tdtah mamak akhdh Imtvi.nak tah hetinam 

edri tal. 
tHj soul is like that of an elephant and that eleplunt asked 

me every hour for food ; 
OutofaUkh and out of a thousand but one is saved ; if it 

hadn't been so, the ele[Aant had crushed all under hia 


One's craving lasts. 

A Bajiog of Lai DSd'B. 

fidgak gddah, wuckhaniA kaldl tah hhenih hardm. 
The fish in the (sacred) spring is lawful to look at, but unlaw- 
ful to eat. 

Toncli nut ; taste not ; handle not. 

Nagrah nirit Pdndrenihan. 

Going out from the city and living at PindrSnthan. 

A merchant's countiy-boase. 

Fdndrenthim is a pretty little village alMut three miles from 8rf- 

Nah chhas wuisani tah rtah daeani, bthit ehhas labih, kaniA 

hand Meni. 
There iii no scorching or burning to him ; he just sits asiJe 

and eats a little. 

" What doaa he oare ? Ho has not had to pay for it." 

Nah gatjhem mdhehh tah nak gatxkem lop. 
I do not want honey, nor do I want the sting. 

" Every thing that fair doth show, 
Wben proof is made proves not so." 

Nah khair tah nah bar&at. 
Keither well-wishes nor blessing. 

A man who eama mneh money, bnt spends it in Bocii ft way as 
that nobody is especially benefited by it — not even his family. 


Nah Iran manz nak truwdhan matu. 
Neither in three nor in tbirteen. 

A partnership by no meaiUk 

Nalah Bdxjtn palae. 
Nala Eiji's piece of cloth. 

The climax of diatrass. 

Nala lUj^ began his reign well. He was just and holy, and 
everybody raspecCed him. Bat it cbanoed tiiat one day, while he 
was oat eating the air, he saw two or three men t^ainbling, and 
noticing that they eaoh one seemed to bo moat excited over the 
gume, be tboi^bt that it most be a very mtjirestiiig moans of amnse- 
ment and determined to learn it. Accordingly, when he got baok 
to his paloco he called his wife and began to gamble with her. 
He grew more and more interested in gambling, nntil at lost under 
one or another form it was bis hourly amasement. He was wont to 
lay very high stakes — sometimes a palace, sometimes an army, and 
sometimes a likb of mpoca. R4j<is and other great men oamo from 
distant cooutries to play with him ; and as he was more often an- 
sncoeasfnl than sncoesafnl, he soon lost all his country and his 
fortnne, and escaped into a foreign land. He was wandering with 
his wife in a jnngle in the strange lanS one day, when nothii^ 
remained to them both but one large wrap, which tlioy out into tnx) 
pieces and made two wntps of. The BAji told the Binf, Damyfintf 
by name, to walk about the jnngle in one direction and see what sho 
tnald obtain; and he would go in another direction. A peasant who 
happened to be in the jnngle met the Kini and gave her three dried 
fish. Sho took them to her husband with great delight, and he told 
her to go and wash them in the river. As she was washing them 
behold ! amrit, the water of lite, came forth from her thumb and 
'touching the fish mode them alive agun, and they escaped in the river. 
She went and told her husband, who did not believe her, but 
thought that she had oatun the fish. The poor woman was very 
much hurt at her husband's want of confidence in her, and was in 
much foor lest ho should forsake her — leave her alone in that desolate 
junRlo. So she arranged the bedding (which conaisted only of the 
(lividad wrap) in snch a way as that the Bdj^ could not possibly 
arise from his bed in the night without disturbing her. He was 
enveloped in one side of the wrap, npon the other side of which she 
was lying. The Mji honevor defeated her plans by cutting his 
piece of the wrap ; and ran away. On the road a snake bit him and 
his whole oonntcoance turned quite black and was so changed that 
nobody would have recognised in him the Nala Udj.'t. However he 
survived and went and took service in another B&ji'e establishment. 
The Bini finding in tUo momit^ that her husLiand hud abandoned 
her, resolved to go unto her fallior's house. Uor parents were 
terribly sbockeit and grieved to finri their dun^lilor in such a slate. 
They comforted her, arrayed her again in filling garments, and 



pTomiBed her, that if her hmbaod did not appear b? a certain dat« 
they would arrange for another marriage. News was sent to all tha 
Bij&H to appear at a oectaia date, because one of them wonld be 
choseu BB the future hoaband of the beautifal girl. 

Among Che manj other Bajii which were present on the appointed 
daj was the Kija in whose service tbe Nala IUlj4 was emplojed. 
Nala B,&}i also went with him ; and when he had opportnnit; on the 
way, he related to his mB.Bter all that ha<l happened to him, — hia 
gambling propensities, bis ruination, his life in the jungle and hia 
abandonment of hie wife there. When the ESjfi heard this he was 
dumbfounded with astonishment, and fell at his feet, " My brother," 
said he, " why did yoa not tell me all thig before t " And he gave unto 
him his owD mantle and sword, and appointed onto him a full nnmbar 
of servants. Thus they reached tbe Rlini's parent's palace. Tha 
other Kaji introduced Nala BajS and recounted all that he had heard. 

Great was the rejoicing in the palace that day and many days 
afterwards ;— for the lost husband and son had been fonnd. How 
glad was Nala BSji ! How happy was R&ni Damyentl I Gifts were 
lavished upon them i they again lived in a grand house ; had servanta 
and horses, and every lusnry ; and were happy ever afterwards. 

This story was told me by an ignorant Pandit, and varies from 
the original story, for which vide MahSbhirata, Farab. III. 

Nalam, halam, yd halam. 
Denial, the pen, or begging. 

The way the Pandits make a living. 

Mnhammedans cite this concerning their Pandit brethren. The 
say that they lie, they write reports, petitions, 4c., or they beg. 

Noli gom tak ndl wvlnam. 

He annoyed me and leaped upon me like a serpent. 

A troublesome, worrying person. 

Ndii nah zat tah m&li ndv. 

Not a rag over the body and her name Mjili. 

Mali, a female name, fKnn mdl, meaning wealth, property. 

Panjibl. — Akhan te anhAn ie ndon Jfain Stiih. 

^am at louthih tak mdxas dag. 

Mdi ai wutkik tak nama» dag. 

If the nail rise there is pain to the flesh. 

If the flesh rise there is pain to the nail. 

Love me, love my dog. 
Natnau rnifj kaman Icit^ t 
■Why is there dirt in the nails X 

" You've got no family. Why do you go BiTapina in the dirt for 
money ? To what purpose are you soiling your bands V" 



Namtddnam cbkui rdhat-i-jdnam. 
Ignorance is the pence of life. 

Know not aQything about anyone, or anything, and 70U ehall 
proserve yonr peace. 
Ntttnr&dun hyuh dam diwdn. 
He boasts like Nimrod. 

King ISinirnd was a great oppressor, and became so proud and 
independent aa to say there waB no God ; and if there was. he darfd 
him to do his worst. At last there came a yoice from heaven bid- 
ding him to repent i bat Nimrod thonght Boom concerning it. Then 
God sent a moBqnJto which entered Nimrod's none and penetrated 
to the brain, causing him constant agony. Every time the p^in 
came, the king need to send for hia servant to l>eat him a hundred 
blows upon the left temple with a shoe. Eventually he waa so worn 
by the pain that he died. 

NanawoT pakunj&n huhsk nah tang. 

Better to go barefooted than to wear shoes too narrow. 

Nandapuri hdiKtnen Idwak lug dydran. 

Kahcm r&peyan ham/lai dembak-hdkak ndv. 

Sarmak sde Mtdnddn jumkah grdyih mdrdn. 

Jliaitav dydran kyak hhuchar tjdv, 

Teijci ripeyik neran halam chhih ddran. 

'TosAdn garah tan rdtk hat di, 

Saudd ninik mixih afms Idrdn, 

Suzititv dydran kyaA ihickar Udv 

Pdniae nun gaMidn thulaa tdran. 

Khuddyik vsdn n Ukuntak fendi khdv. 

Nun dit adhan tdraUik Idran. 

Jiiizilav dydran kyak khuekar tsdv. 

The money of the bontwomen of Nandapdr became rusted. 

They sold one boat-load of vegetables for eleven rrijiis. 

They seek for collyrium to wash their eyes with, and shake 

their earrings (with pride). 
Hear what alloy entered into their money. 
When they go out to change a nipi they hold out their 

skirts for the paisas ; 
And on returning to their houses they rejoice as if they had 

brought a kingdom. 
The buyer gets vexed at the time of buying. 
Hear what alloy has entered in their riipfs. 




Doe paisS's worth of salt ia only eufficient for three eggs. 

O God paralyse the fingera of the baaiy^s. 

When they give the salt they take half of it back in their 

scales . 
Hear nhat alloy has entered into their rdpU. 

Gai&ti, a poet liying in KlLwadij^, compoaed the above for iha 
benefit of the vegetable -boat women and the baniySs ; and Bometimes 
the irhole, aometimeB portions of it are constuitl; quoted. 

Nangas nindar prangai pelh, edvia nindar pdvis peth. 
The poor man sleeps upon a bed (without a care), but the 
rich man sleepis upon the stairs (for fear of thieves). 

Ndni, bungriwdni hai auwi, achh mydnih di»kit pachh mud 
wdni. Kan mydni dishit wan tjul wdni. Ndni bungri- 
wdni hai awwi. 

O grandmother, the bangle-man came, and after seeing my 
eyes he died in fifteen days. When he saw my ears, too, 
he ran away into the jungle. O grandmother, the bangle- 
Little children sing these words sitting upon the door-step. 

They are also cited when any man is filled vrith envj against 

another. He sees that man's prosperity, rons away in a rage, and 

dies from grief. 

Nani nani kardn gayih mdlunui gilawdn lorah dyih ehhifih 

aurui hardm lag ihoran puluhurai. 
She went in grand style to her father's house, and returned 

thence shaking the cuffs of her garment though she had 

not a grass shoe to her feet. 

A stupid, trifling woman. 

Nanit dub leyak chhalik ? 

PAdkakladas hyah xalih ? 

What shall the washerman wash for the naked man? 

Wbat shall the fasting-man romit? 

Nania tar tndyih tah drdyth ; 

Kkanis tar walanah dyik. 

Coldness to the naked man,— as it comes, so it goes 

But coldness sticks to the rich well-dressed man. 



NanU unmat chhuh sudur pirun- 

To " set up " a naked man with clothes is tike trying to 611 
the ocean. 

Eeply to a poor debtor, or great apendthrift, to whom Es. 100 
would be » mere trifle. 

tianis vmran here meanB to " set a man Dp " in a basiness, to 
Mock hiB ahop, and marrj hia danghter, i^, 

Nar zinik tah nadur sinih badal. 

Beed in the place of firewood, and the atalfc of the lotos 
instead of meat. 

A Htapid arrangement. 

Nadur is the atatt of the Lotas (Nilumlium), which grows abnn- 
daotlj in the Kaahmtr lakea, and is eaten largely b^ the inhabitants 
of the TsJlej. Hindlia cat ap the stalb into small pieces, cook it 
with oil and spices, and eat it along with fish, &c. 

N&rah ttrdo tvn hyuA. 

Like gold come forth from the fire. 

The better for hia aickneas, triala, &o. 

Ndrah wiiik hy&r hkanvn ! 
Digging a well at the time of fire 1 

FanjibL — 'Ag iagian lA'&h lihatawna t 

Narat ndiad tak tularik mdhehk, tah kalwm halit rdntha* 

Sngar-cand; from a reed ; and honey from the bee ; and grapes 

from a very crooked vine. 

God brings good oat of bad. 

Nait taalkai I ah baharih lukhd. 

Cutting yonr nose ia like cutting the top of a bahar (it only 
grows the stronger). 

Cited to a shameleaa person. 

Bahar (Persian, Eihan), the sweet basil. 

JVdtah ffamarit tah ras mtnit. 

Counting the pieces of flesh and meaanring the soup. 

No chance for a thief onder snch & man as that- 

Jfatich dimai nah treth, hafyuk wandai rat. 
I will not give you water from the water>pot to quench your 
thirst therewith, but I will give you my throat's blood. 

Great words bat little deeds. 


Sahakih tah AnguJi ckhnm tml. 
Wa/nahhah tah man elihum dvrih. 
I would dance, but the yard is small. 

NaUdn iik pdnai tnh wdydn tih p&nai. 

He himself dances to his own playing. 

A toot who langht at Ma own romarliB. 

Nawik hartdi ginddn pumbarih daskan ; pardnih handi 

liathAn paskan tol. 
The children of the new wife are playing with the fringe of 

their father's shawl, while the children of the old wife are 

crying under the roof, 
Nayik andar pai. 

A fence on the plateau. (Cni usui ?) 
y work and expense. 

^its harizih babas tah mdjih mds vieUet nah Itkcdik ; 

Nbx kariid kdkas tah kdkanih ehapdt Idyas galik ? 

We should ask our parents for anything we may want ; 

because their body will not contain them, they n'ill be so 

happy to give ; 
We should not ask our elder brother, or his wife, for anything, 

as they may give us a slap upon the cheek. 
NSbarah nundbon tak andarak t^kutiah ion. 
Outside he is beautifully and splendidly dressed, but inside he 

is an empty walnut. 

Xebarimia mahynivix gatskih daun tidi tah padur tah ydl 

tah ahdl, ddr tah k&r. 
To the man with employment the turban {must be right), 

the feet (proper), the hair (behind the ear), the character 

(good), the beard (trimmed), and the neck (clean), (i e., 

he must mind his P's and Q's, or else he will be turned out 

of his employment). 
Nackivi hand vidnganas sumb, yad ahhas dnganas iumb. 
A boy about the size of an egg-plant has a stomach about the 

size of a courtyard. 

Wangttn, ia the Soianuni melongena, called Griajdl in the plains. 



Ifelian chkuh KHuddi khush. 

God is pleased with good people. 

Nekan Idr tah badan phulun. 

The good are troubled and the bad blossom. 

"The ungodly, who proHper in the world i they increase ia ricliea. 
Verily, I haTe cleansed my heart in vaiii." — Paalm luiii. 12, 13. 

Ne/ro, nek kar tah bad labih pdnai. 

O, good man, do good ; the wicked will receive his deserts. 

Nekndm ekftuh gai»hdn ylUkdli tah badndm ckhuh gaUkdn 

A good name comes after a while, but a bad name is sood 

Nehndm chheh bekk daulat. 
A good name is the root of wealth. 
Nentdx ekheh/arz tah lul ehhuh karx. 
Prayer is a duty and plunder is a debt. 

A Pathan aaying. 

Nemdzi SUM H«ffnj. 
The finger of the prayer. 

" Because sentence against an evil work ia not eiecuted speedily, 
theruforo the heart of the eons of men ia fully set in them to do 
evil."— Eccl, TJii. 11. 

A Pathin of high family while saying his prayers in the Jnma 
Mssjid here was very mach annoyed by another man poking him 
from behind. He Ritve him one rflpi to desist. The man left off 
annoying this worsliipper, bnt was encouraj^ced by the present to 
prosecnto his wickedness upon some oUier worshipper. The other 
man, liowever, was not of such a quiet disposition as the Path&n, 
for he at once rose up, drew bis sword and struck oS the troabler'a 
head with ono stroke. 
Niyatas mujub diyih tas Khuddi. 
God will give a man according to his wish. 

" Delight thyself also in the Lord ; and he shall give thea the 
desires of thine heart." — Ps. ixivii. 4, 
Noek gayih rSli zan ds yeti. 
The d(i lighter -in- law went for a month (to her father's house) 

and it was as if she had not been away at all (time passed 

so ([nickly because they were so much happier during her 

absence) - 

Uaughter-in-laws are a oontinaal atambting-block to the Other 
inliabiUints of the house. 



Nosh layih nah hdr tah hhor peih indritot hand t 

A daught«r-ia-Iaw is DOt worth a cowrie ; and kill a ram for her 

over the feet ! 

Daughter- in-Iawfl are altogether despised nntil they ace grown 
np — they may develop into agly and uucouth women, or they may 
die, or their affianced husband may die, Ac. 

A certain danghter-in-law waa sick and likely to die, and therefore 
her mother-in-law waa adiiaed to Bacrifice a sheep for her. The 
woman replied in the words of the above aaying, the plain meaning 
of which ia "Let her die. What does it matter ? Myeonis notbonud 

Uoih lukag. Air Ivkaa, nd-hakk lukas mengah dag. 
Daughter-in-law to some, a daughter to others, but es far a» 

the unconnected man is concerned she is only a headache. 

At a native marriage there is mnch feasting, music and danoing. 
A general hubbub prevails. The parenU and relatives of course 
enjoy themselves j but the other guests and friendt, especially thoas 
who have como out of pni-e friendahip to help and congratulate, have 
a hard time of it ; to them the wedding ia as one continued headache-. 

Nnihi, lajd " mdlinih malinih," tiiilin chdni kai, dU. 

Adah lajui "dthih dtkih " bastai phatit bit. 

O daughter-in-law you are always boasting of "my father's. 

, house," Look here, we have seen your father's hoose. 

You said, too, that you would receive some flour (from your 
father's house) ; but the skins must have burst (aud the 
men who are bringing it) must be sitting down (on the way). 
Kashmiris carry their flonr, rice, and other grain, tied np in a 

sheep's or goat's skin. 

Soihih dup hashih hun " Wastai bun." Pkirit dupnas " Zan 

ehhaham sun .'" 
The daughter-in-law said to her mofher-in-law "Come down." 
(The mother-in-law) answered, " As if you were myrival with 

my husband !" 

iVop golih gdv py&yih-hal Tcheyd Hk nah wnt^k Iruwih ? 
The cow is about to be delivered of her first calf ; we do not 

know whether she will die, or give birth to a calf. 

General reply to the too-inquiaitive diapoaitions which beset a 
honne at the time of a woman in travail. 

BaX IdiBun, to eat the after-birth, i.e., to die. 

■,G Otitic 


JVbo «atgai iak pardni diwat. 
New dancing and au old fair. 

When any man ia seized on some cbarge, tlio batwil eomea, Bip£htB 
come, and a crofrd gathere ne if to an old-establishod fair ; and the 
people almost danco with eicitement. 

Nov nut hyuh. 

Like a new water-pot. 

A man Creah aod strong, ''spiok and span." 

Nan ndbad tah til phalilah tah xin Uandun takhatak muH- 

Salt aa rare as sugar, oil aa scarce aa ointment, wood as if 

sandal, and dinner {i. e„ food) like eating pearls (ao espea- 

Eard times. 
Ifun ninen nah banx&zah-wdn tah buchh nken nah wdnah-tedn. 
Take not the naked man to the cloth-shop, or the hungry 

man to the cook-shop. 

Another version is ; — 
Buchh gaUhih nah nyun wdnah-tedn tah nun gaUhih nah nyun 

The hungry man muat not be taken to the cook-shop, and 

the naked man muat not be taken to the washerman's 

Nun, til xyat, aihah myon *nyiit. 

More salt and oil, and my hand is sweet. 

Give me the moneT, and I will traDsact the boBinesg ; give me the 
tools, and I will do tne work. ' 

Ninan -mun. 

Wool is obtained by giving salt (to the sheep). 

Mone; is not wasted on some people and things. 
Nunih nSnih hund t»inih-dehndv. 
A aupposedgrandmother'scharcoal-relationaor acquaintBOcea. 

A conain of the fifth or aixth remove. 

CharcoaUaequaintaneea. Poqple from the villages otton pajaviait 
to the city during the winter season bringing with them charcoal tor 
Bale. Thej sell their load, pnt up for a night in some peison'e house, 
and ore ofi again the following morning. 

Nurak achhun Uirah foli. 
A heavy look about the bright eyes. 



Nurah buthii chhuh gaUhdn anrah buth yatimag. 
The bright face becomea a^h-colour, when the child is left an 

God protect the fntherlesa. 

Nurah mydnik tir tfaldn. 

(At the look of) my bright face fever runs away. 

Atvraja carrj a ploaaltig couatonaooe. 

Nat tah kammdm. 

Just a vater-pot and a hath. 

Hardly a stick in the hoDse. 


Pttdis tal tunfful. 

Fire under the sole of the foot. 

" All ! ffhen yon get a red hot cobI under your foot, Jou will 
tnow wtat fire ia.*' 

Pddtkdk aihdit dhedn-kMnas. 
Til o ckerdff daxdn chkua. 
Sdri gaUhdn pdnas, pdnat ,■ 
. KuJtui tand rozdn ehhut. 
In the palace of the monnrch. 
Oii and lamps are burniag (burning). 
All are to their own place going ; 
Only one (man) is remaining. 

This is metaphorical langnB);e, The monarcli is Qod, the palace 
is tfao world, and the people are the inhabitants thereof ; the oil 
and lamps are the hqh and moon, which are constantly coming and 
going : the people are also temporary — gradnaUy they die off, until 
at IsBt only one, and that God, will be left. 

This is also a Kashmiri riddle, of which the answer ia the Sun 
and Moon. 

Pddthdhat pdihdm. 

To the king the work of a watchman is difficult. 

k. man who has come down in the world, and is not equal to his 
reduced circomatancefl. 

Pahar gar, wakar gav ; doh gav, AoA gav ; 
Patthh gav, waehh gav ; rel gav, ItkU gav ; 
A watch (i.e., a space of three hours) gone is aa if a year had 

passed ; 
One day gone is as if a mountain had become ; 
Fifteen days passed by ia as if (the debt) had been forgotten ; ' 
And a month elapsed (without pHyment) is as if the money 

had been eaten (i.e., irretrievably lost). 

Pakanah pdis ; gatidanak gosdni ; khenah bulhul. 

Like a hawk in bis walk, a jogt in clothing, and a bulbnl in 


Some people want servants manaf actured to order. 


Pakharporik hakhar. 

The oxen of PaHiarpiir. 

Like a tantooy pig. 

Saijid Mnhatnmad 'Ali, a very liolj' man, came all the way &om 
Baghdad to Eashmir to be Shekh Nlir-ud-adln's disciple. He took 
Hp hia abodo in Pakharpfir, ftbont fiftaao miles from the city of Sri- 
nagar. He was one oE the Shekh'a faTonrite foUoirera. After b 
time he became so enraptured with the country that he begged Ul 
be permitted to remain there altogether. N6r.ud-din consented to 
this, and to save bim esponse and trouble, he miraouloualy brought 
aU his honso, ground and family, from BaghdU to Eashntlr in a 
moment of time. There was no doubt about this in olden timeii 
because there was the man's wife and children standing before bimi 
and there is do hesitation in believing thia in the present day, for 
yoa can examine for yourself the different style of building of the 
honae, the different naCore of the soil, the different trees and plants, 

IhiB Baiyid Muhammad 'Alf, in consequence of this especial 
tavonr, became a very celebrated character. He was accnatomad to 
speak and to act strangely, but all the people accounted bim holier 
on accoDQt of these eccentricities. One of his orders iraa, that if 
anj man was in trouble and wished to be relieved of it, he mast set 
free an ox These oxen thoa set free were to wander whither thej 
liked, and do whatsorer they wished, and nobody dared to lift up a 
stick against them, or to complain. In olden days several of these 
oien wandered about, and were a great nnisance ; but now they hare 
been reclaimed and put to the plough. Saiyid Muhammad 'All was 
buried in Pakharpfir, and many visit his grave during the year. 
Pdkkui chhvh pdlt. 

Only the Pure One ia pure (i. t., GoA). 
Panah »dn hkh/ih fiiini takjits a6n hheyih h&ni. 
He will eat the chin^r tree — leavea and all, and he will eat the 

dog with the skin. 

A regular cannibal, not satisfied nith enough. 
Panah tali dthj tah dekjih tali pan. 
Below the thread the ball or knot, and below the knot the 


A man, who sees that he is, but will not confess that ha is, in tho 

Panane haehih chhe/t bahah trackih. 

One's own harvest (no matter how small) ia Eta twelve traka. 

The produce of one's own labour is sweet. 

Trail is a grain measure containing nine vid B half Euglisli 


Paitanev chhnh nak paigambar m&nmut. 
A prophet is not accepted by his own people. 

" A prophet is not vithonC honour save in hia own conutr; tuid 
honse."— Matt. liiL 57. 

Panani kuher nai bad diik tak likah hundih garik kyitiA 

trdviA Ihul t 
If TDur hen is not a bad one, then why does she go and lay 

tier e^3 in other people's houses T 

Ungratefal offspring. 
Panani nam cAAih pananik thar hathin. 
Scratching one's back with one's own nails. 

Satisfying yonraelf with your own money, own honae. Ac. 

Bijstin of Sa'dl — Bo jus nafthun o jus sarangvsht-i-man. 

Nil ihirad Itate dor jahAn pasht-wman. 

Panini pdm diwdn beyis. 
GiTiDg yoar reproach to another. 

Soma KaahmlriH aay pin inatead of pfim, Bud then it is : — 

Giving yourself to another. 

M&tdng out everyone as bad as yourself. 
Pananih athah r&warun tak beyih aiind raUhruti ehkuh 

To lose anything by one's own hand, and to receive anything 

at the hand of another, is equd. 

To receive a benefit fa to sell one's liberty. 
Pananih baehkih ai anitnak 6sih kuUah tnaekkih gaUhan 

paidah ! 
If there should be any rice-water upon yonr fire-place, how 

many flies will be bom there ! 

Money attracts friends. 
Pananih bananak tah lukah handik wananah. 
Because I am, what I am, people say this of me. 
Pananih garvk hAle-wik chhui bh/ih landis puldmat baribar. 
Vegetables from my own garden are equal to puMv from 

another man's (house). 

Ptilav ia a dish of meat and rice cooked together with spicos. 

Pananih thajih ai batak itih katyuk mijih gabar gatxhon 

paidah ! 
If there is any food in the pot how many mothers and 

children will be born ! 



Pananui pott chhuk pani» phaiawdn. 

Breaking the log with the log's own wooden wedge. 

Pomii yh&tawdn ehhuh linU. 

A (little) wedge (from the tree) splits the wood. 

Set a tbief to c»tch a. thief. 

A big tree in the jang'le iras ordered to be cat down, and alrendj 
fonr men had gone to the black amilh's shop to pnrohaae an Sire tor 
the work. One man, who admired the tree, heard these men speak- 
ing together and forming Cbeir plans ; and went at once and told the 
tree. The tree replied, "Thanka, O friend, for the information, 
bat do nut be afraid, Fonr men and an aie will not do mnch 
damage ta me." The neit day the man came again and said, " Mora 
news, O tree ! To-morrow theaa men are coming; to deatroj yon," 
The tree again tried to assnre the man that foar little men and a. 
poand or bo of iron could not do any material damage to a big tree 
like he was. The man went, but returned again the neit day saying, 
" O tree, be not elated by false hopes. These men have laid a oleTer 
aud certain plan for yonr destraction. Listen, One man vill first 
olimb yoQ i and cat 0& One of yoor Ihin top-branohea. Oat of this 
branoh he will make a handle for the aie. and a wedge. Then be 
will prepare a hols in yonr tmnk and inserts the wedge, upon which 
they will strjte and strike nntil yuar great wide trunk is completely 
severed." "Alas! alas [" said the tree, "by this means they will 
bring me down i I am certain to die." 

Panama zdgdn Aulphas tah tdrU ; 

PanarMi kuitdm »an ket driv. 

One's own relation lies in wait for lock and bolt ; 

It is a relation who goes out with the stolen goods. 

Pdnas hhetan magar di'nas perttan. 
Let him eat, but let him keep bis fire. 

Selfish fellow, wo do not want anything from him ! 

Pdnas ttiiAik pahtak ckkut gvl tax mut, 
B'&yia nithih pihtak ekhui hil tat heeh. 

Your own money is flowers and wme, but another's money ia 
but weed — nothing. 

P&ndah-Chkuk, naghan tukk tah liorin dukh. 
O PSnda-chhuk, let there be peace to your daughters-in-Iavr, 
but trouble to your daughters. 

Bhekh NtSr-nd-dfn's cucae npoD this villain, which is abont tlireo 
miles from Srioagar in the Isl&mib&d direction. 


Pdnik rust danth kAa*iyd tih ndnih rust ghur khatiA. 

Will the rice rise without water, that the child should grow 

without a grandmother 7 

A. grand mother's inSnetioe in ahousa is veiy of ten greater in every 
way than that e[ the mother of the family. 

Pdhsah ai thawhen murdat petk >hA tik gaishiA thud wuthit. 
If a paiail be placed upon a dead man he will rise up. 

Money will bring people bock from the deitd. 

HindAs place a paia& inaido the month of the corpse, wherewith it 
may be able to pay the ferry, 4c., cf. note " Ayae Miate," 4a 
Pdhsak r/av pdrud tah mili^rdz, yat pelh tkaasizen tat tMtih. 
Money is as quicksilver and acisaora, lay it upoa what you 

will, it will cut it {i.e., do ita work). 
P&iaah niiAih ehhuk pdksah phaldn, 
Paisis burst out of paislis. 

Money makes money. 
Panun ai tntSnA »hihili» tr&wik ; pamd ai mdrih tah m&ritkiii 

If my own (relations or fri^nda) smite me, he will leave me in 
a shady place (i.e., he will bury me); but if a stranger 
smitea me he will kill me and go, 

A friead '■ a friend for aye that. 
Panun ai tnArih, totih AuniA jdyih tdrih. 
If my own smite me, yet in some place he will help me. 

Ad supra. 

PanuH khSwin pi'mzu tah beyih aund kardn dalwdniu. 
Eating a good dinner in bis owa house, yet interfering in the 

matters of other people (i.r., disputing for them, scandal- 

isiog them, &c.) 

Mind yooF own ditmer and mind yosr own biuiuesi. 
Panun mvhim ehAvA Aifwn'n punai vat. 
Each misfortune will show its own way. 
Panun paixdr habah aunz pombar. 
One's own shoe and father's shawl. 

Hardly eamed. dearly loved. 

A boy pnrchased a pair of shoes with his own eaming^s, and ona 
day as he was walking along in thcae new »hoea they became very 
dnsty. The boy was much grieved and sat down by the way lida 
and cleaned them with hia beaatiful paahminB shawl, which his 
father had given him. 



Panun wadandwih parud asandmh. 

He made hU friends to weep, but his enemies to laugh. 

Pdmih hundpid. 

A monkey's young one i.e., (a chip of the old block). 

A Tariant of this with qaite a difEerent meamng is i — 

Pansnh hund pal, ymui folk chhtts Aain ; tat chhih torah 
wachhtu lal ratdn, sui chhuh mardn. 

Tbe young of a monkey, who ia dear to her; she presses it 
hard against her breast, so that the young one dies. 
A. faTonrite child or eervBnt, is often spoilt bjr an exaggerated 

affection and regard- 
Natives aaj that monkeys love their yonng ones eo much, that in the 

eicitement of their affection they Bometimes presB them BO hard 

against their breaata, that they get atiflod and die. 

Panzis dapydjiung eiA mandul chhui teaml. 

Will a monkey tell a monkey that his buttocks are red f 

The crock calling the kettle black. 

PardH pardn 'par gayik hhdli, Tchar gayih kildbah biri k^t. 
He reads and reads until his strength is gone, and he baa 

become like a donkey carrying a load of books. 

" Mach learning doth make thee mad." — Acta xiri. 24. 

Para»purik wdiah pdnai randtt tak panai pananin athan 
ikokah ir&wdn .' 

The cook from ParaapiJr cooks the food himself, and he him- 
self spits into his own hands (as if disgusted with it) ! 

Diaguated with one's own work. 

Many cooks reside in Paraspflr, a village in the JAt tShsII. It 
ia a castom with the majority of cooks to first ait down and eat their 
own dinner (by way of tasting perhapa?) before serving np the 
different diabea to the gaests. Shoald they not like the food, they 
will spit into the palma of their handa and in other ways expresa 
their aorrow. Many ahow their grief nnder different circamatanoea 
in thia vulgar manner. 

Parini ttar. 
Porous like a sie^e. 

More holy than righteous- 

ParmihUanaA rutl kur cHhai burtah rugl lar, 

A daughter without parmaiitaan is like a house without pro- 
per roofing. 


Parmdnljim. At time of marriage HindAe give to their daoghtera 
ft long piece ot cloth called z&], to wear npoD the crown of tbeir 
heads, and thence eitend to the amall of the back. Some for certain 
reasonB delay ^tiug this till gome yeara after; but this delay means 
incrBBsed tronble and eipense. 

BuTiah is the fiber of a species of birch, nsed in roofing honses, 
and alao as paper for rolling op gooda in. Native writing.paper, too, 
ii made from it. 

Fatkakpelhah mHa irdwun. 

To throw snow off from the roof (generally done quickly and 
carelessly ; hence any nork done hastily and carelessly.) 

Paahmlnaavi chhek narmi. 
Only paehmina has softness. 

Only good people era gentle, 

Paahmina is afine kind of woollen cloth mannfactnred in Kashmir. 
The finest goat's wool employed in its mannfacture ja brought from 
Idrffn, in the TSrkand territory. Thia ia called THrfiini pkamb; all 
Other qaalities are called Kashmiri phamh; though these as well as 
the former are foaod only on the animals who live on the wind-swept 
Bteppea of Central Asia. 

" Patah" guftam wSsi. 

friend, I add " Afterwards." 

Opportanity mis-Bpent, 
Wii a female friend, a flirt. 

Patim gar ehkih bukuri dar. 

The last hour is a hard time (i.e., the last hour of a woman's 
travail, or of life, or of any work, &c.) 

Pax panjaTot andar hand. 

A hawk shut up in a cage. 

A olever man without work. 

Phi'iguni mujea sw'idui kyah T 

What taste have radishes in the month of February 7 

What profit from an old wife or servant ? 

People gather the radishes in the antnmn, and bury them nnder 
the gronnd for nse in the winter. By the mouth of Fobniary they 
begin to rot and are unfit for food. 

PhahxT t^ayov ingan tah honih wat^hov dod. 

A faqir came into the court-yard, and the Aog was pained. 

An old servant diapleasci! with a new lerrant, to whom ont of 
charity the master has giren a little work. 


Phal kiiltd cihuh nomtf. 
The fruiUtree ia beDding. 

The more knoirledge there ig in a man, the humbler he beoomoB. 

Persian — Nihad ihAhk i par mema ear bar zamin, 

Phalii Ayul tah kelit lih&r ^iyanai Khudd. 

May God blesa your every seed to a sheaf, and your every sl>e>f 

to a kharwAr. 

A Kashmiri bleaaing. 

Pharih han kheu)i!n bad tah myou kan kar&n lul. 

A small dried fish ate a big fish, and (the cat) gave a gentle 

A man with a big appetite, hot little voice. 
Pkarih ham buzAyih mij lultav dupus " G6dai ekkuh bu^^n.' 
A fisherman, roasted his mother, and the people said withb 
themselves. "He is roasting fish.'' 

One-half the world does not know what a atmgglo the other half 
eodacea to livo. 

"Eoaating one's mother" here meana Belling her jewels and clothes 
for food. Cf- note " Tas «ali viatjh nor," Sfc. 

Pharih-hdnz eAAwd guri khaain ? 
Is the fisherman riding a horse ? 

Every thing will not be as we wish. 

There are man; Mnd of boatmen in Eaabmir named according to 
their boats, or their special work. Ihe Pharih-Mnz are thoae who 
catoh the little fish to be foond in the Walar lake dnriitg the 
winter Bcaaon, and cook and drj them for Bale in the b&zir. Cf. note 
" rtunoA ii»a«fi nar," ^c. 

Pharih Uwa» ehhuh dSrih kund lor. 

A bone stuck in the beard of the man who stole a dried fish. 

A thief caniea marks of detection along with him. 

One day a great robbery was committed in the hooae of a certain 
person of the city, and report of the matter reached the ears of the 
rnler. The raler was very much enraged, when he heard the 
acDonnt of such a dastard robbery. It appears that the robbers had 
first dined with their hoat and then robbed his honse. Amongst 
other dishes provided for the dinner was a dish of broiled fish. 

The mler declared that he wonid have the man discovered and 
pnnished. He sent for the deputy -inspector of police, and ordered 
him to show the thief or die. The deputy-inspector trembled when 
he heard this command, but he did not despair. He was a bold and 
clever man- "Give ma one hundred soldiers," he said, "and I 
will find the man." 


Tlic rpqneHt wns frranted. 

One (lay tlie rleputy-uisiiector gave n, groat feaat, and invited all 
the [icsopla cf the city to eonie and make merry. A very large 
crowd was asBcmbled. At a given moment he ordered the soldiers 
to silence the people and to seize the man, who shonld rub hia beard 
after he, the dppnty-inspector, had spoken to the company. There 
was perfect silence when the host, ataoding in a convenient 
poBition, that he might be seen by all, shouted with a load voice, 
" There is a bone in the board of that man who stole the fish, " 
The thief happened to be present, and hearing these words, aa if hy 
instinct pat up his hand to his beard and rnbbod it. The movement 
was at once noticed by the appointed watchers, and the man was at 
once seized aud taken before the deputy-inspector. The man's guilt 
was proved beyond all dispute, and he mas very severely punished. 
Krishoa, the deputy-inspector, was promoted to much honour. 

Phalak Matin batak. 
Mad Fatah'ti dinners. 

This man was a groat spendthrift. Quoted at an eitravagant 
dinner, 4c. 

Phati Bat tah yaktmax. 
Phati Bat and alone. 

" Mo and myself only." 

Pkati Pharkung. 

A caricatured Englishman. 

A stupid Kashmiti. 

Kashmiris at their privato feasts arc fond of painting pictiiros of 
English people on long slips of paper and pasting thego apon a long 
thin basket. Somctiraes they pnt on English clothes and mimic 
the SAhib's incorrect pronnnciation of Hi nduaUni. words and curt 
eaUm, &o. 

Pkllat hMyik dyaL 

The skin vill eat the pimple. 

Pkiramathik futnah prSni kalatpifk ehhaa zuwah adamant. 
A altit may have a clean chadar over her head, but her head 
is full of dirt. 

Pills. — A long piece of cotton cloth thrown over the head and 
allowed to haiij; down the back. 1( is the ordinary veil worn by the 
Kashmiri females. 

FMril pheran. 
Turning the garment. 

Tolling a lie ; appearing different to what y 



Phulpkut tak dawa kyah, 
Tbe joint is brokeu, what claim is there? 
The dead wife's neglected mother. 

Pilix nah tah Isuii gd». 

He couldn't reach the frait, and therefore he said it was bitter. 
The foi and the giapes. 

Fir nah hod, yakin bod. 

The pir is not great, faith ia great. 

One day Akbar asked Birbal, which was the greater, the pIr or 
faith. Birbal replied " Faith is the greater." The emperor said, 
" You are wrong. The pir is the greater of the two." Btrbal waa 

Od leaving tbe emperor, Bfrbal woot and borted an ass's head in 
a certain place, and ordered that a mosqne shoald bo bailt over it. 

Some years after this event, Akbar wag eiceedingly troubled by 
his encmiea. and took counsel with his wiLifr aa to what he sboald 
do. Birbal advifled him to go and pray for forty days in a, certain 
moaqne, and promised, that if ho would there offer ap prayers with a 
pure heart, God woold certainly hear him and give him the victory 
over his enemies. The emperor obeyed and vanqniahed hia enemies. 

One afternoon, when Btrbal was alone with Akbar, he referred to 
their converBation some years ago, and asked the emperor whether 
he remembered it. The emperor replied " Tea"; and that he was of 
the same opinioa Btill. Then Btrbal asked Akbar to accompany 
him to the moBqae, where he had spent fort; days in prayer, and see 
for himself what there was under its foniidations. The btiilding waa 
rased to the gronnd, the fonndatiens were dng op, and there, to the 
great astonishment of the one and the great amaaement of the other, 
was discovered the skeleton of the ass's head. Akbar remarked : 
" You were right, Birbal. Faith is greater than the plr." 

Akbar snpposed that the moaqne had been erected over the bones of 
some Hnhammedan saint, and with faith in this he prayed. Of. 
" Tale of Holy Donkeys," " Leisure Hour," January, 1875. 

Ptr, usldd. 

To call ft saint a teacher (is a great insult). 

Firah khutak ckHuh be-piTui j/m. 

A man who follows no saint {i.e., who does not make any 
profession of religion) is better off than tbe man who has 
a saint, (but does not attend to his teaching). 

"Pirah, wantam masalla," dupanas " rlH gom toialli'i." 
"O pir, tell me an illustration." He said to him. "From 
once saying there is comfort to mc." 

A pir visited a certain village, and was aateil by the people tbere 
to give them a reli^ouB word. He said to them "Do oot steal"; 
whei'oupoD they smote him eo that he ran away. A lon^ time after 
he again went to this Tillage, and again the villagers asked him to 
say Bomething. He replied " No, no { I am quite happy from having 

Once is enongh of thia person or that thing. 

Ptrav muryov ddnd, meh kyah rdvyov xik huh wanahak 

The pfrs killed aa ox, what have I lost that I should tell 


No bnsineaa of miiia. 

PUh k)mi gundh wagaioia ekoh, vmchtav Hkav tantdshd ! 
The flea sinned, but the matting got the beating. Behold, O 
people, the sight ! 

Pifari nai dtan tah hunt tih wuran n& ? 

If there were no cousins, would not the dogs bark ? Yes. 

The best of men have their eucmiea. 

Conains are constantly grambling and lighting over the family 
property j so constant and bitter are these qnarcels, that the word, 
pitur, a cousin, has come to mean an enemy. 

Pitur ai diiSa kalak kin danaa zangav su^t phuiaTuwih 

rupeyik hdnah. 
If a cousin be cast head-first into the fire, he will break a 

rupee's worth of pots with his legs (kicking about). 

No lore is lost between oooains. 

Pitur at disen pmi tatik tik Uatih yeni. 
If a cousin is asked to brush the warp with puni, (even then 
he will harm you), he will cut the warp. 

Pen. — Natives rub the warp with a hand-brasli soaked in rice 
water, to make the warp stronger. 

Piyik nah skrapun tah amin gogalem ds ddr&n. 
Cannot digest rice-water, yet he opens his mouth for uncookeit 

A conceited, ignorant foot. 

Poh dwai Ukoh tshoh dSvidn. Mdg ckkum mol tah iorem kynh ? 
Phugani pheraknam »keyih-trak phiih. Tsithar hahar hare 

Wahih khasav baiAore watjh dup wat^hare. 



The moHtli of December has come making glailiiess, 
Jaiiiiary ia my father — what will he do to me t In February 
thirty-Bis times heat will return to me. What will my 
brother-in law March do ? Said the mate calf to the 
female calf, "We will climb the hill in the month of 

December in " the Happy Tallej" is a Bplendid month, if there is 
no Bnow. January, is oallsd a fathor, because it is sooh a hard, strici 
month. In Febrnary the weatlier begins to get warmer- March 
ia called a brother-in-hnt, because with its cold winds and rains it is 
constantly bothering the people. April is a nice month for tho 
cattle, as the bqow begins to melt ofE from the hills and tho green 
grass appears. TowartSe tho end of this month the gnpsn-^Ar, or 
cow -herd, collects large herds of cattlo beloogingto other people, anil 
driyes them away to the mountains to graze. 

Pohali nyil. 

The shepherd's sign. 

At the time of the crops people hand orer their cattle to 
shepherds, who take them away in lai^e numbers to the nionntains 
tor pastnrage. Each bcaat has the special mark of its owner, (cf. note 
to Pohol ehhuA, &C.), and aboold it happen that a wiliJ beast devour 
It, tho akin is, if pOBsible, obtained and handed back to the owner 
as a proof that the animal haa been slain. Cited when a man losea 
by lending a friend any thing, or by depositing anythiuE in his care. 
Nothing bnt the remnants of the deposit are handed hack with great 

Pohol ekhuk dapdn toka*, '' Ak kkiv gahan hy6k kkHv 

The shepherd says to the people (who gave him these sheep 
to tend upon the mountaia), "One naa devoured by a 
lion, and the other by a jackal." 

At the time of the crops people hand over cattle to a shepbeni, 
who takes them far away to pasture upon the mountains. Sometimes 
a thouaand (w more animals are in the charge of one family, and 
each one of these are specialty marked with a ctit on the leg, ora Blit 
in the ear or tail, Ac, so that thoy may at once be reoogniaed by 
their diSeront ownor». The city people say that these hirelings 
generally happen to have two sons, tho one called " Lion" and the 
other called ''Jackal, " who have very large appetites, and eat tbo 
shoep ; so that when the shepherd says that a lion and a jackal ato 
them, ho is not altogether (according to the popular native idea) 



roshah-matin ai»A. 

The plensure of a floner-fancier. 

An easy time of it. 

Many natiTBi viait the different gardens around Srinsgar, 
etpeciallj on Fridays, and with late or guitar play, sing, and 
loll awiiy tho livelong day. 

Poifidhan ehhuk wunamut " Tdh kartam sAdh karat." 

The garments said, "Take care of me aad I vill make you 

a king." 

Tail hartam is literally " Fold mo up." 

Prendn jahdnas tah wunin pdnns. 

He finds fault with the world and forgeta that he himself is 
in the wrong. 

Preydguch fiiini nah tkaJdn nah loh'in nak baddn. 
The chindr of Preyag neither becomes taller, nor shorter, nor 

A poor sickly child, who does not grow or become fab. 

This chin&r tree is in tho middle of a little islnnd jaat big enongh 
to pitch yoar tent on, in the midst of the Jhelam river by the village 
of Shadiptir. Iho Hindris have consecrated the place, and a. Bcihrana 
is to be aoon twice every day paddling himself along in a litllo 
boat to the spot, to worship and to make hia offerings. 

Pujis purutekuk adijih konah packai ax dupnai, "Pantai dm 

tiah kaiih." 
The people asked the butcher why his bones were not sold 

to-day. He replied, because none of my relations have been 

to me (to buy meat). 

Puk ai diih tah tokul Jan. 

If it is cooked, then a little even is good (i.e., worth haying). 

If he is Oliver, &c.. then learn something from him; a little good, 
even, is not to bo deapiaed. 

Pttttz ai payih skethik gatak lotih rhhuh punxui. 

If a monkey fall sixty yards below, still he is a monkey. 

Change of position does not change the man. 
Purinut ehhuk yurxnul, 
A well-read man is like a nicely cut stone. 

Piakuk tih nai Uuluk tih nd ? 

If you have not got the victory, why do you not escape % 

If you cannot stand yonr ground, then give it up. 



Put ehhuhak thani. 

Butter tVom the last turn (or last beat). of the stict. 

A man flahing all daj oatcbes his first and only fish jast U he JB 

going away. A man, who has been atruggling to fiiid oat. or do 

aemething all da,;, discovers, or does it jnat aa he is about to give it 

up in despair. 

Put mandit ; tut kkattt ; zandnak prosit ; hul parit ; kenda- 
wend t^atit ,- tah insan pkulit. 

Pattd must be pressed Id the washing-tub ; a pony must be 
ridden on; a woman must be in travail; h son (must 
know the hardships of) learning ; a water-melon must be 
cut (before its sale) ; and a man must be broken (i.e., 
All things most be more or less tried by the rod of affliction, and 

are generally the better for having pasaod under it. 

HendauSnd tialit. — Tbe purchaser makes the baniyi cnt the 

water-melon before he pays for it, afl it may not be red and ripe. 

One cannot tell what it is from the outside. 

Put, mput, tah kopal 

A son like his father ; a son greater than hia father ; and a 

son less than his father. 

Tho Kashmiris say that there are three kinda of B011& 
Put put chkek jidii»h/ikas ga'ibat. 
Slander behind the king. 

Abnse always follows the high and great. 
Patrah huckkih Attn Icockkik. 

Hungering after a son she folds a dog to her bosom. 
Putrah didih muri m/mgai. 
She holds out her skirt begging for a son. 

It ia quite a commonplace ovent for a barren woman to go to ft 
person with a large family and beg for a son. 

" Putrah, Ickar t»ul." " Babah, pAnah ralun tah khatit ia." 
" O son, tbe ass has run away." O father, catch him and 
ride him back. 

A variant is : — 

Babah. Khar tsut, ?ihar t_^ul, 

Gobrah. Khaa walah, Mai walak. 

Father. " The ass has got away; the ass has got away." 

Son. " Go and ride him back; go and ride him back." 

A mde, disobedient child- 



Pi^ wanun ekkuh ackh kadum. 

A maa may as well take out his eyes as tell the truth. 

Pwz teananahpan zan natan; apuz wananaA lagan rag. 
Tell the troth and you'll tremble like a leaf; tell a lie, and 
you 'II get relief and pleasure. 

Fyav nak pyav ; zih Yaman khyat). 

In the act of talliug the angel of death ate bira. 

A quick death- 

Yama or Tarn. — " To great King Yama homage paj, 
Who waa the first of men that died. 
That crosBod the mightir gnlf aud spied 
Pot mortals oat the heavenward way." 

Moir. O. S. T., V. 327. 
Pydwal tev. 
An inventive tongue. 
An imaginative, Ijiog tongue. 




""■nj;';', redly lw6nlr.f«.r»l™l»l. iColWlm Oftann. u..a m 

may be intereBting I 


fnU day of 24 hours) . 


=L'^wnd,(i«.,JnBtaflipo£ the filler). 
=^ 12 or 18 bronz. 
^^ 60 tsyubs. 
= TJ gars. 
T= 4 pahais. 
= 8 pahaca (i.e., 
= 7 full daja- 
= a haftahfl. 
= 2 pachha (i. e 
= 24 pachhH (>■«■ 
. Midnight. 

; Cockcrowit^. 

Ad rAt (or niet ahab) 
Patim pahar 
Kukar b&np; 

HiudftB) „ , ' 


caWd Kashmiris.) J = Daybreak. 

Ennat <Muhaiiiinedaiia) ' 
i-rabhit (Educated Hindfls) 

=i Snnriae. 

= aboot2Jhr8.aftorBunrisc. 
= about 4i hra.afterBuiiriae. 
= about 11 o'clock a. M. 

Ad koi 

KWondawST Koj 
Dfi pahar „ -n- ] 

MftndSni (especially Hin- f ^ Midday. 
dlJB). Sanakrit. ifadhyan- 1 

wimiiz (MnViammcdaiiB) 1 ^ ^bout 3-30, o'clock P. M. (At this 

Mimui (HindliB) ) time during the long days the 

BchoolmaHter shuts liiH aoliool for 

half -au-hour or bo, that his pupils 



may bave time to go and eat a 
little food. If 70a asked a lad 
on coming from the school at 
Boch a time where he was goii^, 
he wonld invariablj reply. To 
Mimnz or Nimui, i.e., to his 
afternoon meal.) 
Digar (Dfgar in tlie Panjib) ^^ aboat 4 o'clock p. h. flhis ia 
Bometimea distinguished as bod 
digar and Inknt digar, referring 
respeotlvel]' to a little time 
before and after the period.) 
Ad digar ^ Smiaet. 

Shiim = Evenit^. 

KhophtMi = Night. Bedtime, abont 9-3a 

o'clock p. M. 
Sometimes the Saaskrit word veM is added thiu : — 
" Ad r&tuk Teli" " Knkar bingih handih velli " ; bnt thia ia mora 
a Panjkbl than a Kashmiri form of eipression. — Ftda Note 714, Vol I., 
" Panj&b Notes and Qoeriea" ; also Note 1011, Tol. II. 
Sangari wdnul: hhum akii khut tah b^it hut. 
The dj'er's vessel vaa a success to one and a failure ta 

The d<rer8 have great earthen pots in which they prepare many 
gallODB of dye at a time— sometimeB they prepare aa mnoh aa will last 
for six months. When the dye is ready for standing a oorer is 
placed npon it and it is left perfectly still for twenty days. Dnring 
these days shoald the weather be too hot or too cold the ooloor will 
not properly settle, and so mooh of the half-year's work irill be 

Rang an teursaA. 
A dyer's story (therefore not to be believed). 

RanguT. Dyers in the valley are generally Mi^mmedans. They 
have an anoient cnatom of agreeing beforehand amongst themselves 
that if the dye doea not mix properly with the water, and after a 
time give forth a bad smell, (beoanse it mnst cormpt before it ia fib 
for ose) they will go OQt and tell as many, and aa great, lies as they 
can, nntil the dye-water does b^n to stink. Some of the lying 
stories which they invent are Very clever and interesting, and ara 
believed in by not a few of the over-crednlona people of Srinagar. I 
speak experiraontally, havii^ myself been the sabjeot of one of these 
dyer's stories. 

Saa laginam tah dot tsalinam. 
May I get ease and be free from l&zinesa. 

A Kashmiri prayer freqnently ejaculated at tbe oommeuoemeDt of 
any work. 



BataA rust balah gov Ihatah nut ehhin. 

Rice trithout Boup is like a carpenter withoat goand. 

Bdtti bagair gaUkik toritid kadd racAhun. 

Besides (having) righteousness ve nrnst pat a limit apon 

everything, (■'. e., have moderation). 
Rat my^ni kdngar tah wuehh mt/ini Ink ! 
Taije my kangar and see my paces ! 

A man with a prond walk. 

Rat wandai lak puj-ioiiniik, 

I will offer to you the blood of the butcher's shop. 

Kind at the espease of another. 

Bdl uriton Gangahbal tahpagah na& yarahbal. 
At night he arrives (in his thoughts and plans) at Gangi^balf 
bnt on the morron he does not even get to the landing 

Aiwa; B plaiiniiig and never doing. 

QangabiU is a stream tribatary bo the Siadh river ; a htitj lake 
near the top of Monut Har&mak. 

R&taa viamtia» hail ; pagah dupnas " Suh kyak wdHheh 

Majnunaa "T 
In the night the story of Lail was told to him, and on the 

morrow he said, "What relation will she be to Majnua 7" 

A dallard. 

Lail or Laila ia the name of a ladj freqnentlj alladsd to in. the 
East. The lovea o[ Laiiti and Majni3n are celebrated in afine Farsiaa 
poem bj Nb&mf. 

BdtuA vjddak tor nai riid " Wulai gdsah griSiane" 

Last night's promise was not kept, " Come, O grasa-cntter." 

Fromiaea are like pie-cmst, made to be broken. 

Rawak xat thawak katih ? 

A ragged rawah, where shall I spread it P 

A poor braggart. 

flowo'i ia a covering made from the for of aome animal, generallT' 
black, and imported from the Fanjdb. 

"Raz das tah muthini ekhes ali. 

The rope is burnt (coal-black), but the tvrist is there (pliUD 


A man doposod or injured, bnt still harbonrii^ bod tbooghta. 



Raxl pta tah aotii mdr. 

A yard of rope and a stick — strike. 

atriot and awift jaatioe. 

Thera is a tale coaOBmiiig ArantiTarman, alias TVmaadat oIue* 
Bdji TCq, one of the ancient kings of Kashmir, in which a piece of 
rope and a amall stiok are represented as fnlfilling the datiea of 
deteolive, police-officer, chapr^st, £c. If any mau or beaB( or bird 
had done wrong, the stick and the rope would at once hasten to theio, 
the stick wonlct'beat the offender, and the rope would bind hini and 
bring him, her, or it, before the king for joatioe. Cf. " Indian Fairy 
Tales," the story of " The Riji's Son and the Trincesa Lal)5m," 
p. 156. " Here the Rtlj^'a son found four faqfrs, whose teacher and 
master had died, and had left four thinga, — ^a bod, which carried, 
whoever eat on it, whithersoever he wished to go ; a bag, (hat gave 
its owner as mnch water as he wanted, no matter how tar he might 
be from a tank j and a atiok and a ropo, to which ita owner had only 
to say, if any one came to make war on him, ' Stick, beat ag many 
men and soldiers as are here,' and the atiok wonld boat them and 
the rope would tie them np." Of. also " Folk-tales of Bengal," tha- 
story of " the boy whom seven mothers Hackled," p. lal. " The boy 
took down the cage from the ceiling, as well as the clnh and rope. 
Having well eecnrod the bird, he addressed the club and rope 
thas : — '■ O, atoQt club 1 O, strong rope ! Take me at once to tho 
other sido." In the twinkling of an eye the boy waa pnt on that 
side of the ocean. Similar qaotationa alao might be made from. 
"Wide-awake Stories," p. 294, "Old Decoan Days," pp. 174-175, 
" Fairy Tales from Brehtano," pp. 146.154. Cf. also Wolf, Beitriigo 
EOT Deataohen Mythol<^e, 1., p. 12. " A lad sets out on a journey, 
having in his possession three wonderful things, — a buck-goat that 
spits gold, a hen that lays golden eggs, and a tablo that covers 
itself, without anybody's help, with the choicest food. A rascally 
innkeeper steals these treaanres from the lad, and puta worthless- 
trash in their place ; but a stick that jnmps out of a bag in which 
it is nanally concealed, goes to work of its own aocord npon the 
innkeeper's back, and with euch effect that the lad gets his own 
ftgaiiu The atiok then retams of itaelf to ita owner's hand." 

llr. Walter K. Kelly, in hia moat interesting book, " Curiosities 
of Indo-European Tradition and Folk-lore," commenting upon this 
last quotation, writes : — " The table in this story ia the all-nonriah. 
ing cloud. The bock-goat ia another emblem of the clouda, 
and tho gold it Bpits ia the golden light of the sun that streams 
through the fleecy coverings of the ekf. The hen'a golden egg ia 
the Ban itself. The demon of darkness has stolen these things ;. 
tho cloud givea no rain, but hangs dnsky in tho sky, veiling the- 
light of the sun. Then the lightning apear of tho ancient storm- 
god Odin leaps out from tho bag that concealed it, the robber falls, 
the rain patters down, tho son shines once muro." " This apeor nf 
Odin," tho leamod writer goes on to say, " is an equivalent of tha 


urattha rod of the Atbarra-Tedii incantation, and both a 
rods'' espacialtj adapted for bringing victorj to their pt 
They bave also another oomio ooouterpart in a sort of niah-rod, 
irhioh serves for adminiBtering a dmbbing at a distanoe. With 
such a bazel implement, cut and prepared wish the proper for- 
malities, one has odIj to lay an old garment on a molehill or on 
a threshold, name the person intended, and wbaok awaj. That 
person will feol every blow as sorelj as thongh he were aotaalty 
under the stiok, and if the old garment is beaten into holes so 
will it be with the skin of the absent sniferer." " Fopnlar tradition 

Reh razih. 

A flame to a rope. 

A red flag to a bull. 

Retakdlik gutshum, poUh tah wandas guUkum toehh. 

In summer I Deed a cotton pheran and in winter I need a 

woollen pheran. 

Everything in seasoa. 

Fhlraa is the chief garment of the Eashmtri, both male and female, 
and in shape not nnlike a big nightgown with sleevas " a mile long." 
Bometimes the coloor of these garments is led and other times bloe. 
When made from wool they are called lochb, and when made from 
cotton, potsh. " Probably" the phCran Comes from the word 
pair&hao, tbo Persian for "garment." 

Beyih ehhuk thabnamai tufdn. 
I'he dew is like a flood to the ant. 
Panj&bL— Elri nun talhi darii. 

Riih ffayov jrardesA dewak neriam Biskth niv tatih kuthioi 
tatnih mihih, NA-kukhah, Rishe, gari drik. 

A Rishi went to another country, to try and get hia name 
famous there as a Bishi, but he got less celebrated than 
before (in his own country). O Biahi, you left your home 
without a cause. 

Riah {Biahi and RikU) is a Hindii sage or sunt 

Rogaft o tdJarAtt as Fdmpur. Sig ae Letapir brinj at 

Nipur ; Barrah a» Nandapur. Puftu o m^hi a* Sopor ; 

Mong az Krotapur. Aradat Kktiujpur. SAtraa S&ddtpir, 

Jngur az Bipir. 
Pdmpiir (the place) for gh( and safl'ran. Letaplir for Tcge- 

tables. Nipiir for rice. Nandapiir for lamb. Soplir for 



pattu and fish. Krilapdrfor dil. Khimpfir for floirf. 
Sh^dJpilr for milk. And grapea from Beplir. 

Ropeyih hatas k&ngar hand. 
A kingar as a pledge for Bs. lOU. 
A kiagar ia Trorth it mere trifle. 

Rovmut gur ehhuh ahethah mohur. 

A lost horse is valued at 60 sovereigns. 

Buehhmakho luehk tah tsutmahho iackh. 

I trained you (at very great expense), a Ukh of rupees ; but 

I turned you off at a trifle. 

LoBiiig a good Bsrvant on aoooont o( some trifle. 

Ridpetkid ch^eh rab wuthin. 
Mud comes from a fall of rain. 

Fluiiiilimeiit follows do. 

Bidd pet/ihe, iaptd bowike, 

WktoA mijih leariAah, korah po^k. 

If it rains and cotton grows, 

I vrill make for my stepmother a " bran new " phSran. 

A oraiiiitionfcl promiae, aa " When my ship come* home." 
A oertoiii mail was in debt and went to a friend for tlie loan of 
aome mone}' wherewith to pay it. He m^d his reqaoBt in the 
following words : — "O, laj friend, please lend me the money. For 
God's sake help me to satiafy this impatient oreditor. Deliver me 
from this great trouble. After a little while I shall be able to repay 
you with interest. The spring hag come and the grass will grow 
over my land, and the people will send tbeir flocks and herds to 
graze thereon, and then tiie wool of the sheep will oatoh itself in the 
brambles and thorn bojshcs, and I will go and oolleot the wool, and 
will spin it { and when it is ready I will give it to the weaver, and 
he will make a blanket out of it, which I will sell, and bay a mara 
with the prioB thereof j and when the mare has foaled, I will sell tha 
foal for more than one hnndred rupees — if a man offers me only ona 
hundred rupees I will not accept it g and then I shall be able, and 
■hiU) be glad, to pay yoo." The friend laoghed aloud ou tlie con* 
elusion of this harangue. " Why do yon laagbf" said the debtor, 
" do you not think that it will be as I say ?" 
RiAan pir ^hkih khush-hdl. 
The pirs are glad when people die (or over the dead). 

Cited when any one speaks evil of tho dead, or takee pleasure in 
another's misfortune. There are two ways of auderBtanding the 



HiiyiiiK with respect to the p(rs, — either that thej renll; are pteaasd 
becaiue of the largesse and feast which generally acoompany k 
hmersl, or that thej pray for the dead aa though they toved tfaem. 
The one way of interpreting it is as general as the other. 

' Bit manivxSn nah zah kinik gaUhanat kat pdnm karih dH 

Do not pander to a sulky angry person ; and in a little while 

his sides will become weary, and he will come and beg for 

Butnun tat. 
Batun's cUl. 

A gtnpid, eitraragBiit servant. 

Gagar Wol, a ooUector, had a very etapid servant catted Batnn. 
One day when tho master was yiaibing a certain village with his 
servant he told the ohief farmer of the village to be so kind as to 
give some di.1, a kind of pnlae, to hia Berrant for his dinner. The far- 
mer, aniioQB like all other people, to ingratiate himsolf io thefSiVoiir 
oi the collector, gave the servant one kharwSr, or 193 ponnda, ot d4l. 

Batnn went and cooked the whole of this, — a mightly toast, some 
Igbirty or more big earthen pots full of steaming d&l I 

Ab soon aa Gagar Wol returned to his qnarters he was terriblj 
Burprisod to find that his servant liad been so stupid as to oook: the 
whole khMTvar oC dal. 

Ryno, ryno ! Ichatir ehhui, henih ehhai rdnicu rant chhai hii. 
husband, husband ! Yonr idea h that a sister ia a giant- 
ess and a wife ia as jasmine. 



Sab^ chhid tunah »und tir. 
Patience is as a dish of gold. 

f&r 18 the diah out of whioli the Paodit^nlB eat; a big Tomd deop 
brazea dJah. 

S/Jah khulahaifkyah? pakah. 

Zvyulik khulah zAyvl hyah ? Jialdi. 

"What is cleaner than the clean ? The forehead. 

"What is finer than the fine t Misfortune. 

The qoeatiooa were Akbar's and the answers BIr Bal's. Undoubt- 
edly there is reference in the first qneation and answer to the 
Eindi^ notion that every child's destiny is inscribed npon the fore- 
head at the time of its birth. Some say that Brabnia writes thia 
Inaoription, the Kaahmiri Pandit says that Vishno (or Hari) does. 
Cf, note to " Tatk niirak bvtihxai." 

WbatBTcr is written upon the forehead "by the finger of destiny" 
la clean — olear — fixed ; and misfortiiue is a luird (fine) narrow way. 

Safar ehhuh Hfir. 
The way is like an infidel. 
A hard, onpleaaant jonmey. 

SahaX chi»as peth jahal. 
Angry over a little matter. 
Sihih ehhtth bakhghatiMr, 
God is B giver. 

SdAifi ehhuh kanih taliMt hhni* tah krulta rexiJc w&tandwdn. 
God provides food for the worm and insect ander the stone. 


Solomon waa once sitting by the riverside when he saw an ant 
creeping along by the edge of the water with a grain of rioe in ita 
moath. While tha little creatoro waa toiUng along a crocodile came 
forth from the river and swallowed the ant, grain and all, and then 
took a diva into the water. In an honr's time the crocodile re- 
appeared and vomited the ant ; and the kii^ noticed that there waa 
not a grain of rice in the insect's mouth, " I wonder what the rea- 
son of this is, " said he aloud to himself. The ant heard these worda 
and replied, "God has planted a stone in this river, and in a hols 
in that atone lives a little blind worm. So God ordered me to get 



t, grain ot rice erety day and take it to th&t worm ; and gars me for 
D help this orooodite to carry ma down to the hole of that Tram, aa 
I oonld not reach there by my own means. 

SShibiddahf4-zafn&n Mkdh laten lamin. 
The SOD of the Lord of the Age a pulling up vegetables. 
A great man busying himself in little matters. 

Sdkhai diyth Mr Mr lah 6akhail diyik yak Mr, 
The generous man will give many times, but the miser will 
give once only. 

Samandarat maws yirah gat»hit huts mulan thapah karuni. 
Floa^g in the sea to catch at the roots of the kute plant. 

Catching at a straw. 

Kiiis. Indigofera heferonlfia. The twigs are nsed in making 

By the sea ia here meant the Wnlar Lake, the largest lake in 
Kadimir. The natives say tliat Kashy^pa, the drainer of the valley, 
hroaght a specimen of everytMng liere, that conld be fonnd on the 
faoe of the earth : yea, he brought the aea also. The holy Bhistraa, 
too, declare that everything is to be met with in Eashmfr, lions and 
all manner of beasts, all manner of birds and fmita and flowers, Ac, 
Ae.f and that men most believe this thoogh they may never aee, or 
hear of, them ] 

The Wnlar Lake is almost oval in shape, and is at its greatest 12 
miles long from north to soath, 10 miles wide from east to west, and 
IS feet deepi (the average depth is jnstla feet). The boatmen 
always approach this magnifioeDt pieoe of water with fear and trem- 
blii^, and once started, hasten over it as though It were a grave ready 
every moment to swallow them np. They have many tales, ancient 
and modem, true and fictitious, which they wUI tell with great 
enthnaiBBm if the visitor desires. 

Sandijih diw&n niti tah hendateend Ualan nirit. 

Taking up some mustard-seed iu the hand, aud a water-melon 


The Philosopher's stone. 

The daughter of one ot the principal oitiians of Srfnagsr went to 
the river to drink. Instead of drinking with her hands, as is tha 
onstom, she bent down her face into the water and drank like a 
dog. While she was drinking a young snake, almost invisible, 
' entered her month. (The people say that snakes lay eggs and that ia 
each egg there are thonsands of pieces of the finest cotton-like mat- 


t«r, which oTBiitnally develope into anaksB.) For man; yeari this 
girl nourishod this snake in her stoiuaoh. She had no pain, she did ' 
not eren feel any thing that onght not to be inside. In course of 
time she was married ; and a eonj marriage for the hnsband it 
tamed ont to bo : — for while they were both sleeping in their bed, 
at the dead of night, a snake came ont from the month of the wife 
And bit har huaband, ao that he died in dreadfal pain aoon after- 

The poor woman's griet in the rooming, when ahe discovered the 
oold corpae of her bsloved hnsbajid, waa boyond all deaoription ; she 
tore her hair and clothes, she beat her breasts, and shrieked alond. 
The people came and enqnired what waa the matter, and when they 
heard, they all charged her with having poisoned the man. TTiia 
report waa carried all over the city, even to the great Mu(;hal gover- 
nor, 'All MardAn Khin, When ho heard of it, he sent for the girl, 
and kept her with him. He enquired of her the truth of the matter, 
and the girl replied in tears that ahe did not know anything con- 
oemi^ig it, and that she was asleep at the time. The governor told 
her to go to her room, and when she had closed her eyes in sleep, he 
went and sat by her to watch. Ho waited and waited until at last 
he saw a. snake appear from her mouth, and pnt out its fangs with a 
most menacing look. 'All Mard&n Kbin went away aa quickly as 
possible and informed hia attendants what he had seen, and ordered 
them to tell this girl to make some bread on the morrow. The big 
oven waa to be heated, and when the girl had finished making the 
loaf, and was putting it into the oven somebody atandiug by was to 
t^e her np and fling her headlong into the oven. This was done, 
and when they opened the oren some hours afterwards to aee what 
had become of the girl, they found only a stone about half-a-ponnd 
in weight, which was carried to the governor and kept very care- 
fully by him. It appeared that this waa the famong alchensist's 
stone, and that by its means 'All MardSn Khfin was able to trans- 
mute copper and brass and all other metals into gold. Hia person, 
his servants, his horses, his rooms glittered with gold. ('Alf MardfLu 
Kh^n was the roost magnificent of the 7ilu([hal governors. The 
expenses of each of his trips into Kaahmir are said to have exceeded 
a l&kh of rupls.) 

When 'Alf Mard&n Kh&n was about to die he called his four sons 
nntohim, and giving the precions stone to the eldest of them, he told 
him to throw it into the river (Indus). 

The eldest son refused to obey this strange order; so it was handed 
to the second, and then to the third, but all most resolutely refused 
to throw away so precious a atone ; at length the fourth and young- 
est son threw it with all his might into the water opposite Atoi 
(Attock) ; and where the stone pitched a great blazing flame arose 
from the midst of the river, as of ignited gold. 

'AH MardSn KhSn ordered the stoiio to be thrown into the river 
because he feared leat it should i>ass into the hands of another, and , 
they become as wealthy as he. 

r Cotigle 

The Esahmfris in; that the rtone is there in the riTsr to the 
present day, Banjit Singh tried hard to obtaia it. He had the 
water stopped a hundred T&rds above and below the place where 
the Htone had pitched, the place was drained, and a moHt rigid 
seorob made, but nothing was diBOOTered. (This is only one ont of 
many BtorieB eitant in the valley oonoeming the origin of the 
Fhiloflopher'a atone. — Capt. Temple has a rariant of the above atory 
with gome eioelleat notee conoeming the Lami4 in ' tha Indian 
Antiq^arii, " Vol XI., Part eaxv., pp. 23a) 
Sangal-^ipueh padmdn. 
Sangftl-Dip'8 beautiful woman. 

Hnmph ! yon might be a grand woman ! 

It is related that one day Shiva ajid Fdrvatl were sitting together, 
when the latter rose npanddenly and ran away. Shiva followed herag 
fast aa he could, bnt waa not able to catch her. At last thoronghly 
eihaaated he lay down in a certain place, Sangal-Dfp by name, and 
went to sleep ; and it happened that there in that place a madan-pit 
became. Shiva woke np in a great rage, and tnrning to the pit he 
■aid, " If yon ahoald ever see a beaatifnl woman like a lotns jon 
muat follow her ." Be then departed. 

The inhabitants of Sang&l-Dfp are oonatlmtly going to other conn- 
triea. and aeizing their beantif nl women, are taking them to their 
own conntry, where they teach them to ride the moat beaatifal and 
swift horaes. When they are able to ride well, these beantifol 
women are taken close to tha pit and obliged to say, ''O Eimadera, 
O K^adeva. I am Fadmfin" [i.e.. a beaatifnl woman uid like a 
lotna. Cf. note " KhoTon nah khrav.") On hearingthia Eimadeva 
comes forth and rans after her with all the swiftness with 
which he can mn ; and shonld it happen that he Overtakes her, she 
will immediately be killed. After killing the woman Kimadeva 
retnme to the pit, and it generally happens that madan (procreating 
principle) escapee from iiim into the pitB, which precede his own 
special abode, and which hiive been dug for this purpose. 

Dip. (Sanskrit. — Dvfpa) Hind6 philosophers say that the terrestrial 
globe contains seven dips or islands, encompassed by seven seas, the 
whole land and water measnring 7,957,768 yojanaa. The Sangal Dip 
(Simhali) is in the north direction. (Cf. Dit<pa, Monier Williams, Diet.) 

Kamadeva is generally regarded as the god of sexnal lore, like Eroa 
of the Greeks and Cupid of the Latins. He is worshipped at the 
time of marriage ; and happiness in the married stale, and offspring 
are aonght from him. (Cf, Kennedy, " Hindu Myth," Ac.) 
Sant gai tint, yim imilrak suet trdmai baniwan *un. 
They are faqirs, who bj means of water transmute copper 

into gold. 

Not every man is a monk who wears a cowl. 

In the Chin&r BSgh, Srinogar, there is a temple in memory ot a 
deceased faqir, who was able to perform this wonder. Ue, also, taoght 


a. Pandit, who ia now a Ter; old man livingf in SrinaLgor, too old to do 
anything — even to make gold ! 

Muthar =^ Sanskrit m&tra, and Peraiaa pask-6b. 

SanlothiA biydlih buwih &nanduk phal. 

A harvest of peace is produced from a seed of content meat. 

TbiB prorerb ia credited to a holj and clever Pandit called Nand 
RAm, who lived at BSwan, a sacred Hiodli village in Kaehmir. This 
man wrote many rather clever vergea in praise of Krishna. He 
seems to have been terribly dimned by the officials of Biwaa, if one 
may jndge from the following lines ; — ■ 

Hand Bam aaa lamiitddr, 

fliii-ii diyir ta» iHrai noh lir 

Wdngtijiporich Uajia nah gdjigal, 

Banioshik biydlik Koiuth dnanduh pkal, 

Nond &&m was a hasbandman. 

And he paid hia debts ; bat there was always somebody after him 
(for money.) 

He never knew what it was to live freely in his own bouse, bnt 
was oontinnally obliged to lodge in the honse of another. 

(Nevermind), from tbe seed of contentment a harvest ot peace will 
be reaped. 

Tbe piece of poetry from which the above proverb ia taken i^ tbe 
following : — 

Dharmah liitmtKiii/iTi uiai/iiih iarmuk pluU. 

Santoskik biydiik bowth dnandak phaL 

Doyih prdnah dAndah-jiri din iah rdt wdi ; 

Kumbake kurak zorah Umamui Idt ; 

Hilah iwr bihit yut nah rozik ak rll. 

Saatothih biydlih bowih dnand/uh phaL 

Lolachih yaiahparih daldh phulriv, 

Wairvk rrSh yut nah rotSs fol. 

Sanloihik biydlih btneih dnanduk phal. 

Ton ahonld sow the seeds of destiny in the soil ot Dhorma (t.s., 
virtue, religion, doty, law, moral and religioua truth according 
tothe Vedaa and the law). 

From the seed of contentment a harvest of peace will be reaped. 

Flongh with the two oien of the two breaths day and night, 

Strike them hud with the whip of extreme meditation ; 

Endeavour ao that not a spot ot ground will remain nnplonghed. 

From the aeed of contentment a harveat of peaoe ia reaped. 

Break the clods with the ataff of love, 

That the damp of envy may not remain beneath : 

From the seed of contentment a harvest ot peace is reaped. 
Sar eheyih aarddr, tawab patah b&lah-ydr, tawahpatah luBr 

First tbe master of the feast will drink, after that the dear 
friend, and then the of&cer of rank. 


Affaction goes before rank. 

OookM an tasting the dishes previona to sending tbem to tb« 
master are aocnstomed to quote theao norda. 

Sari d£nthum, tari dmtlhvm, tarav kkutah hud tel phul 

todtia nah aud, 
I saw a tank, I saw a tank,— it was larger thun other tanks, 

but it would not contain a half of the sesame flower. (Sesa- 

mum orienlale.) 

A big, fat mtui, bat no brains. 

ThiB ia also a riddle, and the answer ia, a nipple, an ndder. 

Sarqfah mmah tat zeteah, 
A snake has seven tongues. 

A man who speaks whichever way fancy or company-wind blow*. 

Hindiiatinl. — Simp Ice sat auMn. 

Soma dertis or goda aaoended to heaven to get aome amrit (water 
of life), and when they descended to earth again they pat it into an 
earthenware vcBael. which the; placed On the top of a tree. The 
Bakabasas, hi^e giants, or rather ogrca, wished to poseeas them- 
■elvea of this amrit. So One took open himself the fomi of a crow, 
and flew, and perched npoo the top of that tree and jerked off that 
earthenware veaset. On seeing this Ylaak Nig (V&saki or B&aak 
Nig), a king of the snakea, with all his host came and drank np the 
amrit, and while they were drinking it, the rikahaBa from the top of 
the tree oorsed them. " Have I not taken all this tronble to obtain 
this water uf life, and now yon have couaomed it. Henceforth let 
there be to yon seven tongues." 

Sarat tarpoth. 

A basket-cover for a pond. 

Much need but little cash. 

Sari pelki tailib. 
One's bead even deluged. 
Head and ears in trouble. 

Sarrdf ffantardn diydr tah atrif rdwarSn dok. 
Tbe banker counts the money and the spendthrift wastes the 

Sarvf ehhuh fakin hut hut, vidj tal wdlit st/ud. 

The snake goes crookedly, yet it arrives straight within its 


A man who is of a different diapoaition oat-of-doore and among 
atrangen to what he ia in his own honse. 



5a* ehJaiTi nak zah nhhat khaadn. 
X>i\ never rises to tlie spit. 

L low man will never be promoted. 

jSiu (or dal), a kind of kidney bean (FluaeoliiB Max or Sadiatia). 

Sat myiit batat, mufh myut kattu, nindar mil dr&lid kalaa. 
Dil U sweet to the Pandit, muth is sweet to the sheep, and 

sleep is sweet to the son of misfortune. 

Dal ia the FatpaVam, framentaceum. 

ii-uth IB a special of legnminona plant. 

Sdtat suR pildrat bhdganik til ehirdgas ! 

A thousand rupis worth of gold in the pitir, and a mite's 

worth of oil in the lamp ! 

A man with little money, bat who nees it to a good pnrpofle ia of 
more worth to the world than the wealth; bnt miserly man; alio 
the man with little knowledge, who uses it, is of more pro&t to the 
world, than the eitraordimuily clerer man, who reaerves hia know- 
ledge for himsBlf . 

So* bwthi ehhis chandas andar. 
Seven faces are in his pocket. 

Hr. Smooth-Tangae ; erery thing to every man. 

Saittii sane kedar yat. 

The hoapoo's big basketful of muahrooms. 

Slow bat sore. Hxaj a. mickle makes a mnckle. 

Yat is a big long basket which the Kashmiri coolie fastens on hia 
baek, and trots anaj as happily aa possible over hill and dale with 
a maond or so of goods in it. The atory is that a hoopoo once 
gathered as many miuhrooms u woitld fill a jat, and as he woald 
have to gather them singly, the amassing of sach a lai^ number 
most have cost him mnoh time and laboor. Benae the sayii^. 

It is alao said that this hoopoo when he reached home after his 
laboore one da; asked hia wife to cook some of the mnBhrooma. Of 
oonrse the mnehrooms were oonaiderabl; diminished in size and 
weight from the oookdng, bat the hoopoo soapeoted that his wife had 
either eaten, or ooncetCed, some of thom ; and so in the heat of pas- 
sion he then and there killed her and threw the corpse ont of the nest, 

Seh has be-pir andar mulk.i-Ra*h,mir. 

Wait Had a Hart Bahadur o SiMa Fir. 

Three persons are without religion in the country of Eashmf r — 

Wall Had, Hari Bahadur, and Sukhi Pfr. 

These three peraons are now liTing in Eashmfr, and are a great 
trouble to the qoieter claas of people. Walt Ea4 ia a Hahammedan, 
the other two are Pan4it8. Had means hard, resolnte, and this 
oams haa been added to Waif, beoaose if this man is refoied any 



tbing he will sit by the bonse for daye and make gK&t luaentation, 
until he obtains his reqaest. The title of BahAdnr wa« giTsn to 
Bart under amnsing circnmatances (according to the people's story). 
Thej say that His late Highnesa the Mah^jah GnUb Singh waa 
ODOO Tery ill, and the BrShmanB being conmlted, they advised that a 
man should be fonnd who wonld leap a few time* apon the king'a 
itomach and make him well. Great search was made, bat nobody 
waa fonnd to come forward and do this strange aot. At liut Harl 
presented himself and jnmped several times upon Bis Highnesa, 
who was immediately relieved of bis pain. The title of ItohMnr 
waa accordingly given to the fakir by the common folk, and a large 
prsaent of money by the MahirSjah. Sitkhd Ptr is a very big, stoot 
and powerful man, and blessed with a monBtroos appetite. Strange 
stories are told of the enormous qeantity of food which this man 
now and then disposes of. Sometimes those who can afford it invite 
this man to their houses, and have him fed before them as akiad of 

S^th sMtheu Mi no wavtteh ; wata* dmh nah tntmrivi rituii 

gydmehkathhatmudoMwaniieh — xan ranarut kum-ydjen tit. 
Sow not jasmine upon the sand ; fire not a leathern marble 

against the rock ; speak not words of divine wisdom to a 

fool — because, if you do, it will be like wasting oil over 

bran- cakes. 

Another version is : — 
SSkih sMlhat phal no toamsSh ; rdcaruih nah htm-yAjen tit ; 
Mudat ganydnaeh iath no wanixek, khartu gor dinak rdwi 

Sow not seeds on the river-bed (or the sand) ; waste not oil 

over bran-cakes ; 
Tell not matters of religion to the ignorant ; and if you give 

sugar to an ass, you will lose the day (i. e„ you will lose 

your labour). 
Sekih til tah wethranih t^ban. 
Oil to the sand and soap to the w£thran. 

I^aboor lost. 

Withran is B sack made of grass and generally used by the poor 
Eaahmtr! cultivator. 

SSUanihp&mh atntn hasli baranih nerun. 

Entering by the eye of a needle and coming out by the 

elephant's stable- door. 

" Humble enongh at first, bnt now so prvDd t" 

■,G Otitic 

S&iih uttffajik ehhuh nah gyav kkasdn. 

Ght is not to be taken up with a straight finger. 

Blows bring aenae. 

Skdbaih butak malikaJi I 
"Weil-done, simple fellow ! 

Praise a atapid person and joa can get anything from him. 

Bulah lit. Ladfikf, who in former times snSered much in bargain- 
ing with the Kashmir! on account of hia ^norance of the language 
and dulnesB of intelieot. 

"Skddi moj ! warvd kyuthf" " Beehanah khulah selhak 

" mother ShAdi I how do you like your second husband T" 
" It is much better than be§^ng," 

Onoe marry fcr love, twice marry for money. 

Shdh byuth Witshkarih, ya» yik khuth karih tuh tih karih- 
The king settled in Wushkur, and whatsoever & man pleased 
that he did. 

The king must reside in the midat of hia people. 
When the cat is away the mica do play, 
IFuiUur is a village in the Kamrii. 

Shmtunah sundi kan tan. 
Satan's deaf ears. 

Kaehmiris are very fond of sounding their own praises. Before, 
however, giving utterance to a word they sometimes pray that Satan's 
ears may be closed, in order that he may not hear them, and, becom- 
ing offendei, corse them. 

Shafiar ai chhtti miU gaMiaited: 

Mitn at ehhai tkakar gaUhanai. 

It' it is sugar then may it become earth to you ; 

If it is earth then may it become sugar to you. 

Cited against the man who lies jnat to escape giving, or on some 
other trifling account. 

Hiadlistial — AUah Uare ihakar hows. 
Allah lore milii hovie- 

A fakir wae wandering by the riverside one afternoon, when he 
aaw a barge approaching. He enqnired, as he vae wont to do, what 
. was in the bai^e. The man replied " Only earth." The fakir sna- 
pecting that the man had lied onto him, prayed that God would 
grant this man's anawer to be correct. God hoard the prayer, and 
the whole cargo of angar was changed into earth. Soon after this 
another barge came along. " What cargo have you 7 " said the 



fakfr. "Earth," answered tlie man. Huh reply was trne, and the 
- fakir praved again that if it were trae, that God wonld tarn it all 
iotosngar. This prayer alBo waa granted- (Ct "Indian Fairy TaleB," 
pp. 96, 97, 272, 273,) 
Shahar meirie. 
Sciasors of sugar (bat none the less sharp and catting for all 

Shdl guv huHh eih Slav* gav Tsulih. 
A jackal got into the river, and it tras as though the whole 

world had got in. 

Panjlibf. — Ap moe jag porlo, 
Shdl ffui) tah hdhak-Uar bardbar. 
A jackal, ewe, and string of vegetables are equal. 


This saying dates baok to the days of Noshirwin, a king of Peraia 
in whose reign Uohammed was bom (a. d. 578). Noahtrvrin ia the 
Fersian for jnet, and the king called by this name is said to have 
been bo joat that perfect peace reigned in the land both among men 
and beasts. Noshtrwtn kept a jackal, a ewet and a string of 
Tegetablee in one and the sajoe place ; bat the jackal did not harm 
the ewe, and the ewe did not toaoh the vegetables ; — to moh an 
eit«nt did peace reign ! 

The jackal, ewe, and string of vegetables may also be taken figura- 
tively as representing different grades of people, every one ot whom 
the just king esteemed equally worthy of attention and protection. 
ShiU tsalit bafhen ohob. 
The jackal escapes and the man smites the ground. 

Crying over spUt milk. 

Shdlah sunis tung. 

The bowling of a jackal, 

lupits pilum nvMfat, non mentem. 

A jackal in the course of its nightly peregrinations visited the 
house of a certain dyer and tumbled into the blue dye-pot, and its 
for became as blue as bine can be. In this ridiculoas state it went 
away, but wag afraid to return to its companions. Eventually it 
took up its abode on the top of a very high rock. Tn the oonrae of 
time the news spread that a new beast was to be found in a, certain 
place every night at such a time- The bear, the tiger, the lion, all 
were informed of this new animal, and a big council was held in 
which it was decided to invite the stranger and to make him their 
king and head. The blue jackal came and was duly crowned by the 
lion I bat at evening-time when all the other jackals began as usual 
to scream and to howl, this bloe jackal, also, instinctively screamed 
and howled. Now the mystery was discovered. This king waa only 



li plated jaolcBl ! When the lion and bear S,u3 tiger heard this 
they went at once and killed the blue jaokal. (This etorj sligbtl; 
changed is in the Panca-tantra.) 

Shdlih tdrak hduiuni. 

To show stars to a (sharp) womao, (in order to try and frighten 


She tnowB well enoogh what yon are up to, yon. will have to try 
Bome other plan. 

Rhdlin hyol ehhuh hikia. 
Shol seed is like ahol. 

Like father like son. 

Shol is millet-seed (PCTMisetiini iloliram). 

Shdmah galah tah rot arafah. 

The evening darkness is the vigil of the night's festivnl. 

Qnoted when any one pashea on work into the late honra of 
the uight in order that little or none may be left to be done on the 

Shdmah tsutur tah mandini hehvidl. 
Sharp (enough) at evening, but kzy and sleepy at noon. 
Quoted against wives and unemploy^ sons, Ice. 

Skamdmi lal ehheh gatah. 

There is a darkness under the candle. 

A good king, but bad ministerB ; a good master, bnt bad servants. 
Hindi- — Chirdgh ie tale andkera. 

Shardiutj hafi^ deg ehkeh kkemutx konev. 
The dogs ate np the partnership saucepan. 

Two partnora quarrel and go to law, and lose everything. 

PerBian. — Da morg jang kv.nand/a'ida-i-lirgar. 

Sharahas tharmui hyak ! 
What, ia there shame in " The Lawl" 
B^ht aa the Bible. 

Shayih datan tah lukanui tothtan. 
Live thou and do good to others. 

This is a line from one of the vorsea composed by the clever wife 
of the celebrated Monshi BahwanI Dis, who lived in the time of 
Akbar. He was a Kashmiri, a great poet, and some of his works 
remain in tbe Persian language ; but there is no trace of his honae 


For same rsBBon Bahwial D&B Beparated from hia Grst wifs and 
UBmed another. This Bocotid wife beoame very devoted to hint. 
Mid one day in a fit of jealousy she oompoaed the following lineg : — 

Tanahdai vesie ennah chluim asin,. 

TaJiak t/dri traviaiam tami kath, 

Sheyah iatan iah luktiaul ioshian. 

Tolih chham dilatai aal. 

Ohhamak Iddan akik laith yiyih ni ! 

Wandahimi halikui rat. 

When my hnaband does not speak to nte ; 

Then. O trisnd, the other wife laogha at me. 

let him live and do good to others I 
And there will be comfort to my mind. 
If be wonld bat oome to me once. 

1 would offer onto him the sacrifice of my throat's blood ! 
WSi is a woman's female friend. (Kiudfistini — aahell.) 

Sun, a rival wife. (Polygamy is not very commoa among Kasb- 
mirf Hindfia). 

SAeh tah Ireh tah nav tah hah. 
Six and three and nine and eleven. 

" Blaok crowB have been throwii np, Three, Two and One ; 
And here I find all oomes at la«t to none " ! 

" The Throe Black Crowa."— Byrom. 

Shekhah hahi MltA $aMh, pagdh nahin. 

The SheWs custom is " Yes " to-day, and " No " h>. 

A fickle peraon. 

Shekh iTnim-ud-dfn waa the last of the ten Sikh goivemore, wh<» 
tTrannised over the vaUey for aboab twenty-aeven years (1819 to 
1S46 A. D.) Beport represents him to have been a very fivkla 
monaroh, and tella the following anecdote concerning him : — 

One day the Shekh appointed a Pandit to some office and scon 
•fter his appointment the Pandit appeared in the palaoe-yard riding 
npoD a horse with hia face towards the beast's tail. The Shakh 
happened to be there with his retinae, and seeing thia Indicrona 
oharaoter langhed londly. Great was his tmrpriae to find that the 
miia was the very Pandit, to whom he had jost given an appoint- 
ment. "Why are yon making saoh a fool of ycorself?" said he. 
" I am riding thns," replied the Pandit, " in order that I may seo 
quickly who is to be appointed in my place ! " 

Afterwards Shekh Imim-nd-din did not change hia servants mo 

Shekhah royih Shaitdn, 
A Shekh in appearance, but a devil in truth. 
Appearances are not always to be tmated. 



Shenkamni maJcux, nah^lialdn tah tuAffaldn. 
Shenkar's use, neither wears away, nor melta. 

Cited concerning a hale and heart;, oM wicked person. 

Skenkar (Sanskrit, Bhaa-kartv) was a very Famons HindQ fokfr of 
the grand stjle. — His drees waa of pashmtna, (a verj fine silky cloth), 
and he aiwajE rode upon, a handsome horse. He lived at Chhatsah- 
Bal, where there is a small temple erected to his memory. Se died 
aboQt two years ago, at the age of sixty. 

Sbenkar naed every day to climb the Tak^t.i-Solaim&n (a big hill 
OTerlaokiDg Siiuagar), to perform his devotions in the anoieot 
temple there. Another name for this hill is ShenkarStairl, an ancient 
Eiadii philosopher, after whum this Shenkor was called. (Cf. 
Sankaracarya. Monier William's Dicty.) 

Shenkar'e popnlarity was chiefly derived from hig oelebratel 
charmed aie. It was so, that whenever he heard that any one was 
in tronble or aickoesa, he would visit them, and after saying a few 
wordu, wonld wave the axe above and around the distressed person'B 
head and body, and should he be indisposed, or the weather be 
inclement, he need to send the aie with especial directions how to 
manage iL tteport says that large nambora were thus healed aud 
comforted. The axe was a very atroog and handsome one. 

Shenkar's family are still living in Srfnagar, and are very maell 
respected. R£m Chand eeems to be the principal member of this 
family nO(r alive. He is a very clever mnnshl, and in receipt of about 
Ba 200 per mensem. Every year, on the anniversary of Shenkar'a 
death, his tvro hundred special followers, all of whom belong to the 
dar olasB, visit £^ Chond and moke special presents to him in. 
recognition of their intense respeoc for Ms father and their saint. 

Sheth ffav »ik breth gav. 
Sixty years become, stnpid become. 
Onoe a man, twice a child. 

Shethah wttkur hdv tah tMtah wuhar hdwah-p&t. 

Sixty years a crow and eight years a young crow (i.e., in 

the matter of wisdom and experience). 

Foolish father, wise son. 

The Easbinfris tell a story of an old female crow, who was onoe 
giving advice to her joung ones. She warned them especially to 
beware of man. He did not care for their forwardness, nor was ha 
ohanned by their "caw-caw"; bntonthe contrary, ha wonld certain- 
ly kill them, if he bad the chance. "Now, listen," said the ol<t 
crow. " When yon see a man bending his body down to the gronnd, 
and putting forth a hand, take heed; because the man is about to 
pick up a stone wherewith to strike and maim yoQ." " Very well, 
very well," said the yonng crows, and there was a general " caw-caw" 
of approvaL But one of the young ones, who was sharper than 
the rest, did not quite agree. " Suppose," enquired he, "that the man 


hfla alreiuly a frt^m^ DD^er hia arm, what shall we do in that Oftse ?" 
Ct. "Folktales from the Upper PanjSb." Bev. C. Bwjnnerton, J. 
R. A. S., 1884. 

Sheyav pirav ihutah ohhuh be-pirui jdn. 

Better to follow no saint thnQ (to try) to follow six saints. 

A man cannot serve manf maBters. 

Shet/ih manik nah shdbdth, wupasat nak lag. 

Mo praise if one cooks sis mauads of food, and no shame if 

there is nothing cooked 

A too lenient, indifferent, father or master. If the child, or the 
eorvant does well, he has no praise for hitu ; and if the chiltl or the 
servant neglects or spoils Ms work, be has not a word of blame for 

Shikaa'ah ndv Shdd ! 
Broken-hearted yet called Gladness ! 

Shin dlahit yih gag«r Aarih ti ehhvh rupeyih Sshit hardn. 
What the rat will do when it sees the snow, that you are 
doing when you see rdpis. 

The Kaahmfri aajs that rats can tell from the qnantity and cha- 
racter of the snow upon the mountains whether the winter will be 
a very serere one or not. Should it augur badly, then eaoh rat will 
gather for himself as much as six aers of rice'graiu. 

Shinah peto.f IfUjikyito! 

Fall, snow ! Come, O brother ! 

Teaming for the absent one's return. 

A bird called Shfnah-plpla was going away mneh to the sorrow of 
his brother- Shfoah-pipfn, who asked him with tears in his eyes, 
when he intended to come baclc again. " When the snow falls I shall 
be here again," be replied. Time passed, the snow fell heavily, bat 
no Shinah-pipin came back. 

Shinah ahart. 

A snow concern (or arrangement). 

No practical jokes, please. This is not Shtuah shart (or "April 
fool's day.") 

The Kashmiris are very glad to see the snow ; and they have a 
eustom which allows them to play jofcea upon one another with 
impunity on that day, when the snow first falls. Sometimes tbey 
will take a piece of the new snow and wrapping it up in paper ^T* 
it to a frioid as if tobacco, or snuff, &e. 



Should this friend take and open it, then he is verj maoh langhed 
at, aad has to paj a, forfeit. Amongst the ednoated it is customary 
to write the followiog Fereian couplet npon paper, and give it to 
their friend as if it were an important letter or parwiua, &c. 
Barf i nau aftdd gad mutirirat Md, 
An chi shart ast ziid hdyad ddd ? 

The new snow has fallen, a hundred congratulations to yon. 
What ie the agreement — ( but a trifle ! ) — wa you must pay np 
Should the friend read only one word of this, he is canght and has 
to pay » trifling forfeit. 

A Faudit has just remarked that the animals, too, are rejoiced 
to see the snow, bnt eepeoially the doga. On being aaked " Why ?" 
he said, " Because all the dra^s look upon the snow falling as their 
maternal nncle coming from Heaven to visit them." On further 
enquiry as to where he heard this, he replied thai. " All children 
in Kashmir were so taught. He did not know any reason for thus 

Skir-i-mAflar cMai. 

A mother's milk to yoa. 

A proper arrangement, &C. 
Shirahpurih firah yeniwol dv. 
The weddiDg-companjr of saiats from Sbirapur has come. 

The arrival of any great man. 

Shirapur is a little village abont two miles from Isl^mSb^d, and 
aboonds in Mohammedan saints, who marry their daughters in grand 
etyJe. Horses and music, and sometimea as many as a hundred 
singers, attend the weddii^. company, 

Shigtarak sueti chhuk sMstar phatdn. 
Iron 13 cut by iron. 

Set a thief to catch a thief. 

Persian. — Ki dkhan ba SSan towdh liard norm. 

Shiyai ahiyii tah Miyas Miyd. 

Sh(as with Shfas aod Miyiis with Mi'yiis. 

Caste with caste ; like with like. 

Bhiya—MiyA, (Shfa and Miyln) the one is a Muhammedan and the 
other a Hindd sect. 

Skodah sanz kalah Mr, yatdn da^uk, 
Tutdn kartih nah pdnahwdni kaC, 
Until the head of the Shodah is burnt. 
They will not speak to one another. 

Five friends chanced to meet, and all having leisure they decided 
to go to the b^ir and porcbaae a hfr, and have a great feast in the 



honse of one of the party, eaoh of irhom sabsoiibed four inSa. Tbs 
h(r was bought, Imt while they were returning to the honee it was 
rememberad that there waa not any batter. On this one of the five 
proposed, by way of having some fun, that the first of them, who- 
eboold break the silence by speaking, fiboald go for the bntter. 
Now it was DO light matter to have to retrace one's steps back to 
the bntter-shop, as the way was long and the day was very hot. So 
they all five kept strict silence. Pots were cleaned, the fire waa 
prepared and the hir laid thereon ; now and then somebody oongh- 
ed and another groaned, and one even waa so filled with a seoBe 
of the ridioolons as to laugh alond, bat never a tongne uttered a 
word, althoogh the fire waa fast going ont, and the hIr was getting 
bomt, owing to there being no fat or bntter wherewith to grea«a the 

Thns matters proceeded antil at last a policeman passed by, and 
attracted by the amell of cooking, he looked in at the window and 
Baw theie five men perfectly silent and sitting aronnd a burnt hir. 
Kot knowing the arrangement he supposed that either these people- 
were mad, or elae they mnat be thieves ; and so he enquired how 
they came there ? and how did they obtain the hfr f Not a irord 
was uttered in reply. "Why are yon squatting around the burnt 
hir in that stupid fashion ?" shonted the policeman. Still no reply. 
Then the policeman fnll of rage that these wretched men shonld have 
thns mocked at his anthority took them all ofF straight to the Police- 
Inspector's office. On arrival tho Inspector asked them the reasOD 
of their strange behaviour, but he also got no reply. This rather 
tried the patience and temper of this man of anthority, who was 
generally feared and flattered and bribed. He ordered one of the 
five Shodaha to be immediately flogged. The poor Shodah bore it 
bravely and never a sound he uttered ; bat when the lashes fell thick 
and fast, and whipped the already whipped and wounded places, so 
that the blood appeared, he conld endnre no longer, and so shouted, 
"Oh, oh, why do you beat me? Enongh, enough. Oh, la it not 
enough that the bit haa been spoilt ? " His four assooiates now 
cried out, " Go to the bSzlir and fetch the'tutter. Go." 

The Police Inspector was still more surprised and annoyed when he 
heard of this further contempt of tho court, and ordered a tboroogh 
investigation of the whole matter. Everything waa now, of coDTse^ 
fully and clearly eiplained, and great was the amusement of every 
body, not excepting the Police Inspector, Cf. " Story of the Twenty- 
five Idiots" in " The Orientalist," Vol. I., p. 138. 

Eir is the head of any animal used for food. 

iS^^ tak punahmnd. 

Bappiness and more (children) to yoa. 

A Eashmiri blessing. 

When the piece of flaming birch-wood is being passed around tha- 
head of the child and company present, the midwife repeats the' 



iSwre words. Cf. tnutom " lutut " in note to " Lintshah garih nttalc." 
There is a, diviaios of opinion regarding the meaning of (hese Ttords, 
even among the higheeb cla«s of firAhtnans. The balance of tavoar 
Beema to be tor the abore rendering, deriving Bhokh from the Peraian 
and pmuiligand from the Sanskrit n^: " again," and tund from arji 
"may these be." 

ShrdHh tah mdiaa cTihud wddl 

"What answer will the meat give to the knife ? 

The tyrant will not receive any reply. 

Shuhr, tdt-i-pdkah, TtaH dyam yad nak lugumpJidkak. 
Thanks, holj one, neither was my stomach filled, nor had 

I to fast. 

" Give ma neither poverty nor riohea ; feed me with food orai- 
venient for ma." — Prov. zxi. 8. 

Shungit bdng dapuni. 

To cry the bing when asleep. 

A lazy, dilatory, fellow. 

Bdng ia the Mnhammedan call to prayers. 

Shupi h&nih waehhat sari mil. 

A golden nil over a fan-like bony breast. 

A gaadily-dreased ngly peraon. 
Shop IB a Oat basket nsed for winnowing grain. 
Ndl ia the border of the ganoent called the ktutah, lomid tli« 
neck and down the breast. 

Shur gax hror ; vmlah vmlah kvrut tah yiyih, 
A child is a cat, tell it to come and it will come. 

A child oriea and mns for food. 

ShuT nyuv •pdtan tah thiitar Tehyae gagaran. 
The hawk bmk the child aud the rat ate the iron. 

Tit for tat. 

Feraian. — Ki moth ahan ^torad Tiodak hoTad hdi. 

A man abont to start on a jonmey entmsted several mannds of 
iron to the care of a merchant-friend. After aeveral yeara he retnm< 
ed and aent to this friend tor the iron. The merchant, in wkosa 
charge it vras, being a rogue had sold the iron ; aud now aent to aay 
how sorry he was that the iron had been eaten by rata. This reply 
somewhat aatoniahed the other merchant, he oonld not nnderstand 
how the iron conld poaaibly have been broken and maatiooted by rata. 
Eowever, he did not argue the matter in words, bat went atnu'ght 



ofi to tlie place Trhore the Ipng-mercbiuit's child was plajing, and 
daooTsd the little fellow away to a very Baoret place. The merohaot 
on diBCOTeriog the loss of his child, became almoat frantic with grief. 
He went tearing bis hair and Bhrieking everywhere, " My child, where 
is my child ?" The other merchant seeing him in sach distress 
eaqnired what was tbe matter, and was told that the little boj has 
either strayed or been stolen. " Alas," said he, " I observed a great 
hawk hovering over the head of yoni: boy. The bird mnat have 
flown away with him." " You mock me in my sorrow," said the 
bereaved merchant. " How could a hawk carry off my boy ?" " As 
easily as rats could devoar iron," said the other merchant. 
The result was the exchange of the lost boy for the lost iron. 
This proverb and story is evidently translated from a Persian 
work. " Chihil qiasa," (t. e.. Forty stories,) but it is very well 
known among tbe common folk of Kashmir. 

Shuri ehhur kulhia. — Sknr mdronah kih nah kulh tmion ? 

The infant wetted the lap. What shall be done? "Shall the 
infant be killed ? or shall the knee be cut off. 7 
Parents in doubt as to whether they shall, or shall not, help a 

proSigate son ont of his difficulties. 

Shuthaa Hh jntshl. 

Not enough even for a lung. 

' A small income. 

SikaJi lalu Idk bdndaJi begdri. 

Like a Sikh obliging one to buy whi>t they have to sell, and 
compelling the musician to play without hire. 


A Mahammedan saying. The Mnbammedans tetl dreadfal tales 

SiTck tih hajd tak leahdb tih hajd. 

If the spit is right then the meat is right. 

Slkandar-N&ma. — Miyan-ji chindn tun tiani« saaSb. 

Ki ham »ikh ia/r jd buwad ham tahAi. 

Sinas tdmat thinas gdi, ; sudd hyah zdniov toe hirioe. 

We got breast deep in the snow ; whatever inducement was 

there to get married on such a day as this (Zt^., what taste 

did you feet that you made a feast). 

A very clever Hindfi Persian scholar waa once invited to a Wed- 
ding feaat in a certain village during winter-time. It happened 
that mnoh snow fell just about the time of the wedding, and those 
gneata who lived at a distance experienced much difficulty in attend- 


!i^. On arrivat this HindQ was heard Oaxe to nmonitrato vitli the 
perenta of the weddmg-paHy. 

Notice the pla; upon tha nunea of the foiur Persian letters Bin, 
shin, aid, and toe. 

8ina, (Fersiaii) breast. 

Shin, (Kaabmfri) anon. 

Sudd, (Kashmiri) taste, flavour, Ac 

Toe, (PermBji) feast, feativaJ, £a. 

Sir gav lirdan ; ad air gao gmrdn ; pdv ckheh pdwdn. 
One ser is enoagh ; half a, ser a man can lire upon ; but a 
quarter of a Ber prostrates a man. 

Sirah edn pirah mahdrdtah dv. > 

The wedding- company of saints came along, secretly. 

A great man traveEii^ in a Immbla may. The very reipectablo 
people have tbeir rnania^ prooesaioFiB at nigbt. Only the poor and 
nnednoated olaesee have laj^o demonstratioii-prooesBioiiB by day. 

Sini twhimak luteal tak rani mtthvinah khandaJMvde. 

If there is not a plate of meat and rice there is a mallow, and 

if a husband is wanting, one can get a shawl-weaver. 

Anything is better than nothing. 

Shairl-neavers (UohammedanB) are to be found in abnndanoe all 
over the valley. They ate a sickly, immor^, ill-paid raoe. 

Siryas hyuk nah praJcSth hunt; 
Qangih hyuh nah tiH kahh ; 
Biyia hyuh nak bdndav hine ; 
Ranih hyuh nah lukh kank ; 

Aehhin hyuh nah prakdtk kune ; 
Kuthen hyuh nah lirt hahh ; 
ChaKdat hyuh nah bdndav hun 
Khanih hyuh nah lukh kahh ; 

May at hyuh nah prokdah kune ; 
Layih hyuh nah iirt hahh ; 
Dayas hyuh nah biindav kune ; 
Bayas hyuh nah aukhkahh; 



Sed B&yii was one day sitting down with his famous female 
disciple, Lai DSd, when the following questions crop- 
ped-up : — 

"Which was the greatest of all lights?" "Which was the 
most famous of allpilgrimages ?" " Which was the best of 
all relations ?" " Which was the best of all manner of 
ease 1" Lai was the first to reply ! — 

" There is no light lilie that of the sun ; 
" There is no pilgrim^ like Gangi ; 
" There is no relation like a brother ; 
" There is no ease like that of a wife." 
But SSd did not quite agree. " No," said he — 
" There is no lip:ht like that of the eyes ; 
" There is no pilgrimage like that of the knees ; 
" There is no relation like one's pocket ; 
" There is no ease hke that of the mendicant's cloak." 
Then Lai D6d, determining not to be outwitted by her 
master, again replied : — 

" There is no light like that of the knowle^;e of God ; 

" There is no pilgrimage like that of an ardent Iote ; 

" There is no relation to be compared with the Deity ; 

" There is no ease like that got from the fear of God." 

I have seen iomething like a part of the above lines in Bev. 0. 

Swynnertou's "Adventtu^s of &&]& BaafiltS," bat not haTing tli» 

book at hand I oaimot Bay in what connection they occur there. 

Oangii or Qangabai is one of the great HindiipIaoeB of pilgrim&ge. 
Hither go all those Pandita, who have had relations die daring the 
year, carrying some amall bones, wliich they had pioked from the 
aahoB atthotime of the homing of the dead bodies. These boneaaie 
thrown into the sacrod waters of Gangabal with money and sweet- 
meats. The pilgrimage takos place abont the Sth day of the HindA 
month BSdarpR (Angnet 20th dr.) Cf. "Vigne's TrawelB in ffiish- 
mir," *c., Vol. II., pp. 151, 1B2. 
So tan hoxih Uhdrak tueli, 
Ko eon boxih damdlik auiti, 
A bint and a good man hears. 
Threatening and fiiss before a bad man hears. 
OnUst&D. — Ancki ddnd hinad Immid ndddn. 
Lek ia'd m itabul i rftswi,i . 
Sonawdri idban. 

The soap of Sonaw&r (i.e., the washing of the people of 


Something: wrong m tlie arrangemeiit. 

SoTuaadT ie a little Tillage doae to the l^kht-i-SulaimfiTi, Srfii^^. 
The inhabitants have ^t a name for wearing either a clean pi^if 
and dirty ganneat, or elae a clean garment and dirty pagrL 

Soht ehhttA tehali tak karud chhuh halt. 
Spring ia a matter of iuclmatioD, but the Autumn is whether 
he ^11 or DOt. 

H. n. the Mith£Flijah gives ft certain ftmoaat of eeed to each 
zamind&r abont seed-time, the sowing of this seed depends very 
mnoh npon the will of the aamlndir. Bat when the seed has been 
Bonn, the harrcHt ripens and the crops are ready to be gathered, then, 
noleiw voIdTM, the zaniindAr mnst cat it and give the DsiH^ State 

Sopur-i-ntdzara t. 

An invitatioQ from a Sopifr man. 

Hearly all the Soplir people are moat inhospitable. Ananta-nSg 
(>.«., IsMm^b^d) and F&mpiir folk have got a name in the vallej for 

Sorah raff fnelih tah worah rag melik na&. 
There may be a Tela of affection in a pig, but not in a step- 

Abont fonrteen years ago Hindfis were permitted to keep swine. 
8ince then the city has been entirely cleared of them by the order 
of the present Mahlirfijah. His H^hnese' late father, the Mah&r6jah 
Oal&b Singh, ia said to hare introdneed swine into the ralley. 

Sorah tanzih vmdih morak tund tdj. 
A peacock's crest upon a pig's crown. 

A place frar every man and every man in his place. 

Sorm chhuh dir tah marun eMuh naxdik. 
All things are far-off, hnt death is nigh. 

In the midst of life we are in death. 

Sorui ckhnh wuli, Icath ekhSh mufl, 

AU things are at a price, but conTersation is ffratii. 

Srandak trandah Uuwin har ; yutdn nah ak chhuh martin, 

tutin ehkih nah path rosin. 
A buffalo quarrels with another buffalo ; until one of them 

dies the tight is not over. 

When Greek meets Greek then oomca the tag of war. 


Srug, H/t, tah pandhdAr. 
Cheap, nice, and broad. 

Hob, sweet, and strong. 

Srugtii ehhuh drug lak drvgui ohhuh truff. 
Cheap is dear and dear is cheap. 

It is better to pa; a little more nad have a, reaMj goo^ article thaa 
to buy an eitraordinaril; cheap (P) article, and preHeutlj di^corer 
that it is not worih having. 

SuihueA c&ilam chhai tU charAgaa; 
Subkaeh ckUam chhai bdgat hit ; 
Subhuch ehilain chhai n4rak phdh Mdgat ; 
Subhueh ehilam chhai drAgas xii. 
The morning pipe la like oil to the lamp ; 
The morning pipe is as jesaamiae in the garden ; 
The morning pipe is as the heat of a Qre in January ; 
The morning pipe is as employment in the time of famine. 
Ohilan in that part of the hokkah wiiieh holds tbetotMKWo and the 

Subkuk balah ai n6k&rahj)yiM doh nerUpandi; 
Pheran ai ndkdrah goa tcahri wrU pandi ; 
ZaitAnak ai n&hirah peyat umr nerU pindi. 
If the breakfast is bad then all the day will go wrong ; 
If the dress is bad then all the year will go wrong ; 
If the wife is bad then all the life-time will go wrong. 

Suehhuk garwol (ah muA-i-ramaidnii nevthi. 
A bousebol'ler (only) in time of abundance, and prayers only 
during the montb of Bamasin. 

An unreliable character. 

Bamaidn is the name of the ninth Unhamioedan month, daring 
which BTory orthodoi follower of that religion abstaina from eating, 
drinking, Ac, between the morning dawn and the appearanoa of 
the Btara at night. On the 27tli da; of this month the Qurfta begaa 
to descend from heaven, and every prayer offered np on that night 
(called lailatn'-l-qadr) will be answered. Also prayers offered ap 
on the ISth, 2l9t and 23rd days of Bamaz&n are thought to avail 

SuddmuH kum bus. 
Sudim'a handful of chaff. 
A rlipf to a poor man is as muoh as one tiioosand riipla to » 


Saddm yitm a great friend Ot Erisbno. He at one time was in 

BQch great distress, that only a handfnl of chaff was left to him, 
whiob be pnrpoeed to eat and theD die. However he thought the 
better of this and went to the Edj^ instead with the handfal of 
ohaff, B&j£ Kriahna was ao toaohed with the man's porertj and 
simplicity, that he himaelf ate the chaff and gave the Br&hioan 
Snd&m whatsoever hJs heart wished for. 

SuA Hh dohd Nasaro. 
I That daj also paased, Naaar. 
I Come good, come eril, there is an end. 

l i. qaotatioQ from a list of oonversatioa between Bbekg NAr-nd-dln 
and his favonrite diaciple Naaar. GonTeraation between theae two 
saints often took the form of poetry aooording as they were inspired- 
Here is the piece of poetry : — 
Maiddn wdviaa tiahuj nani ; euh tih dohd Nasaro, 
Tun loujforoh tah sini parU ; luft tift doh4 Nasaro. 
Nishiraniiah WTirani khani ; suhtih dohi Nasaro. 
Wvrah batah tah gii4''h 9'^'n* J >u'> (>'' dohd Sa»aro. 
When the back was bare upon the bleak pluns ; that day also 
passed, O Nasar. 

When we had wet rice and dry vegetables only to eat { that day 
too, has gone, O Nasar. 

When the wife was near one and warm clothing covered the bed j 
that day, too, went by, Nasar. 

When boiled rios and sliced fish were prorided for na i that day 
also passed, O Nasar. 

There is something similar to this in Persian, bnt who ia the 
author of it, or where it is to be found, is not known i-— 
ifiMMwn 4i liaMb mekhorad : 

War bAda i ndb mekhorad ; 

Daryonah ba Jcaahkol i gaddi ndn rd. 
Tar kardah ba db mehhorad ; 

The wealthy man eats roasted Sesh : 
Passing away. 
Should he drink pnre wine ; 

Passing away. 
The beggar eats tbe alms-brend, 
After having soalced it in water ; 

Passing away. 

These lines were probably known in the days of Akbar, (or when 

that monarch asked bis favonrite minister Bir-Bal to do something 

tor him, which vonld be a sonroe of happineaa to bim in time of ad- 

vernty M well in the time of prosperity, Bb-Bal replied by sending 



to the emperor a few Aaje afterwarda a beantifnl ringfBtone upon 
which he had oanBed to he engrav^ in Persian character the word 
" Megozrad" ; he also sent a uioe letter with it adviaiiig the king to 
look apon the ring whenever he was tempted to be over-elated bj 
prosperitj. or oier-depressed bj misfortmie. 

Another Persian BOTing from another nnkuown aonrce ia freqnent- 
I7 qnoted b7 the Fersian-apeaking Eashmtrf :— 

8hab lanbur guiaihto ; 

Shab e tanuT guxaiht. 

That night, when we had fnr to cover ns, has gone t 

That night, when we had the fire to warm na, has gone. 

Sukhas des. 

A stick to peace (or striking hia peace). 

A man, who really has nothing to complain of — he has healthand 
wealth and friends, bat he sajs that be is never well, not rich, nod 
that every bodj is gainst him. 

Sumis sum mimat tah 6e-mm kit/dmal. 

Like with like is blessing, but unlike ia confusion. 

Birds of a feather flock together ; 
Birds of a different feather tear one another. 
Bh(rfn.o-Ehnsran. — Kunad ham-jina 6ii kam-jins panedn 
Kab^tar bd iabitar bds bd M«. 

Sun ehhuh p&naihihwaekih pifh mUum lapundn Uhut cAhuiS 

yd hhur. 
Gold is known upon the stone, whether it is alloyed or pure. 
A man is known by his woiHc and walk and conreriation. 
Eahieal is a toochstone. (FerBian. — Mihakk-i-zarrfn.) 
GtiiiBt&a.^Mihaik ddnad sar chht 
Oadd dif nod mumeik IcUt. 

Sunah sura *kra.k, nah wdr thawanaa tah nah w&r trdteanat. 
A golden knife is neither fit to keep, nor to throw away. 

&u.nak gayam tartal kanaa ckka» nak hatah lad&n. 

To me gold has become as brass. I do not load my ear with 

food (1. e., and I am not such a fool bm not to know it). Cf. 

"Kanaa ckhai," ^e. 

My position is altered and I know it. 

iSunaf mut hanas tat. 

The worth of the gold ia in the ear. 

Foaseesion is everything. 



Sundari tsah pmri mai triv huhai ; tseh kdli tori ehikah 

O pretty woman, don't step so hauglUily, yon will lose your 

youthful pride in tinie- 

A. fiilly^ conceited, joniig woma^. 

This is erideatly a, line {rom one of the KaihrnM BOoga, bnt it 
oaimot be traced as yet. 

Sttnur nai iunah Uir Tcarih tak JcdU gatsheg. 

If the goldsmith did not steal the gold he would get kits 

(t. e-, a subtle disease, hectic fever). 

The BDBpicioa with wbich the galdsmith is looked apon is not 
peonlior to tlie people of Kaahmir. 

Of. KaJQa o Damns. ; the story oC the Brjihman Ihepliaaav£mi in 
Herr Adolf Bastian's Gorman collection of SiamcBe teles ; " The 
Orientaliflt," OeyloE, Tol. I., p. 180 ; the Eev. 0. Bwynnerton'a 
appendix of folk-tales of the Panj&b to his book on S^jji Kasilfi ; and 
the Tamil story told in p. 184, Vol I. of " The Orientiatist." Bot 
in " The Book of Were- wolves," by S. Baiing-Gonld, it is stated on 
the authority of a gentleman who resided in Abyssinia for ten years, 
aod published an aoconnt of bis experiences afterwards, "that in 
AbyHHinia the gold and silTersmiths are highly regarded, bat the 
iron-workers are looked npoa with contempt aa an inferior grade 
of beings. Their kinsmen even ascribe to them the power of trans- 
forming themselves into hysenas, or other savage beasts. AH 
convulsions and hysterioal disorders are attributed to the effect ot 
their evil eye." 

Sur malit is«rah jamdat, 

Bubbing asbea over bis body (like a saint) and yet belong- 
ing to a company of thieves. 

Sw'ah banih toutk ntih Mv, 

The crow did not rise from the dnat-heap (althongh stonea 
were thrown at it). 
A man taken into ooort, hnt bribes were paid and bo the matter 

Sarah pkalik haUi dor. 

From a apeck of dust misfortune flies. 

A word, and the thing is done. 
Svranai gat»hik wiyini, gait gaUhanaa nah Tehamni. 
The lute should be played, but the checks need not be blown 




SuH d'ugah bah trak. 

Slowly, slowly, twelve traka (i.e^ 114 pounds) will be 


Home WM not built in a day. 

" SuUal kamirani?" " Amt chdnik prattih." 
" Mithui ehh^h gdmuts." " Mydnik kAalant auHti." 
" Who cooked the mallow I " " That old woman of yours," 
"Ah ! it is very nice." "Yea — I Btirred it." 
Anzioiis to avoid the blame, bat to get (he praise. 

SuUalih mamaA guthtdbah nerun. 
Soup comes forth from the mallow. 

" DespiflB not tlie daj of small tUngB." 

OyMdltah is a rich soap oomposed of nunoe-meat, &o. 

SutMK dapdn panahd&wik "Sdr{ ehhik gamati aU ndwxh. " 
The needle says to the piece of thread " We are all in the 
same boat " (i.e., where you go I gOi for we are &stened 

_ All the people appear to know this sajiog, bat nooneoanld tell mo 
its origin. It is yery strange to meet with such a pecnliar eipreB- 
sion in this country, and to find that it has the same meanii^ which 
it h^ in England, viz., Both treated alike ; both plaoed in the aame 
conditions. The reference in England is, as is well-known, to.tha 
boat lannohed when a ship is a- wreck. 
SutBun tah gSioun tagih prat ArfasiA, magar tmoun cAAttA 

mtottnid tah gewun, ehhuh gewanvt. 
Everybody can sew and sing, but let him sing who can aing 

(properly), and him sew who can sew (nicely). 
Svyik suet mandul ekkalun. 
To wash the back with a nettle. 

The harm of keeping bad company. 
Syud a&dah ckhuk shdhaddah. 
A plain, simple man is a prince. 



Tubali Total nah mandackkdn nak chkuk mdnt/achhanah 

Tabali T4sal is not ashamed not does he put any one to shame. 

A sliameloas person. 

T-.ibah Tds/it waa & Pandit, who, contmry to all rnlo and enBtom, 
hired himself out for -weddings and uthfi- entertainments. Ho wns a 
gooii singer and jester, and used to accompany hia Boiigs with a-clap- 
ping of hands. He atmck them togethor in such a peculiar way tliat 
it is said the sound could bo hoard ono mile off (P) lie would * iait 
all sects and sexes, and would sit by the hoar in all society, never 
fooling any qualms of conscienco, or noticing any wickediioss in others. 

T&bah was sumamed Tdsal from the word tas, wliich means 
clapping of hands. 

Tat tali laUv kkan&n pidshdh ffaras lit harim. 
Apparently digging a very deep well ; but, really, robbing the 
king's house- 

A once visited a king and said that he bad a matter tor 
him, " Wonld his Majesty listcQ to it, and give his servant one 
hmidred rOpis for it ?" The king consented i and this proverb 
was told him, which he was to repeat aloud every night three times 
in succession before going to sleep. Now it happened that this 
kinfr. lilte most other kings, had his onomioa — and enemies, too, iu 
hia own household. One of his mioietcra hated him intensely, and 
was ready to do and hoar anything, so that ho might bring about 
the king's death. Amongst other plans ho had a suhtorrancan J>a6- 
sago made from his house to the king's, and one night, when the 
work was almost completed and hut a fuot more remained to be 
dug, he himself went along this passage, which communicated 
directly with the king's bcd-chamhcr, with the intention, if possible, 
of removing the little earth that remained, and getting close enough 
to murder the king in his bed. On such a dreadful errand, and in 
such a dark dangerous place, we cannot imagine this wiokod minister's 
feelings when he heard the king with a loud and tliatinct voice say, 
three tiujes in succession, the words which the Goaii.fn had taught 
him, " I am discovered, " said ho, aud hantoned back. 

This saying has also been turned iutu a riddlci of wliich the 



Talah,dadilalak pati piiah dax tdl ; Tii B/.r Sdhibo ridd wdl. 
Below the sole of the foot is burnt, above the crown of the 
head is burnt ; Great God, let it raiu. 

A favonrite prayer for rain. 

Yd Bar SiiMbo.— Great God. (jBdr, participle o£ biridan.) 
Talah, talah palaA bah ahel. 
Sown, down, twelve hundred rocka down. 

A Stoio^hard, deep, and myBterioua. 
Tdlnioa* dak turih tahjnngah teizeh nah all tik. 
(Usually) ten sticks in the roof, but not even one there in 

time of fighting. 

Abimdance of BorrBnts, riipia, Ac., but eot one at hand when 
eBpeciaJly wanted. 

Tdmir ckkuh h'r-i-amir. 
Building is the nork of nobles. 

The woaitliy build houBes and poor men bny them. 
Tanaros nnhhak hundal. 
A little earthen pot beside the oven. 

A little man in the company of the great. 

Kun^al ia the inner earthenware part of the kingrl. 

Tas chhuk nah ffdful v>asir. 

He has not got a wise mmiater (i.e., a good wife to advise and 
help bim). 

A certain king was one day sitting with his wife in the veranaah 
of the palace, when a poor miserable -looking and almost nnde pea- 
Bant paased by, carrying a big load of wood for sale in the city. 
" Hy dear," eaid the king to his wife, " how aad it ia to Bee a man in 
that wretched condition, and in this cold weather loo. What a sor- 
rowful existence he mast eke ont from the pittance which he reoeiveB 
from his wood every day ! " '■ He has not got a wise miniater," re- 
plied the qneen- The king did not understand this remark j he 
thought tiiat, perhaps, it waB meant as a aort of aide-hint for himself t 
hence it would hare been a reSection upon his own chosen ministers, 
and 80 upon the arrangement of bis country. He brooded over these 
words, until he became in a Coriona rage, and going to his wife 
ordered her to prepare to leave the palace at once and be that poor 
wood-seller'B servant. The queen obeyed, though with a aorrowfnl 
heart. However, she did not dcspur, but determined that throngb 
her wiae counsel and management this poor man shonld prosper and 
become great, and then she had a conviction that by some means or 
other she would again bo united to the king her hasbaud, and that 
both would derive profit from, and be happier for, this teupocary 



On arriTing at the wood-seller's hut ebe mode her saltiins, and 
eiplained the reaaon of her visit. " I hare oome to serve yoD," aho 
said, " bat let me eometimea advJae you, and yon will he the batter 
for my coungel." The wood-catter waa so aarprised nt the humble 
demennonr of the qneen, that be fell apon his knees and stammered 
out something to this effect : " That although the king had given her 
to him to be his servant, yet he felt himself to be her slave, and 
that whatever she commanded, that he would try to perform," 

The dsys paseed pleasantly enough ; now and again, not suddenly 
bat as if quite naturally, little changes were made iu the hoase ; 
this rooni was regularly cleaned and things began to be arranged ia 
their right places s and one da; when the wood-seller's wife was 
sitting idle, she advised her in a kindly manner to spin ; another 
time she prevailed upon the man to eat his dinner in the city instead 
of coming home to eat it, becanse oftentiiaesg when by evening he 
bad not sold all his load of wood, he hud been tempted to take little 
or nothing for it, in order that he might be rid of his load and get 
home to his longed-for dinner; and again on anctber occasion she 
was able to say something about saving a qoarter of his earnings. 
In these and other different ways the presence of the queen-servant 
worked quite a revolution in the house. The man bee m ri 1 d 
was much respected, and the woman his wife was h tru 

Many years had elapsed since the queen had been s pa at d f m 
the king, yet she had not forgotten him or decreased i aff f 

him. She was always planning, in order to bring abo t b t m 

to herhasband. One day she heard that he, attend d by 1 

of the courtiers, would go to slioot in a oertaro jungl s h w t 
and told the wood-cntter her master (now a man of p p rty) to 
take a small vessel of water and some bread with him and f H w 
the kitig's company into the jnnglej and when the (h wa 
at which time the king would very hkely be hot and thirsty b w 
to goforward humbly andpresentbis bread and little V seL f w 
for the king's acceptance. No doubt the king would receive of the 
offering, and would make some present in return. Should he ask 
what ho would have, be was to say — " I have wealth in abundance- 
I do not wish for any more money. I only desire that the king will 
grant me an interview in the palace." The man agreed to carry 
out the queen's wishes. He went to the jangle and finding oppor- 
tonity he respectfully presented the little water ajid bread, which 
he then happened to have, to the hungry and thirsty king. The 
king gladly received the gift, and aaked what be could do for the 
man. "Ask what you will, " he said, "and I will grant it you.'' 
Ihe man answered, "I want not anjtliing from your Majesty, but 
that you will grant me a few private interviews within the palace." 
The king was surprised at this strange request, but nevertheless 
promised that it should be so. 

Great was the rejoicing when the queen heard of this, the begin- 
ning of her triumpb, as she thought. 


Frequently did thia man visit the king privately, and the king 
appeared to welcome hia visits. When the nobles and conrtiera Ban 
this they wtro very jealous, and afraid lest this " risen " wood-entter 
should impoach them ; and bo they got to know this man more 
intimately and began to gire him Imndsomc gifts by way of a bribe 
to check bJB tongue concerning tliemselvea. 

The wood-caCter had now become the king's great companion, and 
baring amassed still more wealth, the qneen tbongbt that it would 
not be inconsistent, if he made a great feast and invited the ting 
and many of tlio nobles to grace it by their preHCnce, The king 
readily accepted the invitation. The dinner was served on a moat 
magnificent scale, and everybody seemed pleased. Before the 
company retired the queen went up unporceived to the king, and 
told him that bis host was the poor wood-cutter of former jean, 
and that she waa hia " wise minister." 

A reconciliation was then and there effected between the king 
and hia wife. They retired to the palace t<^ether, and ever afler- 
warda lived together moat happily. 

Tasbik ckdni ekham ffun/jsd hisho, murid dUkit iardn kham, 
Skeh chinikhheifitham hiaham hisho, tsuh at -pir iak ruhmn 

Your rosttrj is like a poiaonoua snake to roe ; when you see a 

disciple you ttvirt it. 
You ate six full dishes of rice, if you are a saint, who is' a 

robber ? 

SKekh Nflr-ud'dln, a very famous saint in Kashmir, during the end 
of the eighth century was accustomed to wander about teaching and 
preaching as he went. At night he would frequently ateep in a 
mosque. One eveniug ho arrived at the mosque of another very 
holy man. concerning whom it was said that the angels often came 
to converse with him during the hours of darkness. This report 
obtained credence everywhere, and to such an extent in the village 
itself that the people subscribed together and brought him every day 
Bis full dishes of food to feed the angels with. The truth, however, 
was that he himself ate the food. 

Now when thia saint saw that Nlir-nd-dln intended to lodge there 
that night, he waa afraid that something of his wicked ways would 
be discovered ; and ao Nur-ud-din was advised to depart bocanae o( 
a great monster which somotimoa came and troubled the jilaoe. 
Nfir-ud.din, however, declined to go, saying " that he was not afraid 
it God watched over him." The evening wore away until at last 
Niir-ud-din laid down to ateep. The other plr waa by, and when he 
thought that his unwelcome viaitor was fast asleep he began to take 
out the six dishes of food, which had been brought to him that day, 
and to eat them. He ate them all, and then lay down aa if oaa 


At early morning he aroae, took oat hia roaary, and be^an to 
mumble. But Niir-ud-dln had seen all that had transpired diirin)( 
the niglit, and telling the man so, said also to him the words of this 
saying and left. 

Taiisui halas wasih maflah. 

The skia will come off from the warm sheep. 

Now is the time. 

Bntohers flay the sheep quickly after tilling it ; becanse if the 
flesh were left to get cold, Che skia woaM not thca como off withuat 
grcac difficnlCy. 

Tnvil wovmut. 
Like rnnsted-corn sown. 
Good words and deeds ai 

Taz-Bat's nrrow. 

A wind-fall. 

Once upon a time a king placed a ring npon a wall and sent forth 
a procSamatioD that whosoever could sboot an arrow from a certain 
distance, straight through the rinj;. should recoivo two tliousaiid 
nipis as a reward. The best and bravest archers in the kingdom 
tried, but none snoceeded. At length a man called I^-Bat, a poor 
ignorant fellow, was one afternoon passing by that way and firing 
hia arrows in all directions m a moat reckless fashion, he ctimo to 
the place where the ring was hanging, and more from a playful 
fooling than from any thought of accomplishing the difficult feat, 
ho lot go an arrow, which to his great astonishment passed clean 
through the ring. 

TSz-Bat was at once taken to the king, who praised him and gave 
him the promised reward. Cf. " GaHh yelih," &e. 

Bai is commonly mot with both in Ilindi'i and Mohammedan 
names. (Tiz-Bat in the saying was a Mnhnmmedan.) Very pro- 
bably it is derived from Batah. which means a Hindti. Whenever a 
Muhammedan has this name it would seem to prove that his 
ancestors where Hindlls, who were converted fer vim to the faith of 
Mohammed during the sopremacy of the Moghals in "the Happy 

Telak andrai chkuk tU nerm. 

From the sesame-plnnt oil is expressed. 

Pruit according to the tree, and wages from labour, Ac. 



Tillih hii-mdlih diatt hrydmattk keran yelih t»vnlipapan Ueran 

When applea ripen the same time as apricots ripen, then, O 
father, will come the day of resurrection {i.e., the rcBurrec- 
tion will happen at a most unlikely time, when men look not 
for it). 

Telih losh, ySlih nosh garah wdtl. 

When your daughter-in-law reaehea home then be glad (and 
not before, as you may rejoice to no purpose). 

Don't count yonr chickens boforo they're hatched, 

Thlilcih, Zai Pdrah bcyih yihlah doh tdrah. 

O Zai pSra of former times, come again and stay a few days. 

Mourning over the waaknesses of old age. 

Zai pAra was a very etrong man, who lived to a very ^rea.i 
age. He need to aaj iu hia declining jeam, " Zai Dilra of former 
timee," Ac. 

Tdre nah situr tah merd tiah Icatah-wani. 
You have not got your cotton and I have not the price of mj 

spinning; (we are quits). 

Qaoted to those who are lai in paying for the making up of anj 
article, e. if., a man gives some cloth to a tailor to make up into a 
coat, and promiaeg that he will pay hiia eight ka&s for making. In 
a day or two the man goes and aska the tailor for his coat, bat 
declines to pay the promised money jost then. As a general mlo 
the tailor, who has been forced to do so from a past bitter experience, 
replies, " No, no, you don't get ;oiir clotb, and 1 don't get the price 
of my labonr j we are quits." 

Teskal gaikkai peahemdn, mydniv aekkiv deahenuin. 
O proud woman, you will regret it, my eyes see it. ' 

Cited wben from pride any gift or work !S refused. 

Peaheman (for Fashemin) is always thus pronounced by tbo 
female, and very uneducated male, population of Kashmir. 
f^tis ldra» xan t^ulanai halah. 
He was beheaded hke the bitter end of a cucamber. 

A speedy punishment. 

The PathSn rulers were famed for their quick justice (very often 
injustice). No sooner was the order given "Bcbead the man." or 
"Take out his eyes," or " Cut off hia nose," than the e 
left and did the cruel deed. 
Tham hale tah haw, nah kale. 
The pillar may move but I shall not move. 

A fixed, determinal« character. 

■,G Otitic 

Tharih posh ehkik naA warih gatxhnn. 
All the buda upon a bush do not blossom. 

Ererj child in a family dciea not tbrive. 

Thukah nSckuv mukaddam,. 

A stammering sputtering son as the headman of an office or 

of a village . 

A man not fitted for hie positiDn. 
IVmaA gorih gayih dud Teinit. 
The milkmaids have sold their milk and gone. 

After noon it is almost impossible to get milk in Eashmfr, as it 
is generally all sold by that time. 

Persian. — An kada bishkast a -in enki mi, miind. 

S'lffAtu ijtttoai har yul matinai khar ; tah Ivk wuahkanai 

I will have snch a row with you, that it will beas if the asses 

had gone mad ; and the people will come out to see the 


If I do (jaarral with you, I will quarrel. 
T/>! marit tph kot taiydr. 
The dear one dies and the gallows are ready. 

Better to die. for the world ia sa a gallows set up, coostantly 
tronbling and destroying. 

Vigne and others of hia day speak of havin); seen bodies 
" swinging" trom the bridges, £c, as they passed np the river 
through Srinngar. Now-a-days, however, capital punishment is not 

fermitted in the ralley aa it would be contrary to the Hinddl law. 
It is very seldom that one hears of a, mnrder in Kashmir-) 

Trah, zih »ak; Ualaji zih pataji ; sheik zih bretk. 

A man of thirty years of age is like a lion ; a man forty years 

old is like a torn, worn, mat ; and a man sixty years oC 

age is a fool. 

ShirfnoKbusraa: — 

Nathdte 'umr hAahad t&ha ti sAl 
ChikU reiad par o bdl 
Fas az panjdh na itUhad ianduruiH 
BaiaT tundi paiirad pd{ stiali 
Chii ahaat dmad niahast dmad ba 'Jewdr 
Chu hafldd djoad aftdd dlat m kdr 
Ha katht/id n nawad chun dar nuidi 
BaaA sakhti ki a3 gilt kashidi 
IFoi nB.iii ipf hi sad UMnvil ranAni 
Buitod vmrge ba aUral likdugdni. 


Ealthaaar Grapian, in his " Oraculo Monnal," lias a similar sayinp : 
" Rcaeoii mukoa its appearaiite after seven yeara, and every seven 
jeara the disposition alters. Attwoiity ycats of ago one is a, pea. 
cock ( at thirty years of b^g, a lion j at forty years of ago, a camel ; 
at lifty years of age, a snake ; at sixty years of ago, a dogj at seventy 
years of bro, an ape ; and at eiglity years of age. nothing. " 

" Threo things make a prodigy, and are the highest gift of Ileaveii's 
liberality — a fmvtfal intellect, a profoniid judgmsTit, and a pleasant 
and elevated taste. At twenty years at age the will rnles ; at thirty 
years of age the intellect rules ; and at forty years of age tho jndg- 

Traka* wukhul pdrsonff. 

A mortar as an equipoise for one trak (ifsers). 

Trdmakrven hdnan ckhuh Uuk dmut. 

The copper vessels have got their bottoms burnt. 

Only the wealthier classes ase copper vessels ; heuce the mean- 
ing is, that tronbls visits the great also sometime!-. 

Tran ekUan ehheh nah yeU kdl t'.n idiint rozAn, 'ilm be-bahs, 

ini'l be-lij''rat, lak wulk be-siyi'tat. 
Three things have no long continuance ; knowledge without 

argument (exercise) ; wealth without commerce ; and a 

country withont law and management 

Cf. Gulistin Ch. viii.— Se chU ast ki biid sa ckU neme nuiwad, 'Urn 
be baha, mril be lijdr/it mulk be aiyiUat. 

TrdwamitU Ikuk ningalani. 
To swallow one's spittle. 
Taking back a divorced wife, or dismissed servant. 

Treh hat nah b"hai pmitjhi. 
Three piisis not twelve mites. 

Six, not halt-a-dozen. 

Three paisSs are eqnal to twelve mites, hnt there w 
stnpid feilow who wonld not see this. Hence the a 
sometimes quoted on receiving any stupid answer. 

Trulcis hathd mudaa lonh hatd. 

To the sharp a single word ; to the dull a hundred stripes. 

Trnskis gardfufhU. 

A spirited person angry for an hour. 

■,G Otitic 


Tsak dap " beni," bull, dapah " bAyih" panani kalh cAAtA 

pananih jdyik. 
Yoa say " sister," I will say " brother," Each one's matter 

is in its own place. 

We are both gniltj. The only thing for ns both to do, ia not to 
go and poach one on tho oCber, bat to smother oar feelinga anil 
keep qoiot about it. 
Tsak tah buh lah Lulah h&k. 
You and I and Mr. Plunder. 

A Eecroli betneen two peoplo ; let both of them take caro not to 
'inform against each other ! 

K^k is a term implying intense rcapect for tho person ihna 
addressed, and ia common both to the Muhammedans and HindCis. 
A Hon will thoa addresa hia father "Hntah, soft, Kak." Tho younger 
membera of the family nill thus address their eldest brother, 
" Walah, soft, Anand KAk." And any very respeotcd peraon outside 
the family may thug sometimes be addressed, " Boiif, sah. Sarayan 
Kai." Notice that only tho father is called aimply Kak. 

K4k is also the name of a Hiudii sect in Kashmir. 
Tsalanas lak. 
Running instead of fleeing. 

Trying to overcome a difficnlfcy in a " half-and-half" sort ot way. 

TsalawunSn bonth tah Idrawunen path. 

In front of the runners-away, but the last of the pursuers. 

A coward. 
Tsam tah nam wuihit ruliksat. 
After wearing one's skin and nails away in hard work to be 

dismissed (without pay)l 

A tyrannical maater. 

T^ar akktk dki phaUh bdpat kairdn. 
A sparrow is in distress about one grain. 
A poor man's neod, jnst a mite will rolieve. 
Tjar^n suwan luphvi hyak ? 
Tsaris ffUMas gamui kyak ? 
What is a little more irritation to a woman whose head is full 

of lice ? 
What is grief to a person already overwhelmed with it? 
This proverb is aomctimes also thus interpreted : — 
When there are many lice where is tho atiiig P 
When there ia much grief whore is tho grief P (c, fl., A famine, 
a, war, or any otlier general calamity.) 
Sikandar-Naaia.— Ei "C'cje 60 amhuh ri jathan tftund. 



T^arik ckhuh kandi-tharih pelhui rdhat. 
There is rest for the sparrow upon the thoni-bush. 
Each man finds rest in lis own proper Bbtte and station. 

Tsarik hand winthui kyak chkuH ? 
Whftt is inside the paunch of a sparrow? 

So help from a helpless man, and no mercy from a mercUoss 

Tsarik kasAanak ehkuh rat yiwArt, 
Blood comes from much scratching. 

Prom moohteflBiog, a quarrel; from mnoh work, erhauetion ; from 
maoh reading, madness, &0' 

Taaris fft'itas ckhuk tjur hkur. 

The wiser the man, the greater the blame (if he erra). 

Tsatit hSndawand tgahit andA. 

Cutting ft water-melon, and tasting the things (before 


Advice on going to the Mair. 

'Tiaehamatjdk ungajih nunahph^f. 
A pinch of salt to a cut finger. 

A sharp word, a mean brick. 

Tfei kisAih gabih ehhii nyur lehoMin ! 
What a ewe hke you cl m g up to the meadow ! 
An expression uf contemp for another peraon'a powers. 

Tsentah Dewahn kwalwk 
'IVentah Dev's congratulat ons 

'Isentah Sev was a re y poor man with a very lai^o family. 
Children were bo n so qn k y that it seemed aa if the people wtre 
ahvays oonuDg to ong a u a e h m on the introduction of auotfai^r 
member into his already numeroua family. He got very angry and 
unhappy abont affairs j but still his family aa increased that now hia 
numerous household and cooetant oongratnlations havo passed into 
a proverb. 

Tskalas tal ckkui hist tik band. 

The elephant also is caught in the trap. 

A great many tilings that ara left miduno as being impossible 
might easily bo accomplished if people would only thiuk a little 



Tfkenimuts yeni kUk. 
Like brokea warp. 

A weak, useloss fellow. 
Tsholvi ehkuk mat. 

A little is good {i.e., a little dinoer, pride, money &c.) 
T^AucA? UhueAe hdnine, xyulhui waharum hdh ; 
Yuthui auautn karamoA Ion titkui pyom grvk. 
I spread out ray tine vegetables under the roof; 
And as was my lot so the buyer fell to me. 

A bad day's boaineBB. 

TshuH ipaijamak Ukaa larih pelh, tshun kumh tah kar thae, 

Put on trowsers, climb the house, put on the kilnah and tap 
on the ground as you go. 

A boasting fop. 

Kiinsh is a kind of shoo worn by women in Kashmir, having high 
iron haeta, and the uppere lessening towards the heels. 

Tshupih chhui lyut phaidah yut sitiii jidJeah aiiat. 

As mach profit from silence as there is profit to the dinner 

from cooking. 
T»h«paA ehhai wupah-ledr. 
Silence is profitable. 

T»knpui gupun gudi'mi khdv ; 

lidndai z/inik, yas pikun tm',v. 

The silent heifci eats the tether ; 

That ox will knoiv who has to bear the yoke. 

EiporieSce tesohcs. 
Tshar athah ch/tuh nak atjfm &gai tik. 
An empty hand does not even cater the mouth. 

Bo liberal and goncrona wherever yon go, and into whoBoever'a 
hoDse yoa enter ; if there is nothing in yonr hand you do not think 
of pqtliDg it to yonr mouth bb though to oat, &,a. 

Tskurui pkar tah gonUkan war. 

Empty boasting and twirling of moustaches. 

You may take his price from the worth of his clothes. 
Three ^ahmlrlB on account of their poverty wont to Dflhi, to see 
what they oonid do for themBolvofi there. They do not, however, 


accm to liave bottcrcil thumeelvoB vory much, for nftcr somo years 
when they linii imid all their bills, and the uipeuaoa of n returu 
ionniey to Iboir own conntry, they found that they all ohroo 
tofWthJr wera only worth One gold ring, a gold tooth, and a gold- 
wovkod turban tail. > . 

Oqo day in the oourae of their porambulatioaa they stopped out- 
side a bntehec'B shop in the village of Drugjan with the intention 
of buying Boraothing. Tho miin with the ring pointed with his 
iowelled finger to a piece of goafa ilueh, and asked the price, " lela 
bakha kStd kame f" " What is tho price of this goat's flesh ?" The 
uiaQ with th9 gold tooth, hfting his npper lip in apeaking. said, 
" Das tdkke, das takke." Two 4uis, two indfl. The man with the 
grnad turban, shaking hie head, Said, " Pdiue, pawe " i. e., " You'll 
get it, you'll get it." All this time the butcher was silent ; bot now 
seeing that they had finished, he qooted the above proverb, " Empty 
boBBtiug and twirling tho monBtaches." 

The langnage of these three men is rapposed to bo bad FanjabL 

'Tshat at kheinah hami lubah ? 

If I eat the remnaQts of the dinner, with what deare shall I 

eat it ? 

Supposing I do this thing, what profit will it be to mo P 
Tsitkur ai dushik wnharaa poiMk, wahrdt at duskih tah 

fahafiis posAih nak. 
Should it rain in March-April, then there will be quite 

enough for a year, but if during August it rains, then it 

will not be enough for a watch (ie., a space of three hours). 
Tsri'irah Brtawiir. 
Tsrdr Thursday. 

Any great gathering is so called. 

Tsr&r is a yilla^ about one march from Srinagar It is the 
Viorial-placo of Slickh N&r nd din, and hundrels flock thero on 
Thursday afternoons, so as to be present at tho Friday's piuyers 

Tiwakih-tearih andarak nery& am ? 
Will a goose come out from the bread 7 

Not enough for you and me and everybody else. 
'Smnih m,aeklh htlttf tah liuniA maekih bunah kut. 
&. lock for the charcoal-pot and a store-room for the pot. 

Unnecoasary carefulneaa. 
Tsant chhuh tsuiiiU wuckkit rang ratun. 
An apple gets colour from seeing an apple. 

Iron Bharpcneth iron ; so a man sharpouyili tho oountcnouce of his 
trieud.— Frt>v. ixvii. 17. 



Tsur ehhuk be-nur. 

Thieves are without light (i. e., they love darkness becanee 

their deeda are eTil, they are without understanding in their 

heart, or light of espresaion in their eyes). 
Tsir ehkeh pkak. 

Theft is like a bad smell (certain to be detected). 
Tiar gayih nangah hangah-tah-mangak. 
The theft became known by chance {i. e., somehow or other 

it was made manifest). 
Tsur gav xik kh«r gav. 
Too much is despised. 
Tsur mah kar tah tsrUis mah Jckots. 
Don't steal and don't fear the mahalladar. 

" Bulera am not a torror to good worke." 

Tsrol IB the ancient name of mahalladAr, the watclinian or Bpy 
appointed OTer every village in the valley. 
Tsur Uwamvh khurd u raft o man shudam ambirdi'ir. 
Fifty-four thieves ate and went, and I became the man in 


A man IB appointed over a workrather " against the grain," and 
loses by it. 

A saying of Shiva K&k'e concerning whom a Btory ia given. Gf. 
" Kiaar kiriAyi," Stc. 

Tsurak kapras ddnguv gat. 

A walking-stick ia the yard-meaaure for stolen cloth {i.e., 
a thief cannot expect to get the full price for his stolen 
goods ; sometimes he loses a part of it ; sometimes he has 
to bribe to keep the matter quiet ; and generally he has to 
dispose of the things quickly from danger of discovery, 
taking whatever receivers may offer him). 

Tiurak kukur. 

A stolen cock. 
A forbidden work. 

Teuran niyih aaninah, Ihagan kkyav mulcktakdr. 

Thieves took away the wife, and aharpers ate the necklace. 

Thag, a class of thieves and sharpers who prowl about the city 
by day and by night, and are especially on the qui vive on Fridays. 
the day when crowds of country people come into Srinagar for 
trading, and worship in the different mosques. , 

'Vnuras nai mur /isih, tan Icithah p/tlh ikrapeg. 

If the thief ia not sharp, hon will he digest his theft, 

T»viras phut kkor tah piras tairok rmirid. 
The thief broke his foot and the pfr's disciple was killed (for 

The innocent ponished and the guilty acquitted. 

Once npon a time when nninat rule, tyranny, and all manner of 
widedneas reigned in the valley, a thief clambered up the high wall 
of a house with the intention of stealing whatever he eonld lay his 
hands upon. Now it chanced that the wall, being old, and perhaps 
loosened a little, also, by heavy and continuous rain, had become very 
weak, and so tumbled down breaking the thief's foot in its falL The 
thief was very much annoyed at this intarraption of his purpose, and 
at ones limped along to the house of the Deputy- Inspector ot 
Police: and took ont a summons against the owner of the tnmbled- 
down wail. The man accordingly appeared in court and pleaded his 
entire ignorance of the fragile nature of the wall, saying, that ha 
had not built it, and that the bricklayer should be summoned. Ac- 
cordingly the bricklayer waa brought into the court and ordered to 
show reason why he had built the wall in such a way aa that it had 
fallen down with a very slight knock. He, too, pleaded " Not 
gailty," saying that there were many coolies there at the time, and 
that they prepared and gave him the plaetoring. If any one, sm«ly 
these coolies oaght to be summoned. Accordingly the coolies, who 
had prepared the mud for plaatering. were sent tor i and duly pre- 
sented themselves at court. They also said that they had not done 
any wrong, but that perhaps the fault lay with the water-carrier, 
who might have ponted too mnch water over the earth, so that the 
plastering became thin. Undoubtedly the water-cartier was the 
man to be puniflhbd. And so the water-carrier was summoned. Poor 
man ! The downcast, hopeless, eipression of his countenance as he 
entered the court betokened his case. " Why did you poor euch a 
profusion of water, " said the Dopnty-Inapector, "as that the mod 
for the plastering of the wall was thin and feeble P" "I acknow- 
ledge my fanlt," said the water-carrier, " and am very sorry. The 
reason of it all was, that when I waa pouring the water out of the 
skin upon the earth, it happened that a pretty woman passed byand 
I took a look at her, and was BO enraptured with the sight, that I 
forgot for the moment wlmt I was doing. I do tmat that you will 
have mercy upon me and foi^ve me, because it was not my fault, 
that that beantifnl woman just then went by." The beautifol 
woman was then sought out and brought into the court, — and traly 
she was very beautiful, but her good looks (ailed to impress the 
hard hearted Deputy .Inspector, who charged her with passing by 
that way at the time of the erection of the wail, and finding that 
she had nothing to say in defence, ordered bor to be hanged with 
the greatest possible speed. Dnmbfonnded with fear and 


Mtonisliniont tho iromaD BuSorad herself to bo led along to tho 

Elaoe of esecutioQ without Baying a. word. Thither tho Depatj- 
napeotoc and many others (tor the matter waa quickly blazed 
abroad over the city) were already aeeembled. On seeing the man 
who had issned the dread and nnjuBt order for her death tho 
woman bo^ed to be allowed to asfc one faTonr before the deed waa 
done. " Look." said she, " at that large heavy beam (the gallows), 
and look at me bo thin and feeble. The two are not compatible. 
Better that you eeek for one fatter and stronger than I am ; and lot 
me go free." The Deputy- Inspector touched with the hnmotu- of 
the request, and not really caring so long as somebody was executed 
by way of a tam^shA, granted it. Search was at once made for a 
strong, corpulent, person. 

In those days there was a very famous pir in KaBhm(r, who, used 
to reside in the jungle with no other companion than a faithfol, 
loring, disciple. Now this disciple frequently had occasion to visit 
the city for the purpose of purchasing little articles, which he him- 
self and his master required. One day this disciple returned to 
his jungle-home with the alarming news that there was bebuj in 
the city, i.e., bad government had commenced, and that every one 
and everything were in a state of rampant contusion. On bearing 
this the pfr advised his disciple not to go again to the city until 
order and rule were re-eBtablished there; otherwise he would cer- 
tainly get into trouble. The disciple, however, made light of this 
counsel i and on the very next opportunity went to the city. Sorry 
time for him I He found the place and neighbourhood in the 
greatest state of anarchy, and had not proceeded far along the noisy, 
cirowded, hizdr, when he, being a fine, strong, stout, young follow, 
was accosted by the Deputy-Inspector's messengers and informed 
of his fate. A short time after this he was a corpse ; a victim to his 
own rash cariosity. 

Very, very sad was the pir when he heard of his disciple's death. 
•' A thief broke his foot and my faithful follower got killed for it," 
he cried. *' Henceforth alone and friendless I shall have to wander 
in the woods and desert places." First, however, he determined to 
go to the Deputy- In spec tor and avengo his disciple's unjust death. 
Immediately on reaching the city he commenced to distribute alms 
and pretended to be most happy. On the way he met the Deputj- 
Inspeotor and told him who he was. The Deputy -Inspector was 
astonished to find him so glad and joyful, and asked the reason of 
it. '" My disciple," replied tho pfr, '' lias reached heaven more 
quickly throngh this cruel esocution ; why should I not bo happy and 
glad?" Hearing this tho miserable Deputy In spoctor said within 
himself, " I, also, will bo executed, that I, too, may urrivu at bliss 
quickly. This certainly is the bettLT way." And so he eiocutcd 
himself, and tiiero was an oud of the muttor. 



Tsirai iak tjrdlis Idjieat. 

A partnership between the thief and the natchman. 

" Cftn two Walt together eicopt they bo ^reed." — Amos iit 3. 
Tarol. Fur their origin, vide note ■' KasMrik kaJuU garak." 

Tsttf gayih kolih tak rvk-i-padar 

The bread has tumbled into the river and "for the father's 


A man doea rot give anything to God willingly, bnt it ho losea 
any money, &0, j he professea not to mind — "May God bleas it to 
my deceaauil father, " Hays he. 

Tstttal ahahras Irih^al juiv. 

In the sodomitish city three pals to a pav. 

A bad] y- managed city. 

Fdv, a weight of ha]f-a-poand, in which are five pala- 

Tai/ap laj lah tirat, pontak gayih tak ffristit. 

The sheep got a wound and the farmer got a piece of wool. 

To harm another person by stealing that which is of the greatest 
importaace to him, but of not the slightest use tu the thief. 

Ttthas dug dini takpini mandun. 
To pound chaff and chum water. 

To plf>ngh the seashore. 

The Kashmiri has a very ii^enious way of makii^ bntter. When 
the milk is ready for ohuming, it is plaood into a big vessel, in tho 
cover of which there is a hole. In this hole a Btiot is placed. Tho 
part of the stick which is inaido tho voaael is thick, and tho part 
outside the cover ia thin ; to this thin part a piece of string is 
attached, and the ends of it the man or the woman holds in their 
hands, and putting one foot npon tlio cover to steady it, twirls abont 
tho stick with the sti'ing, Srst pnlling one end and then the other 
until tho butCor isprepaJTjd. 

I beliovo a slightly different custom prevails in India. 

Tul liheni konin suet. 
To eat mulberries with dogs. 
To degrade oneself. 

Tulnalav math fjalav. 
Gird up the clothes, rise, and away. 
A wiiuderiiig life. 


Tumalah tiras yelih shihma* andnr hatah skarpl kat wepi wu ? 

WheD the ser of rice is digested in the stomach does the mat- 
ter remain ? 
Scandal at the dinner Is blazed abroad aa soon as the meal is over. 

Turak ba kadr-i-'iltn,. 

The length of the tail of a man'a turban according to his 


A very wise and learned man called Shekh Cbaltf visited Kashmir, 
greatly deeiring to know to what extent the people had been 
ednoated, aod whether (hey were a clever and thriving class. The 
EBahmirfs got wind of this visit and gathered a connoil to consider 
how they m^ht entrap this inquisitive foreigner in his speech. 
The result ^ their deliberations was, that they sent a moat 
dnedncated man named Malah Dapiy&z to meet the learned Shekh 
at Bfiramula, a town at the north-west end of the valley. 

Malsh Dupiyiz went in very grand style j he waa beaatifully 
attired and looked of a most aorions and meditative disposition, 
whilst to complete the deception, a man walked behind .him with a 
plate npon which waa rolled in a coil the end of his tnrban. 

The Shokh was muoh snrpriged at meeting so learned a Kashmiri 
aa this man appeared to be. In the course of converaation he 
asked him why he Wore atioh a long tail to his tnrban. The 
Kashmiri replied, as he had parrot-like learnt, " Turahbakadr-i-'ilm." 
Then the following dialogue in Persian and aaotber trnkaown tongae 
paaaed between them : — 
Suwdl-i-Shekh. Kahk ckist ? 
SnviiUi-Malah. MaVk chUt t 

Jiiuidb-i.iS'w^. Kahk Sar 'kohxi.r santg-rmak meI:'iorad. 
Jwitiahi-iiolait. SfniiK dor moftsSr monifreiflft Ttiemorad, 
Queation, Shekh. What ia the meaning of " kabt ?" 
Question, Malah. What is the meaning of " mabk V 
Answer, Shekh. " Eabk " is the name of an animal which eats 
gravel npon the hillside- 
Answer, Malah. (Cannot be translated, as it ia a langoage made 
np for the occasion, in order to lum-piMs the Shekh.) 
JUabJE also was a word coined for the moment and means nothing. 
In this way Malah Dupiyiz thoroughly frightened away the Shekh, 
BO that he did not venture any further into the country. 

Kashmiris are very fond of carrying on those conversations in 
imaginaiy tongiws. No entertainment is complete without them. 




tjnffhapilh butigatah. 

A buDgalon upra aa inch of gronnd. 

A good bu^in ; a cheap concern. 

fn d&nd riKarih s6ta» dditdms wat. 

Dne bliad ox will lead a tbousand oxeo Bstray. 

One fool makes monf. 

GuUBtio, Gh. II. — Na wflbin* ki gd^se dar 'alaftAr 
Biydltyad hama gdwdm i dih rd. 

Un hpak siJtttA prun batah ? 

Will ft blirvl man know white rice? 

A fool fcnoiTs nothing. 

There are fomteen TarietieB of riee gnnni In the Tallef. 

tilt ttkuiiih nah anigatih, 

Sam pkatih nah e^drih xah) 

Mimt adij rotih nah hatih, 

ffiJd karii rdwih nah sah. 

A blind man will not feu the darkness ) 

A Btone will aerer be brokcD by the ice) 

A bone will not slJck in a dog's throat } 

A good deed will never be lost. 

Vr mdh gitt»k tak yuri wulaA. 
Don't go there but come here, 

So not interfere in a qoarrel or odj wickedoeBfli 



Wah&hat Kalimak Kak dar hvnih tak nak d^wdr,_ 

The Kalima in ti(ne of plngue is neither a. door &n]^b«re 

nor a wall (i.e.) is no protection ; yon should have repeated 

it before). 

Pray hetimag. 

Ealimah is tho MqliamrqedBB coafeiBian of faitb, LS, ilAha tita 

'llah, via Muhammad BaiKtl'u.'Uiih. There is no Dejty but God, and 

Muhammad is the Apostle of Giod. 
Waguvi dandarik pethut got pSnjih ehkamh. 
the edge of the mat became as a precipice to him. 

A m^ who becomes a bftd ctiaract^ frorq a, verj little i^atter ; or 
who diag from a very little siokneaa j or who is in despair because of 
a very little disoouragentent. - 
Wahathor hdlafi gupan tak pagah sor. 
O Wahathor, last night a cotr, and to-morrov a pig. 

A fiokle dispOBition. 

Wahathor, a villa^ in the T^ch pargan^ 

Shekh Ni^r-ud-din once cm^od thia riHiigei hecansa one day hq 
want there eipectiog to be hospitably treated as in fonp,er times, 
and the people would not at all entertain him, 

Wdjih sdn athah p?tk Ihawun, 

To put the jewelled hand upau auather's sltoulder- 

Words from the wealthy man fail to comfort the poor man. Why 
dooB ha not back them np with a present of money P 
Waktat nah v>eUdn mochkih tah wahta» nak wetidn huehMA. 
Sometimes it is contaiued within the hand and at other times 

it cannot be held within the bosom. 

The fiokla world. 

Persian— K) di/fn e jahdn gdlie diZntn gihe chlndn bdshad. 
ff^akluk Idrgav iahhtuh p&d»Mh. 
Work done at the proper time is like a king's throne. 
Wanah toilil wet^i, wahTa* rachhit, walanih whik, dab- 
After having tended a tree for a year to cut it down and tak» 
it to the river ; and at the time of taking it down to throw 
it with force upon the grouad. 

After ahowing * man much kindaesSt and conaidarably belpioEC 
. bim> to torn the back apon bin. 



fFanah wiilil Wetkth Uhunizih Sirun toazum dixik nah eah; 
inandim gar kkenik gaUhzih Mungah-Uian aula* gatsh- 
tth nah mh. 

Better to bring it from the jungle and throw it into the river 
thfin to lend anything to the people of Sirun, (for they 
never pay back); and better to eat the flesh of the sacrifice 
than to accept the invitation of the people of Mungah-Hum, 
(for they are very bad hosts). 

Sirun ia a village in tho Dachhanpor porgana. VegaelB o( atoneg 
are liawn there, SomBtimeB this place ie called Siram Khira Udid, 
Mungah Hum, a village in the Clihir&t pargona. 

WaniiKui aul tak ran&n nah lemh. 

For a long time saying only, hut not cooking anything. 

Actions apeak londar than words. 

Wananw'.Uh Ueh nai chkai ahl tak botantmilih tiek Uk 

talker, if you have not got nnderatanding, you have, 
hearer, haven't you? 
Never listen to id]e taloa and soanda!. 

JFandas ohhuh jandan phuh. 

In the winter-time there is warmth from an old patcbed-up 


Sikandar Ndma, — Maiyafkan kavial garchi 'dr dyidat, ki hangdmi 
tarma ba Wr dyidat. 

" Wingujo garak ho diidm." " WagSvi han pUanyum" 
'• O Wdnguj, here the house is on fire." " Give me my little 

piece of matting." 

Every man for himaclf, and eapeciall; In time of tronblo. 

BuBtin, Oh. \~Shibe dM i Ithallf dtaahe bar farom 
ShMnidam ki UaqhdAA tiime biso^. 
Yeke ahvkr s'^fi andar an kM,k o d&d. 
Ki dukdn i mdrd gatande no^xid. 
Wdm chheh bawdra. 

The sound is as a goddess {;= to our "Amen"). 
Wi'»i ekatj ihari'b tah suh gav thartnandak ; 
T'ilaiedni ckav hihx tah tat lug mad, 

A shopkeeper took a little wine and was ashamed of himself ; 
The oil-expresser drank some rice-water, and he bccttme 

intoxicated with pride, 


',, shopkeeper, one who sella sngar, 
himself immeoaurablj above the tllawoiii in position, and would not 
intenuaiT7 with hie people an anj account. 
Wani, v>ani hani pali. 
Speaking, speaking behinij the ear. 
- Forgetfulness. Inattention. 
Jfani, wani teattdun. 
JuDgles upon jungles of saoclalwood. 

A life of anpreme ease ; x^aoe and plenty everywhere, 

Tsandun. Natives aay that there is a jangle of a kind of aandal- 
Wfiod in Wamd IHvl in the KuJuhSr pargana. Large quantities are 
imported from the PnnjAb. 
Waniohen ydren Khudi'-yah sundaag. 
The Tater of God for the piaes of the wood. 

God will proTide, 

The pine ia very common on the HimiUyas. The mort wide- 
spread species ia the Ptnus longifolia. 

Wdnii ckhih gr&k wedi. 
The customer is known to the ahopkeeper. 
Wdntig dunii kheuk Icehk tak UAotjU hyah khezih ? 
A man caa get something out of a wont walnut, but what 
can he eat from a tahote. 

Ah good as nothing. 

'I'here are (onr kinds of walnnts ; — (!) Woid, a walnut with a hard 
shell, from which the kernel is separated with groat difficulty, (ii) 
£uraiui, a walnut with a thin ehell, and the kernel is easily separated, 
(iii) Khoikur or T»hotaa.h-kon, which is without a kernel, (iv) Ts&- 
ghakai, TrSlahakai or S^skokvX is a walnut havin)^ eight divisions, and 
Tery rare. Whenoffer one is obtained it is readily purchased hy the 
Hindfis, who never eat it, but keep it as a dainty morsel for the 

Wanyo degalis nai chkai tak xeeiA tik ckkui nd ? 
shopkeeper, if you have nothing in your pots, you have 

a tongue, haven't you ? 

If one's dinner is meagre, his speech need not be so. 
Warah.mulih Tulah-mul. 
From Bdramula to Talamut (about twenty-four miles 


A. good walk or ride. 

Warah-mul is the correct name for the town commonly called 
£&raninU, wliere visitors change horses and coolies for the boats on 


their way into " the Happy Valley." The lower claas Ktuhmiria, and 
perhapi reaidents of Panj&bl eitractioa, have ohanged the lo (nir) 
into b (be), as also in the case of other words, e.?., IFemitg is changed 
by them into Beiaig, AchhiuBl into Aahhi6al, and [7i)biir4 into 
Bijbihiri. &c. 

Mvl or Miilah is a oommon ending to KaahmM names Ot places. 
Besides Waiah-mal and Tnlah-Diii], there are Dragahmnl, Kachibmnl 
and others. Mnl means root, fonndation, creation, tic., Henoe the 
creation of Warah or War^, tbe root ot the mnlberrj tree, and so 
on. Warah- mnl, the creation of WSrah orWarih or Warihft, the hog 
OF third incarnation of Tishnu. So called, because in ancient times 
the place is said to bare been terribly troubled by a R&bshasa called 
Eirantti, who had fortified himself against all attacks of manor beast 
bj asldng the deity to protect him against these. He had, however^ 
forgotten to inclndo the name of the boar amongst the others which 
he bad ennmerated as wishing to be protected against ; and so wheq 
the people of Warah- mnl cried anto their gods in great distress theip 
petition was heard, and Tishno, assuming the form of a boar, oame 
down and slew the B&kBhasa. Of. Sanskrit RiraayHilia, Monier 
Williams' Dicty. 

TalaJt-mul, the root of the mnlberry-tree. It is supposed to have 
been a lake at first, and having connection with the great Anchip 
lake, abont fear miles distant from Srinagar. Three handred and 
sixty Nigs (or suake gods) are said to have resided there, and in 
their midst the goddeaa BAgaiA ; bnt no one ever saw thpm, except 
a Fandit, Krishna Kir by name. Ho was one of the goddess' de-: 
Totees, and he worshipped her so regularly and earnestly that tho 
goddess deigned to manifest herself to him. She appeared nnto him 
in a dream, and told him to go to the i.nohiT Lake, because there she 
would show herself to him. The Pandit en<^nired how he shonld find 
her N>ig, wherenpon she told him to go there in a boat, and on his 
arrival she would onder the form of a serpent lead him to the place. 
All happened as the goddess bad said. The Fandit was guided to a 
spot where a mulberry tree had grovra i and the place was qnite dry. 
There and then Krishna K4r worshipped Rjgni4, and afterwards left 
and told all the people of tho waiidrons vision and graoions words 
which he bad seen and heard. Gf. Sanskrit &iijni, Monier Williams'' 

Warah niuUk iaiv. 
The wind of B^ramula, 

J&nb^ BJhib, a Mnhammedan religions mendicant, lived at 
B&ramnla in olden dayg, when the place was noted for its great 
heat. At one time for a whole week the snn shone upon the towq 
with snoh inoreosii^ vigour that the people were beii^ strack down 
with fever in large numbers. Then it was that J&nbiz prayed, and 
the air was at once changed, and a good wind sprang np, which has 
oontioned to blow around B&ramula ever since. J&nbiLz Sihib's 
tomb is to lie seen in the town, and is much venerated »iid visited. 



Warhajih mundare par nat usie, 

Noshi nai dsie kagh lah siim, 

Mukaddama& patah nai ph-ukaddam asie, 

Gumas tulihe shomas titn. 

If there were not an axe for the crooked log. 

If there were not a. mother-in-law and eister-ia-law for tho 

If there were not a phukaddmn after the mukaddam, 
Then he (or she or it) would trouble the village until tbc 


No rule — no peace, aiid no country. 

Maladdam, ths headniaD of e, Tillage, called lambard&r in the 

Phviaddwnt, On ofBcer onder the authority of the mnkaddaaii 
IFari chhuA treh hat lah thetk dok. 
A year is 360 days. 

Lay by foi the morrow. 
Wdrini niihih thur thawun h/tatit. 
To hide the child from the midwife. 

Fetfeotly nselesa to try to keep tho secret. 

Worn I — Ddi SB pel nahth ckhJiptd, 

Wdrini pratun AecAhirtiw/in. 

Teaching the midwife how to deliver a child. 

Teaching one's graadniother how to sack eggs. 
Teaching a shopkeeper hie tables, &o. 

Watt ehkik dvbi tandih ttikah talah »/if gatsh^n. 

The clothes become clean beneath the washerman's fltictc. 

" There is a great want in those people who have not suffered-'' 
Watah icUai tah jorak juddi. 
May you miss the way and be separated from one another. 

A Kashmiri cnrss. 
Wdlal Balw&rak. 
A sweeper's Saturday (i.e., no time — I shall neVer get it). 

There are several olaases of wital or mihtar \<yg. Some who mako 
winnowing fans and are oallod ahupl-witnl, some who do regular 
mihtar's work and are generally called dnwanwol i and others who 
make boots and shoes and are oalled simply witul. Like people of 
other crafts the bootmaker invariably wants something in advance, 
and proraisea the boots on the following SBturdaj, which proroiso ia 
renewed for two or throe Satilidays, until the order is fulfilled. 
Henco the proverb. 


WiHal Bramodrah. 
The sweepers' Thursday. 

Vide gupro. 

ffVitaltm lir. 

The sweeper's sheep. 

Money or property in the hands of a man of low degree. 

Watan hund mis latan tah latan hund m&s walan. 
The flesh of the road to the sole of the foot and the flesh of 
the soles of the feet to the road. 

A man wbo earns his living with groat difficulty. 

Some work go hard, and walk so far, that the akin comes oH* from 
their hands and feet, and the dnst of the groand comes iu its staaJ, 
and cannot be washed off again. 

Watih wati ckhuk &b pakdn. 

The Water flows its straight regular c< 

No hiuub[^ aboat that man or that ai 

WaUhen wahrakwud, 

A birthday to calves ! (there is no need to commemorate 
their natal day). 

Cited whoa an unworthy man haa been hononrodi £o. 

WaUhit gyad tah d&ndat lav : 

Imifrov tah wanav hiu ? 

Kahan garaa ItuM iov, 

Hemmat riv tah Kanav has ? 

Six wisps of grass to the calf and on]}' one to the ox } 

Justice lost and to whom shall we speatc X 

Only one frying-pan between eleven houses. 

Courage gone and to whom shall we speak X 

The reign of imnstioe. 

CL note to " KoiMrih \tahai garoh." 

Wav, hi, wav, eih Ion, bd. Ion, 

Sow, brother sow, that you may reap, brother, reap, 

fF/tv has ei'A yispatak dv ? 

Who has su(^ trouble that he should lag behind f 

TF(Jp vmehhit gatshih ttdv Ir^uni. j 

Look at the wind before you looae the boat. 
Conaidor boforo jod act ■ 


Wowat niwah eail. 

To talce out the boat nhen a strong wind is blowing. 

An onBiiitable time for any work. 

Welinjilt petk wukkul. 

A mortar upon the clothes-line. 

TFagMmitntn &iirng. 
Weshamitar's heaven. 

To die on the completion of anj great objeet- 

WethdmiUir was a. rikhis. or arch-saint, among the HindtiB. He 
made a heaven for himself, and when he hiul Sniahed it and hod 
just set foot on the doorstep to enter therein, he died. 

Weth po»kih nak athak ehhalanaa- 

The river-water will not be enough for washing his hands. 

A waatefnl, eitravagant, man. 

With ia the Jhelnm river in its oonrse through Kashmir. 

Weth t^henii riA patiun Uhenih ? 

Will the dividing of the river be aa if any of your own 

relations were going to be hurt ? 

Your own Is your own, another's is another's. 

WUhi Jcaii chhak ffrazan ziA igarah ? 

O Weth, whence are you roaring? From the spring. 

The spring of a woman's happiness is her hnaband's lovo, the 
spring of a man's prosperit; is afriend'a help, tbe spring of a nation's 
distress is the ruler's mismanagement. 

Wethih n&bad phul. 

Some sugar-candy for the river. 

A. little gift lost in the vastness of tbe reeeirer's need. 

WHtir-'NAgai marvtjah nuhad. 

(Eating) the sugar and pepper at Wetsir-Nig. 

To break one's jonmey for rest and food, or to eat at home the 
food whioh was prepared for the journey, 

Gaogabal is a stream tributary to the Sindh river. Hither RO thoio 
Fandits bearing tbe ashes of dead relations who died during the 
previous year, which they throw into the aaered Htroam with great 
reverence. Cf. note "Stn/as ftyuhiioJi," .J-c. When Roing lothis place, 
while ascending the Barut moaatain they sometimes fall sick either 


from the effecta of the rarified atmosplierB, or else from orertired- 
hbbb ; and bo the pitgrima are adTiaed to tube some sugar a.nd pepper 
with them and eat these as medicines, if they sbonid feel ill. 
Theie sni^ar and pepper e,TO not m any accoaat to be eaten at 
Weta*r-NSg. On one occasion a little boy abont sii yeara old, not 
haviDg been well inatracted in the mannera of the pilgrimage, began 
to eat Boma of hia sngar-candy at WctaiT Nlig, a march or bo too 

fFoni 6udih iah parmAnah thurih. 
The shopkeeper wilt grovr old aad throv about the acales. 
A oeelesa, old servant. 

Wont ehhid poni Icisarih tali. 

Sirih hastis kewdn malt. 

The shopkeeper is like irater below rice-cbaff. 

He buys an elephant for a cowrie ; — (sharp, cuuuing fellow!) 

TToni gao tvi ytta pint* bonih hisib. 

He is a shopkeeper, who. understands (even) the worth (of a 

drop) of water, (so that he does not waste a trifle of any- 


Woni gav mi yui maohk tjahik. 

A shopkeeper is he who will lick up a fly (t.«., will not waste 

a scrap). 

A shopkeeper married his danghter in ver; grand style. During 
the ceremony he placed some very Talnable pearls opon her Tell. 
Brerywhere bis name hectimo diatingniahed becanse of this splendid 

Some days after the nodding was concInSed two merchants Muno 
to him bringing some honey for sale. Ho bonght it, and while ho 
was storiDg it away in. hia shop he noticed a fly in one of the pots, 
which he extricated, licked the honey o3 from it, and then threw 
away. Hia daaghter chanced to see him do this dirty trick and 
deapiaed him for it. "Father," aaid she, "how conld yon boeo 
vulgar after having spent so much money over my wedding and 
appeared so grand ! " The girl was So npBet by this act of her 
fatJier'a that she got ill, and only became weU again when it was 
proved to her that this eitremo care, which her father manifested, 
had alone enabled bim to spend such an enormous sum of money 
over the wedding. 

Wuchhit un tak b&nit zur. 
Seeing, yet blind, and beariug, yet deaf. 
See all and hear all, bat say nothing. 

■,G Otitic 


Wuckhio Tti/ahpyav kuma»w6v ; rantasihJcitruh SMhM&lniv. 
Look, what a misfortune has happened to beauty ; people 

have given the ugly woman the name of Shah Mil. 

Bhah Mil is the name of a great and beautiful woman. 
Wudah'Puruk he-garas. 
The independent, lazy people of Wudapur. 

WudajiHr iBa village in ttie Utar porgaaa. The people areas the; 
ore proverbially represented. No poraon, if they caa help it, will 
take a servant from the village. 
Wufawane ratanik- 
Catching (birds or) things as they fly. 

' ' CradiiloQB fools ." — Shafcs. 
" n^uiiti khasun Icuthu zih waaun?" "Sar-du Idnal." 
" camel, how do you going up and coming down hills I" 
"Oh, both are a curse." 

There is a tonch of the curse about everything down here. 
Wuhth budyot> lah muthar harun Aechhun nah. 
The camel has become aged and has not learned how to help 


Old age 18 aeeond childhood. 
Persian. — Shutuir fjfr thud shishidan na amoTehi, 

Wahlah natsun tah khar dhanff ohheA maahhar. 

A camel's dancing and an ass's braying are well-known. 

A worb ont of tima and out of place . 

A camel and an asB were grazing in tb@ same meadow together, when 
BnddeoljtheaBsbrayed very load. "Beqniet," said the camel, "yon 
wiU disturb the whole nsighboorhood and the people will come out, 
and oatoh ns and biod as. and we abalt henceforth have to carry 
burdens. Be not bo foolish, I pray yon." But the aia did not desist; 
on the contrary he brayed the loader, and the consequeuoe was that 
Home men hearing the noise came forth and caught both the animals. 
The camel was filled with rage, bat kept his oounsel, determiniiig to 
revenge biniself apon the asa at the earliest opportunity. 

One day botli the camel and the aas were walking together carry- 
ing loads, when they arrived at a bridge, upon which the oamel began 
to dance with all his. power. 

" Steady, steady," cried the asa, "you will break the bridge and 
we both sbaU be precipitated into the deep river." But the camel did 
not hear j on the contrary he seemed to dance more clnmsily and with 
greater vigour, until presently the beams of the bridge snapped into 
two pieces and they both fell into the water and were killed. Of. 
Journal, Asiatic Society, Bengal, Vol. LIT., Part I, p. 90, the Bev. C. 
Swynnerton'B tale of " The Four Associates." 



fFunuk ti'irti thuktam suzahiirih san ekhum ; 

j/;(A Ai'irih kanahwA) driyi no. 

Wunuh tdm thuktam mdlin kronm ; 

As nai dim tjhuljah-honui drot. 

Up to thia day you boast about the gold in your purae ; 

But never so much as an earring of half-a-cowrie's worth 

has appeared. 
Up to this day you boast about your father's house aud people ; 
But to the preseut day not an empty walnut eveu haa come 
out of it. 
Emptj boasting. 

Wupar mahattvk gov kukar i^tlr. 

A mau from another district is a thiever of fowls. 

Srfnsgar is divided into ssTeral mahallaB, People of one nuluJta 
dislike rerj mach to have anything to do irith the people of another 
mahalla. Ihe people of the one will not receive the people of the 
other ; the children of the one will beat and abase the children from 
the ctfher ; and the ver; doge also will not recognise one anotherin a 
friendly way. It is a constant ooonrrenoe to lose fowls, 4o., as ■ 
natural oonseqnen&B of this eatrangement. 

Wuptuladat e&kuh iinpatai. 

A dog following after a fasting man. 

One tronble after another. 

Wurak-gahar ckhih Krak Icht/ul. 

Wwak-'mulia lorik dab zangih. 

Wurak-mdlia hhorah rut. 

Step-sons are lilte a herd of swine. 

A stroke with the chisel upon the feet of the step-father. 

A chain for the feet of the step-father. 

Wurun nmchhit gatjkik hkor waharun. 

A man should stretch out his feet after looking at the bed* 

Marathi.— Hii(™n pdhmt pdya pasardve. 
"Wuthinibeni,yuhairinwulah," "turunibeni ukarin gaUh." 
" O warm (i.e., rich) sister, come here. O cold sister, go there." 

Cnpboard love. 

In Kaahmfr a wealthy man is called a warm man, ai garm 
fnahvouv) a rich tomb (place of pilgrimage,) is called ak garm liirat. 


Wushneras Tehal khish ; turtttras ntal mUk. 
To n warm {i.e., a wealthy) nian, his heart's desire; but to a 
cold man (i.e., poverty), filth and repulsion. 

Khat ft/itsfi, lit., Blanghter of beasta 

iSish is a general word said with a drawl for nj^ng cattle 
along, ix. 

"Wulh nnahhut Uhai." " Ayailtyah karanih?" 

"Rise, O daughter-in-law, and get up to jour room." 

"What else have I come for?" 

One'fl dnty. 

People ate married very early in the country of Kaahmfr, if their 
paretita cnn aSord it. The custom of Eindtia at the Qrat inarriaKO 
is to make the bride and bridegroom aleep together in the husband's 
hoQBB for one day only. After which they are separated notil the 
bride attains the age of pnberty. Among Muhammedaus the couple 
Bleep together for a whole weak, and then ore separated. In the 
■ayiag aborethe bride ia sapposed to bare reached her mother-in-law's 
dwelling, and immediately on arrival she is told to go to her room. 
"For this very purpose I have come," says the girl. 

" Wuth nikah Mm kar." " I^ah eh/tut tak hekak nah." 
" Wuth nikah batah kkeh." pui tnuon katiA ekkuh ?" 
" Get up, yonngater, and work." "I am weak and cannot." 
" Get up, youngster, and eat something." " Where is my 
big pot 1" 

Wuikiv kolheo bihio kotkev kheyiv sAiHr mdx, 

Wulhiv nai Hhiv nai tah kheyiv panun ■m&s. 

Get up knees and sit down knees and eat the flesh of the 

If you wont get up and sit down then eat your own flesh. 

Work is health and life. 

Jfutih teulah, madano. 

Come, friend, and be tempted ; (not I, I know better). 

Wutini balSyih tut. 
Another gets his puaishment. 
Xha wrong man. 

WuvuT matyd ci'A munak Ui^ karih beyik ? 

Is the weaver so mad that he will again steal wool ? 

A bamt child dreads the Sre. 

Paajfibi,— .ig di, jalid litdne le dardn hai. 



Wuvuri fundi dydran dah sds. 
A weaver's weAlth is ten an£s. 

A. itupid man nith d little rnono^ who wisheH to be thonglit a great 

There was a poor wretched weaver who had only ten fioafl, which 
he bid ia the dust under his feet. He pnt five Aaas under one foot 
bad five 4uAa under the other foot, and while ho was weaving he 
naed to work his feet up and down (aa if at a. treadmiH) and saj 
" Is phaltih pdnch, us phallih pdnch,'' which translated ia " Five in 
this place and five in that place." News of this got wind, and one 
day the poor weaver lost all his ten 3n&. He then continued to say. 
"Js pJiolliTi fofe, «6 phoMift loft," of which the interpretation is, "On 
this side chaff and on that side chaff."— It appears .that the thief 
had pnt some chaff in the place of the money stolen. 

Wvzalih kanih ffup Icadun. 

To bite on the red side (of nn apple, &c.) 

A. gaint share in tho partnership. 

" Wnzamui, jiatt nats tai aipanxiai." 
" O monkey, dance upon loan." 

A debtor's reply to a hard creditor. 

Some of the natives earn their living by training monkeys to 
dance and do other tricks. They take them about, as the; do in 
^--•--^ ■■- '■'■ - • ' ' ag^ and some of the people give them 

" Wuzamyo kuta guk ?" " Horer rdvjaramh." 
" O debt, whither gone 7" " To increase the debt." 
Keep out of the clutchea of the mon^-londei. 


T& pur nah tah dur. 

Either altogether, or else be at a distance. 

The whole hog or none. 

Td tat Itaj nah tah laj " Suri " waitane. 

At first she was dumb, but afterwards she began to Bay 

T(i t^alun nah tah t^'ilun. 
Either flee or else suffer. 
Yd lurav nah tah iurav. 
Either suffer or eUe go. (Fide supra.) 

" Go, yOQ rascal, or I will smite jon." 
Tad ohhani tdk ckhit nani. 
The stomach empty but the dress displayed to view. 

Stinting the stomach to support the haok. 

Tad ekhuh nak vmahhan hahh lah tanih chhuh wueMmn paral 

No one sees the stomach hut every body sees the body. 
An argnmeDt for drees. 

Tad dag chheh bod dag. 

The stomach pain is a great pain. 

" Iq the sweat of thy face shalt thon eat bread." 

Tad tjharui tah gantjan divjSn lav. 
An empty stomach, yet twirling his moustache. 
The WDuld-be gentlemBiE. 

Tadal chhui be-imdtt. 

A fat man has no religion. 

" JeBboron iraied fat vnd kicked." 

T^ijih ai phuchhih tah hachih ehhas att. 
If the biscuit is broken, the pieces are here. 

Hero are the items of tho account, we will add u]i (he total again. 



Talc tan tak du hat. 
One bod; and two persons. 
A roamed couple. 

Talcar ekh&nuni kukar paehih-baran. 
Yakar, the carpenter's fowl-houBC. 

Ad anfinished work. 

Fowl-hoQBOB, garden -walU, ho., m Kashmir arc freqneotly roade 
of a loose cough kind ot wooden railing called ■pachah-baTOn. 

Takar, a carpenter, ia said to have built a fowl-honsa for some 
perwin, whioh tumbled down directly one of the fowla flew upon it. 

Y(Aur m&rit alhan phak. 

Lay hold of (lit,, kill) the yakur plant and your hand will 

Ton cannot tonoh pitch without being defiled. 

Yamah, ^ilam tah nitam. 

O angel of death, come and take me. 

Quoted in a moat piteooa tone when anj person begi to be lot off 
any difficult or unpleasant work. 

Taf/.rih bi'd bahar tah ap&rih Ml lakar. 

On this side of the hill (he promised to give me) a goat, bnt 

(when he had reached) the other side (by my help, he 

gave me) the stick, i.e., he beat me, 

Yur hyah layik lih t^arih baehik. 

What is the worth of a friend that you will not giro him the 

T^r gai hatah-mar. 
Friends are rice-stores. 

" Make to youraolTes friends." 

A king had three sons, to each of whom whon they were grown 
np he gave a Ukh of rfipis to profit with as they each thought right. 
One of them tried trade and became eiccedingly rich, another wont 
and tonndsd many oaraTauserais for pilgrims aud trnvellerg } and 
the third travelled everywhere laviahing gifts npon the people and 
entertaining them in la^e numbers, and in grand style. In course 
of time they all met U^ether again and recounted their eevoral 
eiperiencea. When the king had heard these he praiaed the first two 
sons ; but was angry with, and despised, the yoangest. 



The king's conntry wu id a state of great oonfaiion ; ttn enemj 
with a vary strong force behind him had appeared against it. What 
iras the king to do ? He was -wsak and friendless. He called his 
wise miniaterB, bat they conld not help him oat of hie difBcnltias. 
At len^h he sought the adTice of his bdhb. The first son advised 
fielding in the moat honourable wb; possible ; the second son said 
that he could not help his father ; but the third — who had bean sent 
for, it was tme, bat without any expectation of real help or wiio 
oounael from him — he said, " king, mj father, command me to go 
against this enemy and I will overcome him," The ting consented. 
" Go and do better with your meo when yon get them, than you did 
with yonr money when yon had it." The youngest son went forth 
with a glad ami hopefol heart calling ti^ther hia friends on the way. 
The people remembered his generosity and amiability and answered 
readily to his call, until at laat he had with him a very lai^ force of 
moat enthusiastic followers, by whose help he thoronghly routed the 
enemy, so that they returned no more to tronble the land. 

The king had a different opinion o( his yoni^st son after this. 
Instead of despising him he esteemed him the most worthy of all 
his sons, and appointed him to the greatest honour. 
Ydr x/igin tjkalm tamiH ehilim chat fah Ualat. 
The friend lies in wait to deceive ; after Hmoking the pipe h« 
will run away. 

A heartless servant or friend, £o. 

Tdrat my ^uyih tak lukah sitih, yir mid tah kanih nak banA. 
If a friend's mother dies a thouaaad people remain (because 

the friend is alive), but if the friend is dead, then there ia 

nobody left. 

" All the wealth of the world could not bny yon a friend, nor pay 
yon for the loss of one." 
Fas gov hund dud tah gunu kheiih tatund petthur tih gaUhik 

One must take the con's kick ns well as her milk and butter. 

We cannot afford to quarrel with a good servant or good horse, &c, 
Tas korih nethar soh Tear lubaran ! 
A daughter about to be married gathering dung I 

A person who is everywhere and doing eterything eioapt in the 
right place and doing the right thing. 
Fa* lug " karah karah " suh karih ; 
Tat lug " marah marah " tuh marih. 
He who says " I will do, 1 will do," he teilt do ; 
He who cries " I shall die, I shall die," he will die. 
Where there's a will there'a a way. 



Yat maknyvis bh/ih mnd bad yiyih tas gattkih panun 

He who wishea eyil to another mftn, will anfFer his own loss. 

Hu-m hatch., tiami catoh. 

Yaa nah watsh mot tas gayi garastti andar phar, 
Ue whoBe arm is not raised (in labour), to him & dried fish 
has become in the bouse. 

Industry begets wealth. 

Phar, — During the winter montla the fishennen go oot with thair 
boats in companies of ten or twelve after these little fish, wiiich they 
oatch in a cast-net. Half-a-dmen boats will spread themselTea 
aoroHB the ri*er sideways and beat the water with their paddles, to 
&^hten the fish into the half-a-dozen net^ which have hesn tbromi 
for them by tho other boats a little way ahead. In this way sonie- 
times a mile of the river is sooored in an evenii^, and mannds npon 
manuds of fish are freqnenlly caught by one company- When it 
begins to get dark the fishermen fasten their boats to the bank and 
collect all their fish together into one place. Then thej apread a 
layer of leaves or grass, and over this a layer of Gah and a gpriokling 
of salt, then another layer o! leaves or grass and so on, nntil a great 
moond is raised. Everything ready they now l%ht big fires on all 
four sides of this mound to dry the fish, and sit by and watch, nntil 
the fires go Ont. On the following morning the fish are taten out 
and strong npon sticks ready for sale. Only the poorer claMM 
purobase thsm] as they are not very savaury or wholesome. 

Ta» wandai haiamtim tah relahkSiih g&e, vd h4-7ndlik 

dunyaha» iv. 
That man bas come into the world, O father, who baa got « 

warm bath for the winter and a cow for the summer. 

Blessed i« the man who Has evOTything in its season. 
A saying of Shekh NCr-ad-dln. 

Yas tout rdwih tat hdwaa dab ; 
Yai kalh riwik tas MtoiK nah kanh,. 
Him, who loses his way ten men will direct ; 
But he who loses a word, — who will direct him ? 
" Each sacred accent bears eterniJ weight. 
And each irrevocable word ia fate." — Pope. 

Yas viaUk nar tami leheyik luhah hani lar. 

He who raised his arm (i.e., in labour) ate the faouse of the 


Itodnstry begets wealth. 

I .i-,Go(.ii^le 


Tm yUiff/Oskih mh ta3 gaUkih muhard dtt. 
Let that man who wants anything give a gold-mohur (ai a 
bribe) for it. 

Mon^ oommanda even the goda. 

Tat bav>ak-tarai 6yai kahti ! 
JKahh n»i dyu1h»m hansih tueli. 
How many peopk came to this lake-lite tfotUI 
Bwt I have not seen anyone (going away) with anyone {i.t., 
we die separately and alone). 

This world is called late, or sea lite, becanae it is Bo difficult to 
oroBs over it with safetj— 7id« note " SanwndaTiu mam," Ac 

Tat nam alnh. tat tkistar kyah Ui^un. 

Wkere a finger-nail will enter (will do it), there is no necessity 
for iron. 

When one can aooomplish the matter easily, what ia the good of 
creating a noiaa. When it can be done veiy economicalty, what 
profit ia there in spending maoh money over it, &c. 

Tath gimai nak gai»kuH ifsiA, lamik g&muh n&wul kyun hyak 

chhuh ? 
Is it necessary to ask the man of that Tillage whether you- 

have to go, or not ? 

UaolesB speech. 

Yaik narah hutuui mai £ nwntye. 

Dur nai latiye ronih samsdr. 

Wuehhtai Pindawan hund diJt duruye ; 

Tint krdlah garanui ckkapane UUl 

Timanui kyah aus lyukkmut Hariye. 

Dur nai latiye roziA samtdr. 

Don't hide your light face in your sleeve, dear. 

The world will not alwavs remain. 

See how firm were the bodies of the P^ndus ; 

Yet they had to hide themselves in a potter's house \ 

According as Hari had written in their tot. 

My dear, the world will not always remain. 

" Nothing in this world can last." 

The above i« the poetry of a very holy fakir woman {neither Mo- 
tmmmedan nor Hiadu) named Habbah Khotan. who oaad to livs 
*t a village called Pindachbok, where there is a wooden mosqve. 


which sbe ereetod from the saringg of her apinning-wbeel OBrnings. 
The people say that the iraa a,ccnBtained to orodB the river upon a 
lion, which batwt Qod gore her a,s a ipecial preaent. 

fdn^iu, Tiiilhiiihthira, and fonr other princes, sons at P&nda, ft 
Borereigu of ancient Delhi, For a foil aaootmt of these demigodg 
»nd of their great enemies the Enms, cf. an7 classical Dictionary 
of India. Here I will only explain the above lines. Tadhishthira, 
(he eldest son, was installed as heir-apparent, and soon became 
renowned for his " jnstice, calm paasionlesi oomposnre ; chiralroDS 
hononr and cold beroiam." The people wished Yndhishthira to be 
crowned king at onoe, bnt the EnmB tried hard to prevent it. First 
of all the Pandas and their mother were «ent to a honsa bnilt of 
eombastible mBterials, with ths intention of bnming the whole family 
in it. The Pandas, however, were informed of this, trick and escaped 
to a potter's honge in another city, to.. Ao. 

Ear* or Hart is a name of Tishnn. Kashmiri Hiad6s believe that 
he inscribes upon the foreheads of hmnaa beings their several desti- 
niaa. The following is a quotation from the Hitopadeaa (with 
Johiutni'i trantlation) : — 

ff ft 'I'HR(|0 *f'('iV^*lrt 

ffeftnmft swfS" iffl«w3 'FT; 5ra^: II 

" Sinee oren the moon sporting in tho sky, destroying mn, poaseaa- 
log ten hundred beams, marching in the midst of the stars ; from 
the inflnenoe of destiny is swallowed by the dragon ;— who then ia 
able to avoid what is written on his forehead iij the finger of destiny." 
Of. " SitfoA ihutah," ^e. 

Tath tilatodn tachth, yihphyur tih. 

Iiet thia drop also fall upon the oilman's dirty cIotheB, (what ' 

difference will it make T) 

A little more trouble to a man already overwhelined with it. 
Borne oilmen have been known to wear the same long smooklike gar- 
ment for the space of three years without once having it washed or 
changed all that time. The qoantity of grease whioh ocdleota within 
a few months, even, is almost incredible. 

Tath tumhii tih kugddai. 

This piece of wool alao for dried fish, 

"On the verge of bankruptcy — what can matter s flhiUingor ao 

Persian.— in lalcad Mm la gar t Siitam i IM, 


TatjoH gagarayan rud nak, tgarett kathan s6d nah • 

There is not rain from much thundering, and there is not 
profit from much speaking. 

*' Tatsnrih, raneyik le^etsarih metah." " Witlo Jc&ntarak." 
" Boh dai lugui wdlak-bari." Tseh dai mutsid " tak ati khek." 
" O zealoua woman, you have cooked a handful of cuny." 

" Come, O cock sparrow." 
*' I am fastened, woman, in a net," " It is left over for 

you; eat it there." 


Telanjel tah maw&aan khalat. 

A prison for the ro;al and obedient, and a robe of honour 
for the rebellious. 

Klialat (Kha'at in Ai^bio) is genarftlly a robe of honour with which 
prinoas confer dignity on sabjeotB, and visitarH of distinction. Soma- 
timea a eirord or a dagger, or a rare jewel, or some other valaable, is 
giTSD together with a turban and shawl. 

Telih autum lukaehdr telih ausnm nak muhaj&r. 
When I was a child then I had not any leisure. 
Time hangs heavily npon an old man. 

Yllih dot darw&tah Kut gatshdn, telih ehhuh nak bihtih hund 

When the flood-gates of the lake open, then they do not 

listen to any one. 

The word of the ruler—no altematiye. 

Dal darvidtah, lit., the door of the lake. The Pal is a lai^ lake 
close to the city of Brtnagar. When the river is low the gates, 
called " pal domctjoft," remain open ; but when the river rises to a 
certain height, the; close of themselves, thus preventing inundation 
of the land around the lake. 

Telih diwdn Khudd telih hatat ntin tan ; 

Telih niudn Kkudd telih halat mim tan. 

When God gives then it is as salt for the sheep ; 

When God takes then it is as wool from the sheep. 

(t. £., when Qod gives, he gives to profit — tlie gift is OS salt, which 
preserves and fattens the beast ; and when God takes, he takes bat 
His own — what He himself has given, i. «., as wool from tha sheep, 
which fattened from the salt, which Qod gave itj. 



Telik piran hxtnh mangan, Icutak piran naf atM,k ta»gtm. 
When the pfra' accouDts nill be takeD, counterfeit pfrs will 

A wicked efceward, a dighoneat Hervant. 

Gnlistin of Sd'dl, Chap. I, — Earki Sftyanal loanad daslath dar 
hie6.h iila/riad, 

TSlik lun lelih nah lean, yMik Itan telih nah gun. 

When there is gold (for the earring), then there is not an ear ; 

and when there is the ear, then there is not the gold. 

A wifs and expense, or no wife and save ; a son and ezpenae, &c. 

Telih Uah ^tak p/idehdh telik <Uah huh waxtr. 
When Tou hecome king then I will be minister. 
" I'll be np with joo." 

Telik yik thvitik telik tik Jcar, 
When it ia proper then do it. 
A tinie (or everjtiiing. 

Temi daulat jami Tear, yi niyas Uw" y& rdtcti taminik tal, nak 
Uhyon pdnai nah nyun atkih ndh ditwn beyia. 

He who gathered together riches, either a thief will take 
them trom him, or they will be lost under the ground ; the 
gatherer neither partakes of them himself, nor does he 
take them with him, nor does he give them to another. 

Thta dits noshih tvi dapdti " Garah bigaryov." 
He who commits incest with hia danghter-in-Iaw says : " The 
house has become bad,'' 

Bfery bad man BQepects erer; other person of being bad likewise. 

Temi diU want tag gtd team, yemi tsal want tat ltd want. 
He who plants a grove of trees, may God do so to him ; and 
he who cuts the grove may God do so to him. 

" Whote end shall be acoardii^ to their works." 

Temi kerik kkaUot lami herih at waaahak, yemi tapak ai 

laaahak tak lejik watakah nak tak, 
I came up by this ladder and if I get down again by it and 

am iree of this misfortune I will never sted from the pot 


Poor people's cbildren a 
One day a little child was se 


top of the ladder, whioh geaerBlly rana np onts'ide b. KasIiTnirf hut, 
and by wMoh she ionght to escape, perhaps, over tlio roof. While 
hei7 mother was beating her on the top rooud of the ladder, she 
shrieked out these words, whieh have passed into a proverb, aod aro 
now ooaBtaotly Cited hy other and bigger children, when the; are 
discovered doing anything forbidden. 

Jemt hov tami nj/ov ; yemt khut lami rut. 

He who made the thing manifest caused it to be taken away, 

and he who concealed the matter, held it, 

Keep yonr own ooonsel. 

Temi kyut auh hut. 

He nho took griel (into his heart) rotted away. 

Temi hhani gang tea gayih tati andar panuni zang. 
He who dug a pit for others has got bis own legs into it. 
PersitHi. — Gliah kan rd chih dor peah kardah i l^eih dyad 

Tend hur gungul lami hur Icriv, 
lii^ah hannik Idganaiyik pelh mo bar chSv. 
He who began the harvest reaped the end of it. 
Do not he covetous over other people's fields. 

Temi kur lawah hat suh tih tutvi ; 

Temi xol lawah hat suh tih tutid. 

He who made a hundred bundles of grass, to him so much ; 

fie nho burnt a hundred bundles of grass, to him so much. 

A master who does not praise the good aervant and reprove the 
bad, bnt serves all the servaata alike. 

People gather the long lank water grass which grows by the river- 
Bide in the Antnmn, tie it np into handles, and sell them during the 
Winter at the rate of sixty boudles tor an Hull. 

Temi lukah kaman michan tak tukran pe\k naxar i&av luh 

gov hair /in. 
He who keeps his eyes upon the pieces of rice and bread of 

other people is in a wretched state. 

A loafing, wandering, fellow. 



Thni Sdhiban 6» ditus tuh divas «/i kkoi tik Myun Ityut ? 
Whom God has given a mouth, to him will not He, the sa 
Ood, give a little pot for his dinner X 

BnatSn of Si'dl— rafte tifal dandan boriwurdo frwd, 
Fidar ear ha fkraeh faro tiurdah hvd. 

Temi aMli chhih wuehhmati yiti hafity/ih rod! 
This jackal has seen plenty of rain like this I 
An old eiperienced man. 

Y&tni vmokh naria tah dalis sah jfav kkwir ; 

J^mt Uhun aids khoras pulahur, beyii paixir. 

Suh ehkuk barhhurddr. 

Hevhopaid attention to the aleeve and border (of his gar- 
ment) was ruined ; 

He who wore a grass shoe on one foot and a leather shoe on 
the other, he was prosperous. 
The man who wiahet to gncceed mmt not mind a little dirt some- 

YemU " Nannaairih" ndv dr&v tat tfalih nah sah. 

If a man has got nicknamed " Bare-footed," the name will 

never leave him. 

In alden times there lived in Eashmlr $tyerj great man named 
Khwijah Karfio Dtn. He onoe viiited the 'Id g4h in. time of enow. 
On arriving at the common be noticed the nice level ground and 
said to his attendant " Take off m; tboes. I wish to run on the 
gfrasa for a few minutes with naked feet." Hie servant obeyed, and 
Earim D(n ran abont for a long time to his heart's content. 

From that honr the people called him Earfm Nannawor. OF 
conrse he was very angry at this, and tried evBty means in bis power 
to check it s but all to no purpose. To the very horn' of his death, 
and since, whenever his name has been mentioned, people have 
spoken of him aa Earim Ninnawor (i.e., bare-footed Earua). 

Temvhiii d6r tah tamuha pun. 
Whence the timber, thence the wedge. 
Set a thief to catch a thief. 

Tenan loeitah tah wanan hi ; tuh kami chhumat MpaU. 
Wenah upon the river-bank and jasmine in the wood ; and 
who plucked the jasmine ? The bear. 

Good things in the hands of the bad. 

W6nah is a non-edible plant with a smell like mint. 



TZnJ nah kunih, tBotum nah kunik tah kaU gat yerm ? 
Warp not to be found anywhere, woof (also) not (to be found) 
anywhere, and how many yartls shall we sort 1 
An order but Dot ftll the reqaisitea tor fulfilling it. 

TUi hike Niigi Anun iaii beM Bogi Parzun ? 

Will Big Parzun (a poor, ignornnt, fellow) sit in the Bflme 

place with Nig Arzun (the great)? 

People should know thciir rank. 

Yiti pakalU khyul tati tokat gupk. 

Where the shepherd's flock there the leopard's lair. 

Wliere riobefl there thief, wbere glass there stone, whero a maa 
of high podtioQ there enrioua, oovetoDa persoas. 

TSlih ai dtih mengan euh tik klyih USnguu. 

If there were a httle boy here he also would he amused. 

Cited to a, forward, impertinent, little fellow. 

Mengun, lit., sheep and goats' ordure, which bSing small, a little 
boy has been likened to it and called after it. 

nm &h tatih dp. 

Where there is water, there is a god. 

HinduBtSnt. — JahAn db <cahan dp. 

BiveCB and springs as sources of fertility and purification, were at 
an early date invested with a sacred character by tho Hindus, who 
are thoroughly in their glory, liring in this land of Eashmfr, a land 
of rivers and fountains and lakes, kc. Tho Muhammedans are 
constantly twitting their HiodCi neighbours coaoomiug the number 
of their water-gods. 

Tetih kon tatih nah h/.jat myon. 

Where there is a, one-eyed man there is no necessity for niy 

The natives declare that the Devil said this. 
Hindustinf— KHnri terhA had-fiala. 
Pergiaa. — Fali c}\oshm gal, digar na hilkvll. 
Panjibt— Ktiiiii foieftrrt hoch-gardana : yeh Hnon Icamtdt ! 
Jablag baa apnd chaU to kot na puchhe bit, 

Yelih nah batawlr tatiA wugarah tir ? 

Where that grent man is not able, there will that poor, weak 

fellow be able, to do anything? 

Wv^arah tU, lit., a handful of cooked-rice, but hers means » poor, 
weak man. ' 



rstih Rijt't Bhof falik Ganffd TiU. 
Where Bija Bhoj there 6aag& Tfli. 

Honey is oftentimes the ooty patent of aobilicy besides loffy 
pretoniioDB. Baji Bboj was the celebrated sovereign of UjJBJn. ths 
great pktron of leamsd men, and to whose era the nine gems or 
poets are often aaoribed ; the " Sioghisan battis!" deacribea his 
Tirtnes. Bot Qaagi Ttif was an oil-merchant whose only claim to ait 
in the great Bijd'a presence waa his great wealth ajid a little kind- 
neaa onoe shown by htm to Hiji Bboj'e piedeoesBor, BiiiVikramiditya- 
YSftA ti'ip tatik ekukul. 
Where aunshine there shade. 

" There ia compensation in this world oven." 

Yet» gav eih me(s gan. 

More than enough is as dirt (no use to a mao). 

T^txan zanonan poni Jedmuni, tak txarcn mardan hatah 

Many women, little water ; and many men, little rice. 

It is the castom both among the Mnhammedana and the Hindfis 
tor the women to fetch the water from the river. If there ahoatd be 
more then one woman in the honaebold, there ^11 probably be 
frequent qnarrelliog aato who shall perform this dtity, and sometimes 
both having reCosed to go for the water, the members of the household 
will " ran short " of this neceBsarj commodity. On the othw hand, 
tf there ehonld happen to be more than one hasband or man in tbe 
house, there will probably be constant wrapgling amongst thero as 
to who shall pay the baniyi'e Wll. 

" Ti bandah jfatxh/,n ti no tor. B! wuio b-'ta-i/dra to." 

" What the servant wishes cannot be had. Come, O my 

young friend," 

Uan proposes bat Ood dispoeea. 
Ti wuth halih ti Khut matih. 
What has gone down the throat has ascended as a charge to 


A promise is a charge to keep. 
Tih chhwk bich yut rachhikan, tut diyih Ivph. 
This is B scorpion, aa mnny as cherish it, so many will it sting. 

An Dngratefut, malicious person, 
Tih ekhuk hhuak-hhowur tah ulafak. Dapahat, " Varyivaa 

gatsA," tah gatjhih henaras. 
He is a left-banded, contrary fellow. Say to bim, " Go to tbe 

river," and he will go to the drain. 



Yih chkuh knni — tcuthttah iah mii»hi g&h Kyuk, nah login 

letcanai Iah nah eilaaas. 
He is like d(^-barley and bufiVilo-duDg, which are of do use 

for plastering or burning. 

A worthleBB fellow. 

Tih gdmaa tih mdmunii teuUhit. 

What (happens) to the village also (happeaa) to the uacle'a 


Famine, &o., \aA for all ; every one BniEera more or less. 

Yih gav likkit tih gav hukhit. 

What is written is dried up (no smudging it out). 

" What is vrritUn." One's fate. 

" Dried up." An allusion to the native caetom of smndging oat an 
error. A Pandit has been sitting bjme for the last eighteen mon(h-<. 
writing for an honr or bo nearly avflry day. He always used to rob 
bis forefinger over any mistake lie had made ; and it was with the 
greatest diSicnlty that I got bim to nse a penknife. Of course, if 
the writing had dried there waa no daubing the error out, it either 
remained, or else another sheet of paper was need. 

Yih hahimas dizth tih ioaah disih bim&ra»? 
Why cannot that be given to the ordinary sick person, 
which is given to the doctor ? 

Native doctors are sometimes very striot ovor their patients oon- 
ceming their diet. A youth is now sqnatting on the floor by my 
side, wbo bas just recovered from a long and sharp attack of fever. 
" For a whole fortnight," he says, " the doctor wonld not allow me to 
have any thing but rice water and a little hand {CichoTivm, iMj/hiis). 
But these doctors are not always BO particnlar as to their own diet 
when they themselves are ill." 

Yih kdmani parnih peth wuehhih tih wuchhik tbvaeni Uarnih 

Whatever the boat-woman sees in the open that the siwSni 
sees through a crack or little hole. 

SAivetii is a parAa-'nishin, woman, i. S., One wbo remains behind the 
curtain and is not seen of men. 

Yih k£kanih tih huyinik lih. 

What is the eldest sou's that also is the youngest sou's. 

Skow no favouritism in the family. 



Yih khMh hukrit tih hkeuh nah pyiwalt gov. 

WhAt a. man eats from rudeness and gruiTueaa that he would 

not eat from a cow vith young. 

MnhammedanH do not drint the milk of a recently-deliverod cow 
onbil the fourth day after the birth. Hindis wait till the eleventh 
day, when the Brfhnian comes and the owner of the cow worships 
and makes preaentB. If the calf Bhonld be born on a Friday, then 
both Muhammedans and EiadABhaveapeoialarrangemeats according 
to their different religions. 
Tih mallah wanih tih gaUktk karun ; ■ 
TiA mallah iariA tih ffatekth nah Icanin. 
Wbat'the MulU aays you roust do ; 
What the MuUa does you must Dot do. 

" Do what I say but not oa I do," sayB the parson. 

Tih nah hdnas Idrih tih l&rid pdnasT 

What will not stick to the pot, will not stick to the body. 

Thin ric« or weak soap, Ac 
Tikpron gvyvn karik tih karih nah noc gdsah ? 
What old manure-grass can do that uew grass can not do. 

Wisdom and eiperience are on the side of age. 
" Yih riaaa met watih tih gav haldl" plran aki chhnk 

" What came out with the soup is lawful, " a pi'r said. 


A certain stranger's goat wandered inside the door of a pfr's hooBe. 
When the pir saw it he said to his wife : " Look here, there's that 
goat trespassed into onr place again. Wbat shall I do P Bring the 
' Book of the Law' and 1 will see what is right to be done." After 
some little searching he discovered that it was necessary to stand 
at his door and ory for three times, " Who has lost a goat P " 

Accordingly the pir went to the door aaA cried with a very littlo 
voice. "Has any one lost any thing F" This he did three tiroes, 
and then went baok into his house and told his wife to kill the goat 
at once, ae he had shonted throe times. He also told her to cook the 
meat in a separate vessel and separate place, in order that the ordi- 
nary cooking vessels and places might not be, perchance, defiled. 

When the meat was cooked and ready for serving-tip, he ordered his 
wife to tip the pot a little and let out some of the cooked soup, bnt to 
be very oarefnl lest her hand should tonch it ; for, said he, ' ' there ia 
no Bin in drinking the broth, bnt we must not eat, or even tonch, the 
flesh." However, while the woman was tilting the pot, her hand shook 
and some meat escaped with the broth, " Never mind, never mind," 
■aid the pir, with ill-diagniaed pleasure, " what haa como out with the 
soup ia also legal." 


Tih ihahrueh ti'iioeni IckSyik lih kket/ih gi'-maeh g&v. 
The rich city noman and the village cow fare the same. 

The metic fills his Btomach but the citj-mao feeds hia hack. 
Siiiuent is a pardo-nisUn woman, as all the wives of the wealUiier 
classes are in Kashmir. 

Yik i^h ekhui wvndat tih ehhuk mih ehanda*. 

What is in your hea,Tt is in my pocket. ' 

" I have your secret. Beware !" 

Yik iewih xhoih htrizih fik Jeonah karizih xangi xangi ? 
What you can do with your tongue you can do with your legs 
(can't you? then do not be afraid, but go and do it). 

Tihuntlui rat yimanui mat. 

Hub their blood upon their bodies. 

A man gives a present ; but it costs the receiver as maoh as he 

Tim gai ituhhas dvg dint. 

These thiofia are disturbers of peace. 

Biches and honor to an unthanktal, uoaatisfied man. 

Yiinah h^mdlih ehhai wutmalak iah tralai gatahHr tak 
gagriyih path hun. 

father, there are lightnings and thick thunderbolts ; and 
mists and thunder are behiud. 

No end of troable ahead. 

Yiman gabar timan nah batah, yiman batah thnan nakgabar. 
Via food to those nbo have children, no children to those 
who have food. 

Yimaieui mi.ri imdm tak timawui h'r mmaA. 
They who killed the imam inment his death. 

To do a man an injury and afterwards be sorry for it. 

Samah — a sonR of lamentation. An alluiiion to the mourning of 
the Shl'as for the two sous of 'All, Hasan and Hosain. 

Jnuim is a Mnhammedan priest. 

Yirtdar chhat leatdn; Uandar Sshil batah tok ; nmdar 
ehham nah yiwi'm ; sindar gayaM pinas. 

1 spin the wheel and when the moon shines forth I eat my 

dinner ; sleep does not come to me, and my flesh is dried 
up within me. 


A Farourite Boag in time of trouble. 

MaDshl BawJul D£s eicommunioated hia first wife a menii et 
thoTO on aocount of eome fault of here. She used to sit at her wheel 
overy daj in an adjoining house singing thie siing. and one day her 
husband oa heaHug it sent for her Kud took her into his house again. 

Ytrawani ni'iv ; cAirawani dali. 

A boat afloat (before the wind) ; a wrung garment, 

A Kashmiri corse " Maj you bo like," Ac. 

Titui t^ngi titui gdth. 

As many lamps so niuch light. 

The more, the merrier. 

Tsim3 — ia a little earthen lamp called dlpi io Biadiiatiu. 

Yiwaviani dautat pewmvan ghln ; 

TsalawoJii daulat, galawamMn. 

Wealth comes like the falling snow (t. e., slowly) . 

Wealth goes Uke the melting snow (i. e , i{uickly). 

Persian.— -^ur<i2a, kurdtft biydyad nukhust 

Habdyad axo ch'&nki gardad durust. 

Yizmfinl/di ildrih hint wuekhlai, 

Fi'-nah e:hhsk buckk tai kat Ityak dik ? 

O mother of the wed ding, party, look out ofihe window. 

You yourself appear hungry, to whom will you give ? 

A meagre, wedtliDg-feast, or diuner. 

Yufi» skup dalihah. 

Like trying to keep back the water-floods with a fan. 

Large expenses and smull income. 

8hv/p ia a, small fan used for cleaning grain. 

Yuri kun reh liiri kun tikar. 
Where the flame there the pot. 

Monej commandB eTOry thing. 

This is only the laat line of a verse of pootr; coucorniug tho rich 

Aiammdlii chhek d/anach tShi 

Watih pith mytilua kent^hah khih i 

Tsiingij tthtminaii yatUi blh ; 

Y&ri kun lekar (tiri kun rih. 

A wealthy man haa the pride ot wealth ; 

1( any one meets him on tho way it is eat somobhing (O friend). 

Then the mat is aprojidand he ia askeil lo 'sit down." 

Where the pot is there the Hume will bu also. 



Yus akh/-h kheyih tah cheyih tah kdhaih diyih, suh ehhuhjdn 

tatandik, kkutah, yus anik tahjamd Itarih. 
He who eats and drinks nnd gives to another iB better than 

he who brings and puts together. 

Tu» dandav nithih gav auh gov bandm niskih. 
What went from the teeth went also from the body, . 
The valae of good teetb. 

Yut f/av L&s iuh zah nak &v. 

Av ai tas nak zah m&v. 

He who went to Lhaasa (Tibet) never returned. 

If he did come back then he was a rich man for ever. 

Yus gelih parat, ta* gaUMh garai. 

He who slaoderB a stranger, will be slandered in bis oini 

Tut kk':yik harah kan iak larah han, tat ekhui met suet 

zarak han ; 
Tut kheyih hi.kah han tah wugarah han suk chhui dugarak 

han ht/tth. 
He who eats crenm and spices and other rich things, will 

always have sickness. 
He who eats unstrained rice and vegetables is Uke a Dugra. 

Dagra — ■' A mixed race, (desceiided from a RiijpCIt father and 
low-cfliate mother) of reputation in the Fanjib. The reigning family 
of Kashmir is of this tribe Its membfra speak of themselves as 
B&ipQtH. The Dugra are land, holders and Onltivators." — " Sherring'a 
Hindu Tribes and Caatos. " 

Yus mazah phalis sui mazah gurnas. 

What flavour there is to the grape there wilt be to the whole 


A sample. 
Yut nah d('.nas pewik *uA honah rewih piniu ? 
He who cannot (aflFord even) to light a fire, why will he not 

adorn himself? 

" He has got all he is worth npon his back." 

Yut nak gabah phatik suh dapi& "Bahah." 
"Will that boy say "Father" who did not burst the womb 
(i.e., who was not born to me) X 

An adopted child. 



Yuipherik »uA hrtrih. 

Tut ajih suh gajih. 

He who turns (from his promise let him fall) into a well. 

He who (fulfils only) hnlfhis promise (let him fnll) into a 


Striking hands with bis oreditor the debtor will qaote these words. 

Yus phul suk phul gunohai. 

What bloomed, bloomed when it was in the bud. 

The child is father of the man. 

Tui yas z6nik tui tag mi'.nih. 

He will obey him whom he knows. 

" One of themselvas" woald have more influence. 

Tu» yulh harih tuh tyath mrih. 
Tua yulh tinmft suh tyuih lonih. 
As he does, so will he receive ; 
As he sons, BO will he reap. 

Hioduat^t — Jauif doga xoaiaa pAogt. 

YiivfJiakf wuUk rat. 

O, Ydsuf Jd ! take hold of the calf. 

A dependent character. 

A sharp fellow wonld fli the calf nnder one arm and milk tha 
oow, bat YuBcf wanted another man to bold it. Cows in India 
always have their oalves hy thetn when thoj are being Toilked. 

Fiisi^ Jii is a Mubammedan Hindnstfini name. Y'diufia from tha 
Arabic for Joseph, and .Til is by way of respect and means lord I 

Yiaui hheyih ser tui gapunih «er. 

He who eats a ser {i.e., lbs. 2 English) will be satisfied. 

Ser is the Kashmiri and Hindastini word for a weight=2 lbs 
Eoglisbi it is also Che Persian word for satisBed. 

Yiuui ruehkum tasi nish rachhlam Khuddyo. 

Ood, preserve me from him whom I cherished. 

. An nngraCafnl protege, offspring, &c. 

Tumi ruekhitm yiman athan, sui yuvdn netharah kathan. 
He whom I brought up with these hands is coming to me 

with words of marriage. 

Uonej and position freqaentl; shako hands. 



Tut ffuris yiyik ratanah teag lywt pakihbaribar. 

The horse will go according as he is held by the bridle. 

Tut kur tami mik tyut kara» bvk tih. 
As he did to me so will I do to him. 

Lex talionia. 

Tut uifrih tak dik tyul dhhn* ^nwun. 

As much as you cut the willon so much will it grow strong. 

Tut wnslud titi Udl 4«an. 

As (is) the teacher so will the scholars be. 

TutHninahkakim ak tak vnir harih tut/m eapanik nahhaUm. 
Vntil the physician has killed one or two he is not a physician, 

Tuti'in nak ranj tulih lutim labik nah ganj. 

Until a man takes trouble he does not get treasure. 

Forsian.— I'd ranj na ka>h( ganj iia yabi. 
No pains, no gains. 

Tutim puz pazik iutdn 61am, dazih. 

Until the truth appears the norld ffilt burn (with anger). 

Let tliem fight it oat. 

Yuldn tshul pilan hari/t tutdn iydth yad barik. 

While the short man is reaching up to a place, tbc tall man 

fills his st^imach. 

To which the short man replied : — 
Yutin xyntkji'ii fsAfinrfa'A tut/m tshul nindar iarih. 
While the tall man is seeking for a place wherein to repose, 

the short man sleeps. 

Yutui zuwah tyutui suwak' 
As I earn so will I sow. 
DicsB acuording to position. 



Zihda chliSA shaittiker. 
The tongue is a sword. 
Toiitjuo is a sharp awucd."— raalin Ivii. 

Z'tchan pachali phur. 
To turn and mend old clothes. 
Making an old coat look new. 

Zngun tah zuwun 
Expect HDd live, 

Zak Ihaxah tah g^.dah dasah. 

Two persons high (-minded) and the fishes burnt. 

Somebody in the lionso must bond, or tho work will not bo dons. 

Zainak Kadalah p«lkah thuk gayik ho ! 
The spittle has gone from Zaina Kadal ! 

A man oamo from India to eoe Kxabmir and enquire about the 
inhabitants. In the course of his ramblings ho went and stood on 
Uie fourth bridgo and spat into tho river ; and ttien lookod at the 
sijot where his spittle had falleu, and said, " Where has it gone P 
Where bos it gono ? " Tho piiasers-by asked tho meaning of this- 
He did not reply, bat continued saying, " Whore has it gODe ?" More 
people crowded around, until at last a vast assembly had gathered, 
and there was gi'eat dangor lest tho bridge should break. Thon ho 
told thom that bis spittle had gone, and the crowd scattered ; and 
the man from India went back to his own conntrymon and told 
thom what stupid people those Kashmiiia were. 

Zama Kadal, the fourth of the seven bridges spanning that part 
of tho river Jholnm, which Qows through Srinagar, and forming the 
principal means of intor^jommiinioation between the two sides of 
the city, is the principal thoroughfare in Srinagar. It is said that 
whatever news there may be it will certainly be known some timo 
or other during the day on Zaina Kadal. There is a story iUostra- 
tive ot this ;— 

LiAi KMii (1703 A. D.) viaa a most tyrannical rnler. Even in 
his own palaco ho wois a very hard master. One of hia wives was 
about to be dolivered of a child ; just before her confinemont he wont 
tohcrlyiog-inroom and said, " If it is a boy that be bom, I wilt give 
jou niEtoy pi'CBentB ; but if it should be a girl, I will slay both ;ou 


and the child." A girl wns liom. and bb soon as (he king heard o£ 
it hfi slew his wife and throw t)io infant into the iire-plnoc. 
Uneasy as to what report might bo sprpad concerning this dastard 
act. ho sent his servant to Znina Kodal to seo nhether ths peopb? 
bad got wind of it, and if posaiblo the report was to be traced and 
the originators Bei/ed. The Borvant went and in a little while fonr 
"JT five porfons were seized, and the report traced back to one man. 
This man was carried before the king, who asked him how he had 
obtained the nowa- The man replied, 'J saw in a droam ShAh 
Hamaddn (cf. note to ' Ayas wate,' Ac), or one liko unto him, 
coming- to me and saying that Such was the case in the king's honse. 
Accordingly I told the people, whom 1 met, of my strange vision, and 
on Zains Kailal there was quite a little company of strangers tp 
whom I related my strange eiperienee." " Trne, said the king, 
"ZainaKadal's news is correct concerning thornier also." Then 
^oinc at onee to the bridge he bad all the houses, which Zainii']- 
ibadln had erected on either side of it, destroyed, lest they should 
prove dangerous treaaurioa of scandal. 

Even now anthoricies are afraid of the bridge, and tho police have 
special orders to prevent any gatherings there (?) 

Zdlih Surinam tah kdnik idrinam. 

It goes off from my fingers, but rolls on in to the ball. 

The father loses but the sen gains ; it remains in the family. Sung 
by the women dozens of times in snocession very often, as they sit 
at the spinning-wheel. 

^dm ai dnh g&m tatik piihih ladih pdat. 
if the sister-in-law should be in n village, tlience even she 
will send repronches. 

Few enemies go ao far as that they out-distance their enmity. 

ZAm is the wife's hnshand's sister. She is generally a great 
etarabli 11 g -block to the wife's happiness. 

Z'imatur ai hangas manz racAkzen totik mandahehhfiii,Ss 
rangati manz. 

If a son-in-law be brought up in the beat way, and with th,e 
greatest attention possible, still he will put you to shame 
in the assembly (t. e., he will nat respect or love you). 

Hangas mtm, lit. in, the centre of the head or tnrban, the place 
of security and hononr. 

Zdiaalur gan pdmatar. 

A aon-in-law is a giver of rcpi'oach and curses. 

^imin ehkai flufi dusi sun. 
Laud is like heateu gold- 


ZAn chhihjaMn. 
AcquaintaDce is the world. 

^n nah tak paohkdn nah, tah " Khnlakji eali'rm!" 
Nor bHOwn, nor recognised, and " Good morning, uncle." 
Said of a etmnger claiming frieiHlship or relation sliip,' 
Marwari.^Jiiji no pahchan, " Khata bari atd&m !" 

Zi'inai nah liaum nah hri'.m nah nom. 
I will not know your sect or class or name. 
RafoBal to inter-marry, 

Zandnah chhSh pratanik lehih taubah haran, prant chAeh 

beyih leiHda lutui, 
A woman in the hour of traTnil repents, bnt when she ia 

delivered of the child she again arrires at the same state 

(of lying, &e.) 

Zan&nah gayi hhoran kund pulahor ak trov tdfi bydlc tshun, 
A wife is like the grass shoe on one's feet — one is left and 

another is put on (i.e., a wife easily got rid of, if she 

should prove disagreeable). 

Zani'mih dkia paruUhuk reUar ehhuyth. Dupanak " Khih nah. 

Shurig dm kut," 
It was asked of a woman " Are you well 7" , She repUed, 
"No, not at all. The child can just walk." 

A mothdr's aniietiee are increased by her child being able to toddle 
about and get into miaobief . 

Zandnih hundatun ohhui mardaa viannmyor, 

A woman's laugh is a go-between herself and the man. 

Mwniimyor. Match -makora, called Qhatucis or GhalUs down in 
Bengal. As a rale those people are utterly withont principle, rid* 
" Biudila OS thej are," by Bose, Ch. t. 

Zanitiih hund ydwun fiati^un tak ehhdwun ; Welktk huttd 
yi'.v)un wubaldwun ; wtrih hund yi'wan tak ddwun; mardah 
sand yi'wun dan. 

A woman's beauty is her dress and jewels ; the river derives 
beauty from its waves ; tbe willow gets heauty from lop- 
ping ; and H man's beauty is his wealth. 
Wcth, the river Jholuni in its course through Kashmir. Ilindfi 

priests call it Vcilaslit. 


Wir, the white willow. If a big tree, the top hmnches nra lopped 
every year j if a Sninll tree then it is lopiied utter three ye-nra, 
Dnring the winter the lenvos of this tree ore aUired np ae fodder 
for oxen nnd sheep and goata. 

Zangak rndi UR tah xSwik n'ldi nyuv. 
The runner brought it, but the gnbbler took it away. 
The talker often gets tho praiaa doe to the worker, 

Zangih yiiedA Uund tah nar diri.n, narih yiwdn txund tah 

zang di'.rdn. 
If the hand geta hurt we put out a leg, and if the leg 

gets hurt we put forth a hand. 

An alternative is generally at band in time of trouble. 

Znmt lah m'init karun. 

He knew (his work), attended to it, and did it. 

A good, honest workman. 

Zari blui bahih toakari xih Badsh»h mud. 

The deaf man heard twelve jeara aflerwards that Bailshdh was 

Badahdh, threat king, a nume given to Zainn'l-dbadin, the eighth 
and greatest of the Mohammedan rolors of Kashmir. 

Zari IU7U wranni. 

The sound of a flute to a deaf man. 

An incomprehensible tale or remark. 

Zdris wutitti, "Mof, kd, miu." Dupanak, " Yapdri an- 

Some person saij to the gambler, " Oh I your mother has 
died." He replied, " Bring her by this way." ' 
The gambler waa so engrossed in the game that he could not 

leave it, even to bury his mother's body. 

ZaI jilawih wasah , guris tah mikni&nah skuris RahmCnah 

A piece of ragged cloth as a bridle is dignity to a horse, and 
Rahtnana is a name for a poor boy. 

The gentleman. 

MShmtin, first meaning is a guest, hotico the poor orphan, who 
is always aonieboily'H guest, hiia eiimo tn bo au called, and thus tlie 
word freqnontly nifaim .iny jHXir peraoii. 



BtJintiin is One of the fftwitest names that can be giren to a 
MahQmmoilan. It means compasBionate, and is the firat in the list of 
the ninuty-nine names of God. 

Zenun gaMiih khnrah sandi p^'th tah likyun gatjkik narak 

tandi ptlth. 
One must work like an aas, but eat his dinner like a it\an. 

Zethm naren mod. 

Honour is givea to long sleevea. 

'■ And ye have respect to him that weareth the gay clothing." 
Une da; Sheljl! Niir-nd-ilSn went to a. wedding feast with naChing . 
bnt his ragged f aqir drees on, and the conseqnence was that the people 
wonld not receive him. He returned quickly to his abode, and 
changed his ragged garment for some new and coatly clothea. nnd 
went again to the feast. This time he waa received witli great 
honoor. Ho first quoted the above proverb at the dinner. 

Zae chhem hardn lukh lukh; luh ekkim tjhan<in thuk tkuk. 
My tongues does talk, talk ; the people do spit, apit upon mo. 
A man of many words ia despised. 

Zewui ekheh murdn tah zewui ehkek tdrdn. 
The tongue kills and the tongue saves. 

Zii ekheh hit. 

Pay for work done ia like jasmine. 

Sweet are the fruits of labour. 

Zindah nah sir nah ids tah tnarit atldt. 
Alive — neither dust nor ashes, but dead — satin. 

Undatiful offspring. 

HiDdnstanl.— JitB no pttcift* mite dhar dhar pite. 

Zorak, sorah nashik *u, tah todrah, vJdrah nashih kok. 

From "zorah zorah" life wears out, but from" wirah wfirah" 

the mountain wears away. 

Zorah sorah, "Go on, work man, " said to a man wotMngin a 
casual, listless fashion. 

Wdrah, vidrah. " Carefully, not so fast, " said to a man working in 
a quick, reckless way. 

Za gav tsdngi rSh, ftlah han gaUkias ituni- 
Life is like the ilitme of n lamp ; it needs a little oil now and 


Zu ur tak jaki'n «r. 

The spirit healthy and the world healthy. 
HealCh is everything. 

Ztti zeioik tak rt/unz Idyih tak adah puvik sktkur. 
Zu! will be born and nil) shoot and will receive his prey. 
Bulldiu[{ oaattes in the air. 

Zulih gayi s:ik kulik gai/i. 

lie became drowsy and it fell into the river. 

CarelesneBB is mination. 

A faqlr was sittfag b; tbo fire-place cooking hia dinner a,s the 
boat was being towed along. Owing to the great heat be bocamo 
very drowsy, and bo bonding highoad, lie began to sleep. Suddenly 
the boat atruck the bajik and the plate of rice and meat tumbled oS 
the fire into the river. 

Zuwal hoguni zaehal dii; yih huaah mt/dni igak-bdi? 
Lousey mistress, ragged nurse ; which is my mistress T 

General reply of a female aervant, when blamed by bor mistresa 
becanao of her dirty appearance. 

Zuwalik hund gatshik khyun tah zuwalih hund nah. 
It is better to eat with a dirty-beaded woman thaa with a 
garrulous woman.